In a prospective study 84 patients with aphakic retinal detachment were treated either by local scleral buckling alone or combined with an encirclement. The rate of surgical reattachment of the retina was found to be similar with either technique over a minimum follow-up period of one year. Simplicity and a low incidence of serious complications of the local procedure merit its application as the initial method of repairing aphakic detachments.
A retrospective study of 37 intraocular foreign bodies treated over a five-year period is presented. Their aetiology, complications and visual results are discussed in the light of recent development in the management of serious ocular trauma.
Study site: Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (UKM unit)
A case of rare retinal lesion occurring in a young girl suffering from lepromatous leprosy is described. Fundus lesions in leprosy are extremely rare but do occur in some cases without causing any threat to vision. Their response to antileprotic treatment is not clearly known.
A rare case of pilocarpine-induced retinal detachment occurring in the only useful myopic eye of a young Chinese woman is described. Problems of treating raised intraocular pressure in high-risk cases of retinal detachment are discussed.
45 patients (50 eyes) were treated for juvenile rhegmatogenous retinal detachments between August 1979 and July 1984. A review of these cases revealed high myopia and trauma to be the main aetiological factors. Eight-six per cent detachments were successfully reattached. Visual acuity of 6/36 or better was present in 16% preoperatively and in 52% postoperatively, some of the characteristics of juvenile rhegmatogenous retinal detachments in Malaysian population are discussed.
Postural behaviour of intraocular pressure (IOP) was studied in 29 glaucomatous eyes before and after argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) and compared with that of 60 normal eyes. Although argon laser trabeculoplasty was successful in lowering the IOP below 21 mm Hg, it produced little effect on the postural behaviour of the IOP. No significant change was observed in the amplitude of postural rise of IOP in ALT treated eyes.
A rare case of keratoactinomycosis developing in the absence of any known ocular trauma is described. It showed a dramatic response to penicillin therapy. Steroids should be cautiously used in the presence of active corneal disease. This case highlights the importance of repeated examination of corneal scrapings.
Twenty two Asian eyes suffering from open angle glaucoma were treated by argon laser trabeculoplasty and were followed for an average of eleven months. 77.27% of eyes were controlled with ALT alone. The pressure lowering effect of argon laser trabeculoplasty in this series was found to be consistent. Argon laser trabeculoplasty may become the preferred method of treating open angle glaucoma in the Asian population.
A total of 94 patients underwent extracapsular cataract extraction and insertion of Sinsky style two-loop posterior chamber intraocular lenses. Forty-six eyes received a standard power IOL and 48 eyes were given a preoperatively calculated IOL. A significant difference was found in the two groups with regard to the postoperative refractive error and uncorrected visual acuity.
The prevalence of Capillaria hepatica (Bancroft, 1893) infection in a total of 2324 rats trapped from 25 localities in West Malaysia was 15.5%. Infection rates in males (16.0%) and females (15.1%) are similar. A significantly higher percentage of adults (18.1%) than young (7.7%) was infected. Capillaria hepatica infection rates among urban (0.7%) and jungle (0.0%) rats was very low as compared to field rats (17.7%) trapped from agricultural areas such as oil palm estates and rice growing areas. Prevalence of C. hepatica infection in rats is not evenly distributed throughout West Malaysia. There seem to be localised foci of infection. In some areas as many as 77.8% of the adult rats are found to be infected while in other areas the same species of rats are found free of infection.
Raised intraocular pressure (lOP) is generally held responsible for causing visual loss in chronic simple glaucoma. It is therefore desirable that a safe level of lOP be maintained all the time. Elevation of lOP with change of body position has been suggested as one of the factors which result in tissue damage in low tension as well as in primary wide open angle glaucoma. Postural behaviour of lOP was therefore studied in 58 normal and 30 glaucomatous Malaysian eyes. Clinical significance and possible pathogenesis of abnormal postural response of lOP has been discussed. More application of this simple procedure is advocated.
A rare case of choroidal malignant melanoma in a naevus of Ota is described. This is the first reported case from Asia outside the Japanese population. This case illustrates the need for close observation of all pigmented lesions of the eye.
The indirect fluorescence antibody technique has been employed to study the prevalence of toxoplasma antibodies in Singapore. 42.5% of clinically suspected cases of toxoplasmosis showed antibody titres. Of these, 17.5% had titres greater than or equal to 1.64. Malays and Indians have higher positive rates compared to the main ethnic group, the Chinese. Antibody titres are found in both males and females and span through the various age groups. The possible mode of transmission is discussed and the importance of congenital toxoplasmosis is indicated.
The eye harbours bacteria from the time of birth throughout life. Owing to its antibacterial properties, the normal conjunctival flora plays a significant role in the defence against superficial ocular infections. In view of its protective action as well as its probable role in causing ocular disease under certain circumstances, the study of the normal flora and its pattern of antibiotic susceptibility could provide useful information in the prevention and treatment of post-surgical infections. While several such surveys have been reported from various parts of the world, no data is available for the Malaysian population. This survey seeks to establish the pattern of bacterial flora in healthy conjunctivae of Malaysians. In addition, the bacterial flora of a nondiabetic population was compared to that of a diabetic population to see if there were any differences.
A survey of workers and families resident in an oil palm estate in Malaysia revealed high incidence of parasitic infections. The commonest parasites are T. trichiura (56%), A. lumbricoides (52%), hookworm (28%), Entamoeba coli (11.3%) and Giardia lamblia (11.3%). Mixed infections by two or more parasites was seen in 46% of the subjects. Anaemia was present in 70% of children with hookworm infection. Eosinophilia was observed in 69% of subjects. One each of Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta infection was detected. This is the first report of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in man in Malaysia.
The proliferation of mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets with embedded sensors and communication features has led to the introduction of a novel sensing paradigm called mobile crowd sensing. Despite its opportunities and advantages over traditional wireless sensor networks, mobile crowd sensing still faces security and privacy issues, among other challenges. Specifically, the security and privacy of sensitive location information of users remain lingering issues, considering the "on" and "off" state of global positioning system sensor in smartphones. To address this problem, this paper proposes "SenseCrypt", a framework that automatically annotates and signcrypts sensitive location information of mobile crowd sensing users. The framework relies on K-means algorithm and a certificateless aggregate signcryption scheme (CLASC). It incorporates spatial coding as the data compression technique and message query telemetry transport as the messaging protocol. Results presented in this paper show that the proposed framework incurs low computational cost and communication overhead. Also, the framework is robust against privileged insider attack, replay and forgery attacks. Confidentiality, integrity and non-repudiation are security services offered by the proposed framework.
Breast cancer is a leading cause of female deaths worldwide. In Malaysia, it is the most common form of female cancer while Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) is the most common form of breast cancer. A proteomic approach was used to identify changes in the protein profile of breast cancerous and normal tissues. The patients were divided into different cohorts according to tumour stage and grade. We identified twenty-four differentially expressed hydrophilic proteins. A few proteins were found significantly related to various stages and grades of IDC, amongst which were SEC13-like 1 (isoform b), calreticulin, 14-3-3 protein zeta, and 14-3-3 protein eta. In this study, we found that by defining the expression of the proteins according to stages and grades of IDC, a significant relationship between the expression of the proteins with the stage or grade of IDC can be established, which increases the usefulness of these proteins as biomarkers for IDC.