A survey of 61 canine and 26 feline fractures diagnosed between January 1980 and June 1983 at a veterinary teaching hospital was conducted. More than 80 per cent of the fractures occurred in animals less than two years old. Male animals were more frequently involved. In the dog, the femur, tibia, pelvis, radius and ulna were most often affected while in the cat, the femur, mandible, pelvis and spine were more often involved. All the findings were consistent with other reports in the literature.
Introduction: Giving two intravenous anaesthetic agents simultaneously generally results in an additive effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between propofol and thiopental when given to patients who have had sedative premedication. Methods: Fifty patients were admitted into the study. All patients received oral midazolam 3.75 mg and intravenous fentanyl 100 mg before induction of anaesthesia. Twenty patients received an infusion of either propofol or thiopental while 30 patients received an infusion of an admixture of both drugs. Isobolographic analysis was used to determine the interaction between the two drugs. Results: The interaction between propofol and thiopental was
additive. The average dose at loss of the eyelash reflex for propofol and thiopental was 0.71 mg kg-1 and 1.54 mg kg-1 respectively. Premedication decreased the induction dose by 38.2%. Conclusion: Propofol and thiopental interact in an additive fashion when given at induction of anaesthesia.
The mol-ecule of the title compound, C(22)H(18)N(4)O(2)S(2), lies across a crystallographic inversion centre. The central benzene ring forms dihedral angles of 29.39 (9) and 79.11 (12)°, respectively, with the thio-urea unit and the terminal phenyl ring. Intra-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate two S(6) ring motifs. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked into chains along  by inter-molecular N-H⋯S hydrogen bonds.
A 23 year old Indian lady, gravida 1 para 0, with Clomid induced pregnancy was admitted to the University Hospital on 29 August 1981 with signs and symptoms of pregnancy and intraperitoneal bleed. Period ofamenorrhoea at time of admission was eight weeks. Emergency laparotomy revealed a right leaking ectopic pregnancy and an enlarged gravid uterus. Ultrasound done on the 7th post operative day confirmed concurrent intrauterine pregnancy which progressed normally to term, ending with a normal healthy baby at 39 weeks through an assisted breech delivery.
Background. There have been inconsistent reports on the prevalence and pathogenicity of anti-Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in patients presented with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases (IIDDs). Objective. To estimate the prevalence of anti-AQP4 antibody in patients with IIDDs presented to University Malaya Medical Centre in terms of patients' clinical and radiological presentations and prognoses. Methods. Retrospective data review of IIDDs patients presented from 2005 to 2015. Patients were classified into classical multiple sclerosis (CMS), opticospinal (OS) presentation, optic neuritis (ON), transverse myelitis (TM), brainstem syndrome (BS), and tumefactive MS. Anti-Aquaporin 4 antibody was tested using the Indirect Immunofluorescence Test (IIFT) cell-based assay. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS version 20. Results. Anti-AQP4 antibody was detected in 53% of patients presented with IIDDs. CMS was more common in the seronegative group, 27/47 (57.45%; p < 0.001). Conversely, OS involvement was more common in the seropositive group, 26/53 (49.06%; p < 0.001). Longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (LESCLs) on MRI were also more common in the seropositive group, 29/40 (72.50%; p = 0.004). Only 2/40 (5.00%) had MRI evidence of patchy or multiple short-segment spinal cord lesions in the AQP4-positive group (p = 0.003). The relapse rate and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) were also higher in the seropositive group (5.43 versus 3.17, p = 0.005; 4.07 versus 2.51, p = 0.006, resp.). Typical clinical presentations that defined NMO were also seen in the seronegative patients, but in a lower frequency. Conclusion. Our cohort of patients had a higher prevalence of seropositivity of anti-AQP4 antibody as compared to those in Western countries. This was also associated with a more typical presentation of opticospinal involvement with LESCLs on MRI, a higher rate of relapse, and EDSS.
The characteristics of normal labour in 977 Malay, Chinese and Indian parturients were established from a retrospective study. Indian babies were found to be significantly smaller than Malay babies which were significantly smaller than Chinese babies (P less than 0-05, P less than 0-05). The mean duration of the first stage of labour taken from the time of admission to the labour ward was 3-4 hours in primiparae and 2-7 hours in multiparae. The mean durations of the second stage of labour were 23-7 minutes and 13-1 minutes respectively. Curves of mean dilatation of cervix and probit analysis at 80% revealed significant differences in the progress of normal labour in primiparae among the three racial groups. The Indian primiparae not only had a slower rate of cervical dilatation but seemed to reach the accelerated phase of dilatation later. No significant differences were noticed in the labours of multiparae.
The objective of this survey was to obtain a self-reported assessment of the use of information technology (IT) by final year medical students. Two hundred and sixty five students responded to a questionnaire survey. 81.5% of students considered their computer skills adequate, while 87.9% had access to computers outside the campus. Most students reported adequate skills at word processing, e-mailing and surfing the Internet. Fifty three percent of students spent three hours or more each week on the computer. While students indicated a general willingness to access Internet-based materials, further steps need to be taken to increase the use of this method of instruction.
Anaesthetizing patients with Long QT Syndrome is a major challenge, as the potential for sudden catastrophic cardiovascular collapse is well known. We present a 15-year-old boy with Long QT Syndrome who presented for an elective renal transplant. All electrolyte concentration abnormalities were corrected preoperative and adequate beta-blockade was maintained. The patient was given a target controlled infusion of propofol, together with opioids and atracurium. Anaesthesia was uneventful and the patient was extubated at the end of the surgical procedure.
A first case of Chlamydia pneumoniae pneumonia in Malaysia is reported. The diagnosis was made by a significant change in C. pneumoniae antibody titre. The infection responded well to a course of erythromycin.
The screening for anti-amoebic antibody among a group of donors was to obtain negative control serum samples for an on-going antigen development assay in diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess. Out of 200 samples, 125 (62.5%) were negative, whereas 44 (21.5%) had IHA titer of less than 1:128 and 31 (16.0%) of the samples had significant IHA titers of 1:128 or more, in which 2 serum samples gave titers of 1:4096.
The menstrual patterns of 281 women undergoing laparoscopic sterilization with silastic rings were studied prospectively. A significant increase in dysmenorrhea and irregular periods was seen soon after sterilization but this was transient, returning to presterilization levels by 12 months. Menorrhagia was not observed and the amount of menstrual blood loss showed a trend towards normal following sterilization. No permanent adverse effects on menstrual patterns were seen in the 1st year after sterilization. It is suggested that factors other than the sterilization procedure may be responsible for the high prevalence of menstrual dysfunction that has been reported following sterilization.
A complete diallel cross of four broiler breeds was made to investigate whether there are breed differences in the combining abilities for the traits, body weight, weight gain and feed efficiency, measured during the growing period from 4 to 12 weeks of age. Data collected from male and female birds were analysed separately. General combining ability (GCA) was found to be the largest and most significant source of variation contributing to differences between crosses for all the traits, in both male and female birds. Specific combining ability (SCA) was important for body weight in both sexes and for weight gain in females. Feed efficiency in both sexes did not appear to be influenced by SCA effects. Reciprocal effects (RE) were generally absent in both sexes for all the traits, except possibly for feed efficiency.
A 44-year-old female was diagnosed with an ITA pseudoaneurysm in the right supraclavicular fossa. She was successfully treated with endovascular embolization. The challenges of diagnosis and treatment are discussed.
A study of the anterior adhesive apparatus (head organs) of Bravohollisia gussevi Lim, 1995 was carried out using light and electron microscopy. The anterior adhesive apparatus or head organs in B. gussevi comprise 6 circular openings or apertures in the antero-lateral region, associated pits lined with specialized microvillous tegument that differ from the general body tegument, a bundle of ducts, and uninucleate gland cells located lateral to the pharynx. The uninucleate glands of the anterior adhesive apparatus (head organs) comprise 2 types of cells, one kind of cell producing rod-like bodies (S1) and the other oval bodies (S2). The S1 bodies are filled with numerous, less electron-dense vesicles in an electron-dense matrix, while S2 bodies have no vesicles but contain a more homogeneous electron-dense matrix. Interlinking band-like structures were observed between S1 bodies. Similar band-like structures were found between S2 bodies. The formation of S1 bodies was followed by transmission electron microscopy. However, the formation of S2 bodies was unclear and could not be resolved. Uniciliated structures were also observed around the openings of the anterior adhesive apparatus. Each uniciliated structure is usually associated with an opening of a gland cell producing granular, electron-dense, secretory bodies, which differ from the secretions produced by the lateral gland cells of the anterior adhesive apparatus.