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  1. Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Food poisoning usually occurs with the consumption of contaminated food. Some related factors are unsafe water supply, poor sanitation, unhygienic waste disposal and unhygienic practices or poor personal hygiene by food handlers. The purpose of this study is to describe the spatial epidemiology of food poisoning cases in the four districts of Sabah. Methods: This review consists of all food poisoning cases reported from 2011 to 2014 from Kota Kinabalu, Penampang, Putatan and Papar, Sabah. The coordinates used for locations of cases are based on home addresses. Tools such as SPSS v20, ArcGIS v10 and CrimeStat IV were used for data analysis and mapping. Results: A total of 1,787 cases of food poisoning were reported during this review period. In 2011, only Kota Kinabalu and Pa-par illustrated significant food poisoning clusters. Meanwhile, in the year 2012 to 2014, Kota Kinabalu, Penampang and Putatan had clustering of cases. Analysis of nearest neighbour hierarchical clustering analysis showed 32 food poisoning clusters. There were 4 food poisoning points at 500 meters radius around a market place, 2 food poisoning points near a sewage plant and 1 food poisoning point near a water treatment plant. No cases were near a municipal landfill. For rivers and coastline, there were 37 points of food poisoning cases in the proximity of 500 meters. Con-clusion: Food poisoning usually occurs in clusters with possible associated environmental factors.
  2. Zahir Izuan Azhar, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Tan, Susan, M.K., Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):713-718.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The risk factors associated with mental health among adolescents are usually
    described by researchers at an individual level. Neighbourhood factors and
    health have opened a new insight into the field of epidemiology. The aim of
    this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a newly developed
    Neighbourhood Factors on Mental Health Questionnaire among Malaysian
    adolescents.

    Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools in Kuala
    Lumpur, Malaysia using a newly developed questionnaire which comprised
    of two main domains and seven items. Exploratory factor analysis and
    Cronbach‟s alpha were used to measure the instrument‟s construct validity
    and reliability.

    Results A total of 106 adolescents participated in this research. The majority of
    adolescents were 13 years old (40.6%), female (55.7%), Malays (68.9%),
    have parents who only studied until secondary school (66.0%) and lived in
    flats (32.1%). Bartlett‟s Test of Sphericity was significant (Chi-square =
    258.361, p
  3. Narinderjeet Kaur, Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim, Mohd Yusof Ibrahim, Mohammad Saffree Jeffree, Mazlinda Musa
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Illegal immigrants refer to the migration of people into a country in ways that violates its immigra-tion laws. A stateless person is a person who is not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law. Interestingly, many who are stateless have never even crossed an international border. The term illegal is very loosely used in places like Sabah where it is interchanged with statelessness. As of 13 November 2018, it was estimated that there are about 12 million stateless people in the world. This review seeks to understand the current demographic situation in Sabah along with the public health repercussions of this demographic change and also to look into the success stories from around the world along with the recommendations from United Nation in solving this matter. Methods: The method used is reviewing of literature of previous studies conducted on statelessness and illegals. Local as well as international studies were reviewed. The data base used was ProQuest. Results: This review identified that one third of Sabah’s population consists of non-locals and in the past 27 years, about half a million illegal immigrants have been deported from Sabah. These numbers pose major public health repercussions from the economic, crime and health point of view. The way forward involves incorporating the United Nation Action plan with the local requirements and settings. Despite challenges, Sabah is trying its best to curb this issue and the Public health repercussions through various initiatives. We have also identified that more public health actions can be taken to reduce the negative effects. Conclusion: Dealing with the stateless and illegals is a delicate matter and there is no one way to solve it. Every country and every state are unique therefore the methods used must be tailor made. This is not something that can be solved within a short period of time and therefore persistence and perseverance is very much needed to tackle this global issue.
  4. Narinderjeet Kaur, Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim, Zahir Izuan Azhar, Mohd Yusof Ibrahim, Mohammad Saffree Jeffree, Mohd Rohaizat Hassan
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: One of the biggest global health threats of the 21st century is climate change It is so catastrophic that the climate action has been given a platform as it is the 13th goal of the 17 United Nations Sustainable developmen-tal goals (SDG). This review seeks to understand the factors causing climate change, followed by understanding the impact it has on individual and population health. We also identify the strategies to control and prevent further cli-mate change. Methods: Reviews of local and international articles from the past ten years was conducted. The focus of the review was the causes, health effects as well as strategies. Data base used was Pro Quest. Results: This re-view identified that the main contributor to climate change are man-made activities such as fossil fuels combustion, livestock farming, and deforestation. This change in climate has many repercussions from mass migrations, increase communicable diseases as well as an increase in extreme weather events and natural disasters. All this eventually leads to the deterioration of individual and population health. Strengthening adaptivity to climate-related hazard, climate change integration into national policies, education, awareness-raising, impact reduction and early warning are actions that are present in Malaysia to manage this crisis. Conclusion: Climate change is occurring globally, and its presence can no longer be denied. Actions have been put forth, but only when its importance and impact is taken seriously will the positive changes be sustainable.
  5. Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Zahir Izuan Azhar, Mohammad Saffree Jeffree, Mohd Rohaizat Hassan, Nazarudin Safian
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Cholera epidemics can produce devastating public health outcomes. Cholera distribution is influenced by temperature, precipitation, elevation, distance to the coastline and oceanic environmental factors such as sea surface temperature, sea surface height and ocean chlorophyll concentration. The purpose of this study is to describe the spatial epidemiology of cholera in the four districts of Sabah. Methods: This is a retrospective review of 4 years (2011 to 2014) data from the districts of Kota Kinabalu, Penampang, Putatan and Papar, Sabah. All reported cases of cholera from those areas are included. Coordinates for locations of the cases are based on home addresses. SPSS v20, ArcGIS v10 and CrimeStat IV were used for data analysis and mapping. Results: Cholera showed several clustering of cases, such as in 2011 and 2014 in Kota Kinabalu. In the year 2011 and 2013, Penampang and Papar districts had the nearest neighbour index of less than 1, but p value was not significant, meaning the pattern did not appear to be significant. Nearest neighbour hierarchical clustering analysis further revealed cholera had 7 clusters, of those 6 were first order and 1 was a second order cluster. Conclusion: Cholera shows disease clustering which could mean it is due to its common point source or localised human to human transmission. Using GIS as a tool may help in surveillance and control of cholera infections.
  6. Marilyn Charlene Montini Maluda, Michelle May D. Goroh, Tan, Eric Chee How, Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim, Richard Avoi, Mohammad Saffree Jeffree, et al.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Melioidosis, also known as Whitmore disease, is caused by the gram-negative bacillus, Burkholderia pseudomallei and remains a public health concern in Southeast Asia and northern parts of Australia. This study attempts to identify all possible complications of melioidosis and its outcomes.
    Methods: Literature search was conducted from databases such as PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus from 1st January 2000 to 31st August 2019. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) search strategy was used with the terms ‘Melioidosis’ or ‘Burkholderia pseudomallei’ and ‘Complications’.
    Results: A total of 162 titles were identified and 22 articles were included in the review. Findings showed that among the 22 articles, the ratio of male to female melioidosis incidence was 2.3 to 1, with most cases (86.4%) aged older than 14 years old and showed a mean age of 46 years old. A third (7/22) of the papers reported the involvement of the nervous system as a complication of melioidosis followed by cardiovascular complications. Among the 23 cases reported, 13 had underlying medical conditions with most of them (84.6%) having diabetes mellitus or newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Overall, only one case (4.3%) had resulted in mortality, while 17.4% developed complications and 78.3% managed a full recovery after undergoing treatment for melioidosis.
    Conclusion: The most commonly found complication of melioidosis involved the nervous system but patient outcomes were favourable. Rare complications included mycotic aneurysm that can be fatal. Melioidosis can affect almost any organ leading to various complications.
  7. Fatimah Ahmedy, Nurul Diyanah Zenian, Wan Juhaini Paizi, Teh Yong Guang, Khin Nyein Yin, D. Maryama Ag Daud, et al.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction:Stroke is a major public health concern and treating its complications is important for functional recov-ery. Heterotopic ossification (HO), a condition where bone is developed in non-skeletal tissue, is not an uncommon stroke-related complication with reported occurrence up to 12%. It typically presents with joint range of motion (ROM) limitation, pain and swelling. Detecting HO is important to prevent forceful joint manipulation during reha-bilitation that can cause pain and fracture. Two cases of diagnosing HO during the course of stroke rehabilitation are presented. Case description: First case was a subacute stroke in 25 year-old male with right-sided hemiparesis and right hip joint ROM limitation. He did not consent to have passive ROM exercise and refused to be seated due to severe right hip pain. Second case was a 41 year-old male with chronic right-sided hemiparetic stroke exhibiting ipsilateral lower limb neurological recovery but inability to perform bed mobility and walking despite regaining motor function. The right hip joint ROM was limited in the absence of pain. Radiographs demonstrated presence of HO in the affected hip of both patients. Gentle hip ROM exercise was prescribed and noted improvement in ROM with subsequent ability for sitting (first case) and short-distance ambulation (second case). Conclusion: HO should be considered as a differential diagnosis in stroke patients having limited ROM, hence the importance of thorough physical examination. Presence of HO would guide rehabilitation process by encouraging gentle ROM exercise in the attempt to reduce public health burden from halted functional recovery in stroke.
  8. Zahir Izuan A, Shamsul Azhar S, Tan MKS, Syed-Sharizman SAR
    Asian J Psychiatr, 2018 Dec;38:35-41.
    PMID: 30408711 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2018.10.018
    BACKGROUND: Mental health problems are affecting more children and adolescents worldwide. Individual, family and school factors are often linked with mental health problems among adolescents.

    AIM: To determine the neighbourhood factors influencing the prevalence of abnormal mental health status among adolescents in an urban population.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents aged 13, 14 and 16 years old from thirteen secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur using validated questionnaires. A total of 567 adolescents participated in this study.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of abnormal mental health status in this study was 4.4%. In multivariable analysis, female (OR = 1.79, 95%CI: 1.11-2.89), having divorced parents (OR = 3.53, 95%CI: 1.96-6.36), high educational stress (OR = 8.18, 95%CI: 4.25-15.75), medium educational stress (OR = 2.99, 95%CI: 1.53-5.83), whose house has been broken in before (OR = 2.02, 95%CI: 1.11-3.68) and living in a neighbourhood with low socioeconomic status (OR = 2.09, 95%CI: 1.23-3.56) were more likely to have abnormal mental health status.

    CONCLUSIONS: Neighbourhood factors were found to be significant in determining adolescents' mental health status. The findings emphasize the importance of those in the public health sector to highlight these significant neighbourhood factors to the Ministry of Housing and Local Government. Swift action needs to be taken by the Ministry to provide solutions related to the neighbourhood factors and this can contribute to improvement in the adolescents' mental health.

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