METHODS: Surgical samples from seven patients with a total of 17 sequential biopsies were retrieved for the study of p53 gene expression using immunohistochemical stain, and gene status by PCR-SSCP for exons 5-8. The tumours were graded according to the WHO classification criteria. P53 was distinctly over-expressed in five transformed higher grade biopsies, and all except one showed electrophoretic mobility shift in PCR-SSCP analysis. Sequencing analysis revealed single nucleotide substitutions in three of four of these high-grade transformed cases with band shift (75%), whereas some other studies reported a lower frequency of 25-30%, and mobility shift result was found to correlate with P53 expression. Lower grade tumours without P53 over-expression did not demonstrate band shift, and sequencing analysis did not reveal mutations.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the feasibility of adopting PCR-SSCP for screening of p53 mutations in archival tissue samples in this study, and there is a strong correlation of p53 gene over-expression and mutation events in high-grade transformed tumours.
METHODS: The Filipino β-deletion was identified using gap-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the parents of transfusion dependent β-thalassaemia patients who were homozygous for the Filipino β-deletion in the indigenous population of Sabah, Malaysia. Hb subtypes were quantified on the BioRad Variant II Hb analyser. Concurrent α-thalassaemia was identified by multiplex gap-PCR for deletions and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR for non-deletional mutations.
RESULTS: The mean HbA2 level for Filipino β-thalassaemia trait was 5.9 ± 0.47 and with coinheritance of α-thalassaemia was 6.3 ± 0.44 (-α heterozygous) and 6.7 ± 0.36 (-α homozygous). The HbA2 levels were all >4% in keeping with the findings of classical β-thalassaemia trait and significantly higher than levels seen in non-deletional forms of β-thalassaemia.
CONCLUSION: The HbA2 level measured on the BioRad Variant II Hb analyser was lower than the level in the first description of the Filipino β-thalassaemia. β-thalassaemia trait with coinheritance of α-thalassaemia (-α) is associated with significantly higher HbA2 level.
PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This work contributes to the knowledge on the biofilm formation and the distribution of agr groups in S. aureus strains as well as microbial surface components in recognizing adherence matrix molecules of organisms isolated from ready-to-eat sushi and sashimi. The findings provide valuable information to further study the roles of specific genes in causing biofilm-related infections.
METHODOLOGY: A pair of degenerate primers (Aero F: 5'-YGARATCGAYATCGCCAARCGB-3' and Aero R: 5'-GRCCDATGCTCATRCGRCGGTT-3') was designed that amplified the rpoD gene of 27 Aeromonas species. Subsequently, in silico analysis enabled the differentiation of 25 species using the single restriction endonuclease AluI, while 2 species, A. sanarelli and A. taiwanensis, required an additional restriction endonuclease, HpyCH4IV. Twelve type strains (A. hydrophila ATCC7966T, A. caviae ATCC15468T, A. veronii ATCC9071T, A. media DSM4881T, A. allosaccharophila DSM11576T, A. dhakensis DSM17689T, A. enteropelogens DSM7312T, A. jandaei DSM7311T, A. rivuli DSM22539T, A. salmonicida ATCC33658T, A. taiwanensis DSM24096T and A. sanarelli DSM24094T) were randomly selected from the 27 Aeromonas species for experimental validation.Results/key findings. The twelve type strains demonstrated distinctive RFLP patterns and supported the in silico digestion. Subsequently, 60 clinical and environmental strains from our collection, comprising nine Aeromonas species, were used for screening examinations, and the results were in agreement.
CONCLUSION: This method provides an alternative method for laboratory identification, surveillance and epidemiological investigations of clinical and environmental specimens.
Methods: A total of 150 CKD patients and 64 non-CKD patients were enrolled. The type 2 diabetic patients in the recruited study participants were categorised based on their glycaemic control; poor glycaemic control (GC) with haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) > 7% and good GC with HbA1c ≤ 7%. The levels or activities of GPx, SOD and sRAGE in plasma were measured. These biochemical parameters were analysed using Mann-WhitneyUtest and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Results: The activities of GPx and SOD as well as plasma level of sRAGE were not significantly different among the CKD patients with varying glycaemic control status. Irrespective of diabetes status and glycaemic control status, CKD patients also exhibited lower plasma SOD activities compared with non-CKD patients. Among the non-CKD patients, SOD activities were significantly higher in diabetic patients with good GC than diabetic patients with poor GC. Two-way ANOVA revealed that both CKD status and glycaemic control had an interaction effect on SOD activities in diabetic subjects with and without CKD. Follow-up analysis showed that SOD activities were significantly higher in non-CKD patients with good GC. There were no overall significant differences in GPx activities among the study participants. Furthermore, plasma sRAGE levels were higher in diabetic patients with CKD than those without CKD, regardless of glycaemic control status. There were no interaction effects between CKD status and glycaemic control status on GPx and sRAGE. Instead, CKD status showed significant main effects on these parameters, indicating significant differences between diabetic subjects with CKD and diabetic subjects without CKD.
Conclusion: Glycaemic control did not quantitatively alter GPx, SOD and sRAGE in diabetic CKD patients. Despite the advantages of good glycaemic control, a well-controlled diabetes in CKD did not modulate the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and sRAGE levels, therefore may not be the primary mechanism to handle oxidative stress.
METHODS: A total of 210 Aeromonas clinical isolates were investigated: 116 from Singapore General Hospital and 94 archived clinical isolates from University of Malaya Medical Center, Malaysia. The isolates were genetically identified based on the gcat gene screening and the partial sequences of the rpoD housekeeping gene. Genetic relatedness, distribution of 15 virulence genes and 4 beta-lactamase resistance genes, and susceptibility patterns to 11 antimicrobial agents were compared.
RESULTS: Of the 210 Aeromonas isolates, A. dhakensis-94 (45%) was the dominant species in Singapore and Malaysia. Species composition was similar and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR did not show genetic relatedness between strains from the two countries. Of the 15 virulence genes, A. dhakensis and A. hydrophila harbored the most compared with other species. Different combinations of 9 virulence genes (exu, fla, lip, eno, alt, dam, hlyA, aexU, and ascV) were present in A. dhakensis, A. hydrophila, and A. veronii from both the countries. Distribution of virulence genes was species and anatomic site related. Majority (>80%) of the strains were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested, except amoxicillin and cephalothin. A. dhakensis strains from Malaysia significantly harbored the cphA gene compared with A. dhakensis from Singapore. Multidrug resistance was mostly detected in strains from peritoneal fluids of dialysis patients.
CONCLUSION: This study revealed A. dhakensis as the dominant species isolated in both geographic regions, and that it carried a high number of virulence genes. It also highlights the geographic-related differences of virulence gene distribution and antimicrobial resistance profiles of clinical Aeromonas strains from Singapore and Malaysia.
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