Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 22 in total

  1. Aniza, I., Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Jamsiah, M.
    Skim Sistem Saraan Malaysia (SSM) telah diperkenalkan pada tahun 2002 menggantikan skim Sistem Saraan Baru (SSB) kepada kakitangan sektor awam. Satu kajian keratan rentas telah dijalankan ke atas Pakar Perubatan Kesihatan Awam (PPKA) pada 2004 yang bertujuan untuk mendapatkan persepsi mereka mengenai skim SSM. Semua PPKA yang berdaftar dengan Persatuan Pakar Perubatan Kesihatan Awam (PPPKA) yang berkhidmat dengan Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia (KKM) dipilih sebagai responden. Kajian ini menggunakan borang soalselidik yang diisi sendiri oleh responden. Kadar respon kajian ini ialah 70.0% iaitu 217 responden. Kajian ini mendapati sebanyak 80.6% PPKA tidak bersetuju dengan pelaksanaan SSM, hanya 7.4% bersetuju dan sebanyak 12.0% berkecuali. Kelemahan-kelemahan utama SSM yang dikenalpasti oleh responden yang tidak bersetuju dengan SSM ialah prosedur atau skim perkhidmatan yang kabur(83.9%), peperiksaan Tahap Kecekapan yang tidak releven (54.1%) dan kenaikan pangkat terjejas (40.5%). Hasil kajian ini dapat membantu pihak-pihak yang terlibat memperbaiki kelemahan-kelemahan SSM supaya pelaksanaannya menjadi lebih mantap dan dapat menangani kelemahan yang wujud di dalam skim tersebut.
  2. Azimatun Noor, A., Syed Mohamed Aljunid
    Health care has emerged as one of the fastest growing industry worldwide. This induced health care costto rise tramendously. However, it is important to preserve high quality health care services that are equitable and affordable. In many countries, people are expected to contribute to the cost of the health care. Are populations ready to accept the concept and willing to pay for health financing scheme? What possible factors that may associate with their decision? This is the objective of the study, to examine the relevance evidence for this through a systematic review of literatures.We systematically searched Ovid MEDLINE and Google Schoolar databases until April 2016. We assessed the study population willingness to pay for health financing scheme and determine the significant variables that associate with WTP. 19 full-text articles were included in the review. Factors that were found significantly associated with WTP for health financing scheme by many studies were age, education, income and residential locality. Other factors that also found associated with WTP were health care services utilization and expenditure. The review findings showed that WTP for health financing scheme is beyond the households’ financial capacity and has multifactorial influences.
  3. Azimatun Noor A, Syed Mohamed Aljunid
    Health care has emerged as one of the fastest growing industry worldwide. This induced health care costto rise tramendously. However, it is important to preserve high quality health care services that are equitable and affordable. In many countries, people are expected to contribute to the cost of the health care. Are populations ready to accept the concept and willing to pay for health financing scheme? What possible factors that may associate with their decision? This is the objective of the study, to examine the relevance evidence for this through a systematic review of literatures.We systematically searched Ovid MEDLINE and Google Schoolar databases until April 2016. We assessed the study population willingness to pay for health financing scheme and determine the significant variables that associate with WTP. 19 full-text articles were included in the review. Factors that were found significantly associated with WTP for health financing scheme by many studies were age, education, income and residential locality. Other factors that also found associated with WTP were health care services utilization and expenditure. The review findings showed that WTP for health financing scheme is beyond the households’ financial capacity and has multifactorial influences.
  4. Abuduli, Maihebureti, Zaleha Md Isa, Syed Mohamed Aljunid
    Although the Ministry of Health Malaysia has been encouraging the practice of Traditional and Complementary Medicine (T&CM)1, 2 , 3, 4 but patients/clients has not been able to apply it for their need of medical treatments and sometimes it leads to negative outcomes due to lack of knowledge on T&CM and its safe applications5,6’ 7,8 Most of the western-trained physicians are ignorant of risk and benefits of T&CM9,10,11 . This study was aimed to determine the gap between knowledge regarding T&CM and perception on education in T&CM among the medical staffs in five selected hospitals in Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was done at five public hospitals among medical staff in Malaysia by using quantitative methods. A total of 477 medical staffs were involved in this study. The study showed that the overall knowledge of T&CM among the medical staffs were poor (61.2%). Having good knowledge regarding T&CM were significantly higher in Hospital Duchess of Kent (52%, p=0.001), among the non-Malays (44%, p=0.047) and pharmacists (47.2%, p=0.030). Positive perception on health education in T&CM among medical staffs were high (85.3%) especially among females (88.1%, p=0.002) and pharmacists (93.7%, p< 0.001). The use of T&CM among the general population is relatively high in Malaysia and many patients increasingly seek the information on T&CM therapies from medical staffs. Knowledge regarding T&CM was poor in this study because most of the medical staffs have not been exposed to T&CM education. This interesting scenario between poor knowledge and high positive perception on health education in T&CM shows the demand of urgent intervention in educating the medical staffs. We recommend that medical staffs must have some basic education and knowledge about T&CM before they could offer advice to their patients. Doctors are of the utmost important in this regard because they play a very important role in patient care. Providing T&CM education to medical staff may help to integrate T&CM into the mainstream medicine.
  5. Ade Suzana Eka Putri, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Amrizal Muhammad Nur
    Indonesian government secures the access of the poor towards health services through subsidised schemes. This study is aimed to describe the pattern of health expenditure by households and to describe the pattern of health service utilisation across household’s socioeconomic level in the city of Padang after seven years of the introduction of subsidised schemes. A household survey was conducted involving 918 households, with multistage random sampling method. The proportion of out-of-pocket (OOP) health spending as a share of household’s capacity to pay was regressive across consumption quintiles. The proportion of households with catastrophic health expenditure was 1.6% while 1.1% faced impoverished health expenses. Among those who need health care, the utilisation among the rich was higher than the poor. Health insurance schemes in Padang provides financial protection, however with regards to household’s capacity to pay, the poor has the higher burden of health payment. The gap on health service utilisation between the poor and the better-offs was still apparent for outpatient services and it has been narrowed for inpatient care. This study suggests that the subsidised schemes for the poor are highly needed and the possibility of the leakage of subsidies to the rich should be considered by the government.
  6. Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Ahmad Munir Qureshi, David B
    Occupational cancers, including mesothelioma and lung cancer are linked to the use of asbestos. Annually, at least 100,000 global deaths are attributed to asbestos exposure putting a heavy burden on national budgets. Expenses incurred on treatment of asbestos related diseases (ARDs) reduce households and national resource savings, while ARDs culminate in terminal burdens. The objective of this study is to measure the economic burden of ARDs and to assess the economic impact of asbestos consumption. The health and economic burden of asbestos was estimated in macro-global consumption-production model using production function frontier-based and generalized least squared approach for asbestos products and cost tabulation. Production, in metric tons (Mt) was adopted as a dependent variable among explanatory variables, including consumption. Information on treatment cost of asbestos related diseases (mesothelioma, asbestosis and lung cancer) was obtained from costing information and published literatures. Annual total economic burden of asbestos is at USD 11.92 billion. Out of this cost, USD 4.34 billion per annum is the economic burden of managing three common ARDs. The cost of compensation for patients suffering ARDs is USD 4.28 billion. From the remaining USD 3.3 billion, USD 2.93 billion is the value of asbestos consumed in 2003 and USD372.15 million is the loss of earning due to hospital visits and admissions. For every USD 1 spent on consumption of asbestos, global economy has to absorb almost USD 4 due to health consequences of ARDs. Banning of asbestos production and usage in production of goods has far-reaching impacts on household welfare, health and economic development. The insights revealed are expected to inform decision makers the need to ban all forms of asbestos, especially in developing countries where usage is increasing.
  7. Ibrahim Roszita, Amrizal Muhd Nur, Zafirah A, Syed Mohamed Aljunid
    The Malaysia Diagnosis Related Group (MY-DRG®), established since 2002, is a patient classification system that stratifies disease severity and categories patients into iso-resource groups. Casemix can be used to estimate costs per episode of care and as a provider payment tool in health services. Casemix has also been used to enhance quality and improve the efficiency of health services. Hence, estimation cost per DRG is important especially in developing countries where costing data are still scarce. We embarked on a study to determine the costs of the diagnostics laboratory services for each MY-DRG® based on the severity of illnesses. Most costing studies for diagnostic laboratory services usually focus on the cost of consumables and equipment alone and employed the step-down costing method. Very few studies applied Activity-Based Costing (ABC) method to estimate the costs for diagnostic laboratory services. This study was done with the purpose of developing the diagnostics laboratory cost using the ABC method. All medical cases discharged from UKM Medical Centre (UKMMC) in 2011 grouped into MY-DRG® were included in this study. In 2011, a total of 2.7 million diagnostic laboratory investigations were carried out in the Department of Diagnostic Laboratory Services in UKMMC. ABC was conducted from January to December 2013 in all units of the department. Cost of 242 types of diagnostic laboratory services were collected using a costing format. Out of 25,754 cases, 16,173 (62.8%) cases were from the medical discipline. After trimming using L3H3 method, 15,387 cases were included in the study. Most of the cases were on severity level one (44.6%), followed by severity level two (32.3%) and severity level three (23.1%). The highest diagnostic laboratory service weight was for Lymphoma & Chronic Leukemia, severity level III (C-4-11-III) with the value of 5.9609. Information on seven cost components was collected form each procedure: human resources, consumables, equipment, reagents, administration, maintenance and utilities. The results revealed that, the biggest cost component for human resources was in Molecular Genetic Unit (89.6%), consumables (34.8%) from Tissue Culture Unit, equipment (11.2%) and reagents (68.1%) from Specialized Haemostasis Unit. In conclusion, the accurate and reliable cost of the diagnostic laboratory services can be determined using ABC. Top management of the department should be able to use the output of the study to take appropriate steps to reduce unnecessary wastages of resources in the various units of the services.
  8. Hie, Ung Ngian, Jamsiah, M., Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Sharifa Ezat, W.P.
    This study examines the level of quality initiatives commitment among public hospital managers and its determinants in view of limited study :0 date and a decline in self-initiated quality initiatives activities in Sarawak, Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional study with universal sampling method conducted in all the Z1 public iwspimls in Sarawak. The study population were the senior, middle and lower level managers. The research wal was self-administered structured questionnaire. A total of 382 managers responded, corresponding ta a response irate of 8 7. 2%. As a complement, four focus group discussions were conducted, consisting 31 participants. It was found that the level of quality initiatives commitment 0f managers was generally high (mecm= 4.23, SD=O.45). The regression analysis indicated that empowerment, communication and procedural justice (promotion) accounted for 38.9%, 346% and 1.2% respectively of the variation in commitment level. Dissatisfaction with resources, top management commitment and peer influence are among others being identified by participants of focus groups as important determinants of quality initiatives commitment. It is strongly recommended that there should be greater empowerment of hospital managers, more structured and effective communication, greater transparency in procedure for promotion and commitment of resources to quality efforts.
  9. Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Nyunt-U, Soe, Cheah, Molly, Kwa, S.K., Rohaizat Yon, Ding, L.M.
    A study was undertaken amongst private primary care providers in three urban centres of Malaysia to understand the organizational structure of the facilities and to assess the cost of running such services. A total of 150 clinics were involved in the study. Data was collected through interviews with owners of the clinics using semi-structured questionnaires. Solo-practitioners owned 64.7% of the clinics while 35.3% of them were owned by group practice. This study showed that the mean number of patients visited the clinics daily was 49.3 with the average operating hours of 79.4 hours/week (range 28.0 - 168.0 hours/week). Group practice clinics operates 23.9 hours longer than solo-practice clinics. Group practice clinics were more likely to offer 24 hours service than solo-practice clinics. Most of the clinics were manned by a single doctor (57.3%), 30.0 % had two doctors and only 12.7% were run by more than two doctors. On average, group practice employed greater number of supporting staff than solo-practice clinics (6.0 vs 4.3 people). The mean annual cost to run each facility was found to be RM 444,698. The mean cost per patient was found to be RM 32.09 for solo-practice clinics and RM 38.55 for group practice. Wages represented the highest proportion in the recurrent cost (61.1%) followed by drugs (29.2%) and consumables (2.7%). Building cost (67.9%) and equipment cost (25.9%) were the major capital costs for the clinics. This study could serve as a basis to reimburse private primary care providers in the future health financing scheme in Malaysia. To improve efficiency and contain cost in primary care settings, efforts should be targeted towards cost of wages and drugs utilised by the providers in their daily practice.
    Key words: Private practice; primary care; costs; Malaysia.
  10. Ng, Paul, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Rushdan Mohd Nor, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2009;10(2):115-126.
    Objective: This study aims to determine the quality of life (QOL) of Malaysian women based on their physical and mental scores and correlates with age and cervical disease severity. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study from Nov 2006 till Dec 2007 from participating
    Gynecology-Oncology outpatient and in patient’s wards. QOL interviews used the SF-36 questionnaires. Main domains were the Physical Composite Scores (PCS) and the Mental Composite Scores (MCS). Results: A total of 396 participated in the study. Mean respondents age were 53.31 ± 11.21 years, educated till secondary level (39.4%), Malays (44.2%) with mean marriage duration of 27.73 ± 12.12 years. Among pre-invasive diseases, the cervical intra epithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 was the highest in percentage of cases
    (8.1%). Among invasive cancer, stage 1 cancer was highest (31.1%), followed with stage 2 (28.3%), stage 3 (7.3%) and stage 4 cancers (5.8%). PCS scores are highest among the pre-invasive and stage 1 cancer (F=4.357; p

    Study site: Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
  11. Rahimi, Azam, Maimaiti, Namaitijiang, Rahimi, Aqdas, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Saperi Sulong
    Realizing the huge potential of e-learning in casemix education and since there was no e-learning program on casemix and clinical coding available globally. International Centre for Case-mix and Clinical Coding (ITCC) proposed to establish a universal case-mix education programs through providing an e-learning program (ELP) for case-mix and clinical coding and evaluate its success. The aim of this study is to describe the process of development of e-learning program for casemix system and clinical coding. The introduction of course about casemix and clinical coding was redesigned for elearning program by applying ADDIE model (refer to Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation).A total number of 57 learners attended to the course from around the world (40 different countries). The mean age of subjects was 34.70±8.66 years. Regarding profession, the largest percentiles (40.4%) of e-learners were belonging to academic sector and healthcare sector. All of the participants felt satisfied or very satisfied with the program. There was a significant difference between pre-test and post-test for e-learners knowledge score at the 0.05 alpha levels. The findings of the evaluation of the case-mix e-learning program indicated that e-learners found the educational performances of the case-mix online program to be satisfactory. With the advent of modern computer networking systems, organizations can employ these systems to enhance learning and performance improvement of case mix system.
  12. Zafirah S, Amrizal Muhd Nur, Sharifa Ezat W, Syed Mohamed Aljunid
    Clinical coding creates a rich database that can be used for administrative functions including planning for health service programmes and preparing budget of hospitals with appropriate use of disease and procedure classification system. Clinical coding errors may occur in the diagnoses or procedure codes. The errors can be happen at any of the digits use in the classification codes. Errors in clinical coding can give a huge implication on hospital’s income if the coding system is used for reimbursement. This study aims to determine incidence of clinical coding errors among 464 patient’s medical records (PMR). An independent senior coder was appointed to review the selected PMRs and the clinical codes. Post-audit evaluation shows that 89.4%(415/464) of the records contained at least one coding error in the assignment of diagnosis or procedure codes. Error in secondary diagnosis code was the highest comprising 81.3% (377/464) of the records. Coding errors were particularly found in O&G discipline comprising 94.8% (110/116) of the selected records. These errors caused a potential loss of RM 666,461 for the hospital. The highest pre-and post audit variance of potential income was RM 568,403 for paediatric discipline. The hospital should carry out regular monitoring of quality of clinical coding in order to prevent loss of income in the future when the reimbursement of services is linked to coding of diagnosis and procedures.
  13. Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Norin Rahayu Samsuddin, Sharifah Noor Akmal Syed Hussain, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Syed Mohamed Aljunid
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(1):13-22.
    Accepted 10 August 2011.
    Introduction Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most prevalent female cancer in Malaysia. Almost 70% of its’ causal factors are attributable to oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16, 18 and other risk factors. HPV genotypes distributions are also noted to differ by geographical area.
    Methods This was cross sectional study conducted in 2007, to determine the influencing factors of HPV positivity and prevalence of HPV infections among patients with cervical cancer in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). Patients’ paraffin-embedded cervical tissues kept in the Pathology Department from 1999 to 2007 were randomly selected. A total of 81 medical records with complete information were chosen as samples and patients were contacted for consent. Tissue samples were further derived for PCR DNA for HPV genotyping. Analyses included descriptive statistics; bivariate χ2 test and correlation were used to determine relationship between factors and HPV positivity. Significance level of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant.
    Results Mean age of cancer diagnosis was at 52 ± 12.2 years. Women of Chinese ethnicity was the highest ethnicity to be HPV positive at 65.4% and squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly found (59.3%) compared with other types of cancers. The prevalence of HPV positivity was 92.6% with type 16 being the most common (74.1%), followed by type 33 (30.9%) and 18 (22.2%). Multiple HPV infections were a common finding at 54.3%. Factors thought to influence positivity i.e. age of intercourse, number of sexual partners, number of parity, smoking status of patients and their partners, oral contraceptive usage, presence of chronic illnesses and cancer stage were not significantly associated with HPV positivity. Increased CC severity level was not associated with increased number of HPV infections (Pearson correlation 0.58; p =0.607).
    Conclusions High HPV positivity at 92.6% was found among ICC patients. Factors thought to influence HPV positivity were not significant. The top three HPV genotypes were type 16 followed by type 33 and 18. However, local women HPV serotypes findings need to be replicated in a larger population sample.
  14. Saad Ahmed Ali Jadoo, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Dastan, Ilker, Dilmac, Elife, Kahveci, Rabia, Tutuncu, Tanju, et al.
    Diagnosis-related group (DRG) system is patient classification system designed to produce limited number of classes
    which are relatively similar in terms of resource consumption and clinical characteristics. The aim of this study was to
    assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of Turkish health care providers toward DRG system
    implemented in Turkey.A total of 238 healthcare providers were randomly selected from two urbanand one rural hospital
    in Turkey.A questionnaire was used for data collection; contacting 32 items (10 items about knowledge, 12 items about
    attitude and 10 items about the practice) and its validity and reliability were confirmed. Data analysis was performed
    using chi-square and multivariate logistic regression.In this study,only one third of healthcare providers showed good
    knowledge (35.7%) and good practice (37.4%) about DRG system,compared to 54.2% of them showed good attitude.There
    was significant difference between age, gender, occupation groups and whether the respondents have attended a
    workshop for DRG system in terms of KAP (p > 0.05).These results indicated the need for further actions to implement
    DRG system in terms of creation of suitable environment and increasing awareness among healthcare providers,
    especially male, medical doctors, nurses, elderly, and those who have never attended a workshop, in addition to regular
    review to ensure the program would reach its targets.
  15. Aniza Ismail, Saperi Sulung, Syed Mohamed AlJunid, Nor Hamdan Mohd Yahaya, Husyairi Harunarashid, Oteh Maskon, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2012;2(2):153-160.
    Clinical pathways have been implemented in many healthcare systems with mix results in improving the quality of care and controlling the cost. CP is a methodology used for mutual decision making and organization of care for a well-defined group of patients within a well-defined period. In developing the CPs for a medical centre, several meetings had been carried out involving expert teams which consist of physicians, nurses, pharmacists and physiotherapists. The steps used to develop the pathway were divided into 5 phases. Phase 1: the introduction and team development, Phase II: determining the cases and information gathering, Phase III: establishing the draft of CP, Phase IV: is implementing and monitoring the effectiveness of CP while Phase V: evaluating, improving and redesigning of the CP. Four CPs had been developed: Total Knee Replacement (TKR), ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (AMI), Chronic Obstructive Airways Diseases (COAD) and elective Lower Segment Caesarean Section (LSCS). The implementation of these CPs had supported the evidence-based medicine, improved the multidisciplinary communication, teamwork and care planning. However, the rotation of posts had resulted in lack of document ownership, lack of direction and guidance from senior clinical staff, and problem of providing CPs prior to admission. The development and implementation of CPs in the medical centre improved the intra and inter departmental communication, improved patient outcomes, promote patient safety and increased patient satisfaction. However, accountability and understanding of the CPs must be given more attention.

    Study site: Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
  16. Tuti Ningseh Mohd-Dom, Khairiyah Abdul-Muttalib, Rasidah Ayob, Yaw, Siew Lan, Ahmad Sharifuddin Mohd-Asadi, Mohd Rizal Abdul-Manaf, et al.
    The paucity of published literature on periodontal treatment needs and services in developing countries has undermined the significance of periodontal disease burden on healthcare systems. This study analyses periodontal status and population treatment needs of Malaysians, and patterns of periodontal services provided at public sector dental clinics. A retrospective approach to secondary data analysis was employed. Data for population treatment needs were extracted from three decennial national oral health surveys for adults (1990, 2000 and 2010). Annual reports from the dental subsystem of the government Health Information Management System (HIMS) provided information on oral health care delivery for years 2006-2010. They were based on summaries of aggregated data; analyses were limited to reporting absolute numbers and frequency distributions. Periodontal disease prevalence declined between 1990 (92.8%) to 2000 (87.2%) but a sharp rise was observed in the 2010 survey (94.0%). The proportion of participants demonstrating periodontal pockets of 6 mm and more increased in 2010 survey after showing improvements in 2000. Individuals not requiring periodontal treatment (TN0) increased in proportion from 1990 to 2000, only to drop in 2010. An increase in utilisation was observed alongside a growing uptake of periodontal procedures (62.2% in 2006 to 73.6% in 2010). Only about 10% of treatment was surgeries. While the clinical burden of periodontal disease is observed to be substantial, the types of treatment provided did not reflect the increasing needs for complex periodontal treatment. Emphasis on downstream and multi-collaborative efforts of oral health care is deemed fit to contain the burden of periodontal disease.
  17. Amrizal Muhammad Nur, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Normazwana Ismail, Norashidah Mohamed Nor, Roshanim Koris, Sharifah Azizah Haron, et al.
    The increased use of health care services by elderly has placed greater pressure to an already strained health care resources. Thus, an accurate economic cost estimation for specific age-related diseases like dementia is essential. The objectives of this project are to estimate costs of treating patient dementia among Malaysian elderly in the hospital settings. Two types of data were collected: Hospital costing data (using costing template) and patient clinical data (using questionaire). The cost analysis for hospital setting was carried out using a step-down costing methodology. The costing template was used to organize costing data into three levels of cost centers in hospitals: overhead cost centers (e.g. administration, consumables, maintenance), intermediate cost centers (e.g. pharmacy, radiology), and final cost centers (all wards and clinics). In estimating the cost for each cost center, both capital cost (building, equipment and furniture cost) and recurrent cost (staff salary and recurrent cost except salary) were combined. Information on activities which reflects the workload such as discharges, inpatient days, number of visit, floor space etc., are gathered to determine an appropriate allocation factor. In addition, for each final cost center, the fully allocated costs are then divided by the total unit of in-patient days to obtain the cost of providing services on a per-patient per-day of stay basis, referred as unit cost. The unit cost is finally multiplied with the individual patient’s length of stay to obtain the cost of care per patient per admission. All these steps were simplified by using the Clinical Cost Modeling Software Version 3.0 (CCM Ver. 3.0). The mean cost of dementia cases per episode of care was RM 12,806 (SD=10,389) with the length of stay of 14.3 (SD=9.9) days per admission. The top three components of cost for the treatment of dementia were the ward services 8,040 (SD=7,512), 62.78% of the total cost, followed by the pharmacy 1,312(SD=1,098), 10.25% of the total cost and Intensive Care Unit 979 (SD=961), 7.64% of the total cost. A multivariable analysis using multiple linear regressions showed that factors which significantly influence (p<0.05) the treatment costs of dementia cases were the length of stay (p<0.001), followed by age (p=0.001), case type severe (p=0.005) and study location (p=0.032). However, the factor length of stay is the tremendous parameter. In conclusion, data collection from selected hospitals as well as patient level data from medical record unit were successfully used to estimate the provider costs of hospital for the elderly with dementia disease. Results from the project will enable an assessment on the economic impact and consequences of cognitive impairment in an aged population. A cost quantification and distributive mapping of the burden of care can assist in policy implementation through targeted intervention for at-risk groups, which will translate into savings by means of delayed onset or progression of dementia.
  18. Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Namaitijiang Maimaiti, Zafar Ahmed, Amrizal Muhammad Nur, Norashidah Mohamed Nor, Normazwana Ismail, et al.
    As the Malaysian population ages, the burden of age-related cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer’s disease will increase concomitantly. This is one of the sub-study under a research project titled by quantify the cost of age-related cognitive impairment in Malaysia, which was undertaken to develop a clinical pathway for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Dementia. The clinical pathway (CP) will be used to support the costing studies of MCI and Dementia. An expert group discussion (EGD) was conducted among selected experts from six (6) government hospitals from different states of Malaysia, Ministry of Health, and United Nations University, International Institute for Global Health, UKM and UPM. The expert group includes psychiatrist specialists and public health medicine specialists. A total of 15 participants took part in the EGD. The group was presented with the different approach in managing MCI and Dementia. Finally, the group came to the consensus agreement on the most appropriate and efficient ways of managing the two conditions. In the EGD, an operational definition for MCI and Dementia was agreed upon and a pathway was developed for the usual practice in the Malaysian health system. A typical case used, as a reference is a 60-year-old patient referred to a memory clinic with complaint of “forgetfulness”. After three outpatient visits in the clinic, the diagnosis of MCI and Dementia could be clinically established. The clinical pathways covered all active clinical and non-clinical management of the patient over a period of one year. The experts identified the additional resources required to manage these patients for the whole spectrum of lifetime based on the expected life expectancy. The Clinical pathway (CP) for MCI and Dementia was successfully developed in EGD with strong support from practitioners in the health system. The findings will help the researchers to identify all-important clinical activities and interventions that will be included in the costing study.
  19. Saad Ahmed Ali Jadoo, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Seher Nur Sulku, Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Zafar Ahmed, et al.
    Health system reform has been a major concern for different countries. The aim of this research was to develop a reliable and valid questionnaire suitable to assess the consequences of health reform process from people's perspective. An extensive literature review used to extract a set of statements as possible indicators for health system reform. Expert panel used to determine the content validity rate (CVR) and the content validity index (CVI). The first version produced in Turkish language and pre-piloted with 20 heads of household. Qualified committee used to translate the Turkish version to English version. Group of eighteen academics and graduate students recruited to tests both versions for parallel test validity. The construct validity of the questionnaire was determined using principal components analysis with Varimax rotation method (PCA). Internal consistency and questionnaire's reliability were calculated by Cronbach's alpha and the test–retest reliability test. A 17- items questionnaire was developed through the qualitative phase. The Bartlett's test was significant (p < 0.001), and the KMO value (0.842) showed that using principal component analysis (PCA) was suitable. Eigenvalues equal or higher than 1 were considered significant and chosen for interpretation. By PCA, 4 factors were extracted (accessibility, attitude and preference, quality of care and availability of resources) that jointly accounted for 85.2% of observed variance. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient showed excellent internal consistency (alpha=0.97), and test-retest of the scale with 2-weeks intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the scale (Intra-class coefficient = 0.96). The findings showed that the designed questionnaire was valid and reliable and can be used easily to assess the consequences of health reform process by comparing the situation before and after the reform from people's perspective.
  20. Saad Ahmed Ali Jadoo, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Seher Nur Sulku, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Zafar Ahmed, Mohd Rizal Abdul Manaf, et al.
    There is high expectation from the population on part of the healthcare providers. These include; skilful and timely medication administration; and knowledge, honesty, listening skills, availability and professional attitude. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the expectation of population with regards to the healthcare providers in Turkey. A cross- sectional study was conducted in Turkey, including both rural and urban population, carried out from October 2011 till January 2012. A total of 540 household heads were selected using multistage random sampling technique. Data was collected using modified self-administered 16-items QUOTE (Quality of Care Through the Patients’ Eyes) questionnaire. The questionnaire measures communication/ accessibility, organizational skills and professional skills. The response rate was (77.1%) and data was analyzed by using SPSS version 16.0. All the aspects measured using QUOTE questionnaire were found to be important by the majority of respondents, but with varying degrees of priority. The quality aspects related to the professional skills of physicians was ranked first followed by communication/ accessibility and last but not the least is the organizational skills of health care providers. This study explored the Turkish people priorities and expectations regarding healthcare providers. The public priorities and expectation were different across population. This may reflect the need to understand people's expectations before providing the services to avoid complaints that may occur after the services have been rendered.
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