Conclusion: This study revealed the genetic heterogeneity among Malaysian ASL patients. This study has also expanded the mutational spectrum of the ASL.
Methodology: Clinically suspected patients were screened for biotinidase level by a fluorometry method. Profound BD patients were confirmed by mutation analysis of BTD gene.
Results: 9 patients had biotinidase activity of less than 77 U. 3 patients (33%) had profound BD while 6 patients (67%) had partial BD. Compound heterozygous mutations were detected at c.98_104delinsTCC p.(Cys33Phefs*36) in Exon 2 and c.833T>C p.(Leu278Pro) in Exon 4 in two patients and a homozygous mutation at c.98_104delinsTCC p.(Cys33Phefs*36) in Exon 2 in another patient.
Conclusion: Correct diagnosis lead to early treatment and accurate management of patient. Biochemical screening of BD in symptomatic child is prerequisite to determine enzyme status however molecular confirmation is vital in differentiating individuals with profound biotinidase deficiency from partial biotinidase deficiency and also individuals' carriers.
METHODS: All patients diagnosed with FBPase deficiency from 2010 to 2015 were included in this study. Their clinical and laboratory data were collected retrospectively.
RESULTS: All the patients presented with recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperlactacidemia and hepatomegaly. All of them had the first metabolic decompensation prior to 2 years old. The common triggering factors were vomiting and infection. Biallelic mutations in FBP1 gene (MIM*611570) were identified in all seven patients confirming the diagnosis of FBPase deficiency. In four patients, genetic study was prompted by detection of glycerol or glycerol-3-phosphate in urine organic acids analysis. One patient also had pseudo-hypertriglyceridemia. Seven different mutations were identified in FBP1, among them four mutations were new: three point deletions (c.392delT, c.603delG and c.704delC) and one splice site mutation (c.568-2A > C). All four new mutations were predicted to be damaging by in silico analysis. One patient presented in the neonatal period and succumbed due to sepsis and multi-organ failure. Among six survivors (current age ranged from 4 to 27 years), four have normal growth and cognitive development. One patient had short stature and another had neurological deficit following status epilepticus due to profound hypoglycemia.
CONCLUSION: FBPase deficiency needs to be considered in any children with recurrent hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis. Our study expands the spectrum of FBP1 gene mutations.
OBJECTIVE: To elaborate on the clinical findings, biochemical data, molecular genetic analysis, and short-term prognosis of 13 GSD1a patients in Malaysia.
METHODS: The information about 13 clinically classified GSD1a patients was retrospectively studied. The G6PC mutation analysis was performed by PCR-DNA sequencing.
RESULTS: Patients were presented with hepatomegaly (92%), hypoglycaemia (38%), poor weight gain (23%), and short stature (15%). Mutation analysis revealed nine heterozygous mutations; eight previously reported mutations (c.155 A > T, c.209 G > A, c.226 A > T, c.248 G > A, c.648 G > T, c.706 T > A, c.1022 T > A, c.262delG) and a novel mutation (c.325 T > C). The most common mutation found in Malaysian patients was c.648 G > T in ten patients (77%) of mostly Malay ethnicity, followed by c.248 G > A in 4 patients of Chinese ethnicity (30%). A novel missense mutation (c.325 T > C) was predicted to be disease-causing by various in silico software.
CONCLUSIONS: The establishment of G6PC molecular genetic testing will enable the detection of presymptomatic patients, assisting in genetic counselling while avoiding the invasive methods of liver biopsy.
CONCLUSION: All mutations are private except one mutation; p.Ile1254Phe was found in three unrelated families. Identification of a recurrent p.Ile1254Phe mutation suggests the presence of a common and unique mutation in our population. Our study also expands the mutational spectrum of the CPS1 gene.
METHODS: Both instruments were operated according to manufacturer's instructions. Samples used include a commercially available normal control serum (NCS) and patients' specimens. The following were evaluated: precision and comparison studies for SPE, and reproducibility and comparison studies for IFE. Statistical analyses were performed using Microsoft Excel.
RESULTS: For SPE repeatability study, our results showed that EFG26 has higher coefficient of variation (%CV) compared with H2SCAN for both samples except for monoclonal component with %CV of 0.97% and 1.18%, respectively. Similar results were obtained for SPE reproducibility study except for alpha-1 (4.16%) and beta (3.13%) fractions for NCS, and beta fractions (5.36%) for monoclonal sample. Subsequently, reproducibility for IFE was 100% for both instruments. Values for correlation coefficients between both instruments ranged from 0.91 to 0.98 for the five classic bands.
CONCLUSION: Both instruments demonstrated good analytical performance characterized by high precision, reproducibility and correlation.
DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study. We reviewed medical records of six patients diagnosed with CACT and CPT2 deficiencies. They were identified from a selective high-risk screening of 50,579 patients from January 2010 until Jun 2020.
RESULTS: All six patients had either elevation of the long chain acylcarnitines and/or an elevated (C16 + C18:1)/C2 acylcarnitine ratio. SLC25A20 gene sequencing of patient 1 and 6 showed a homozygous splice site mutation at c.199-10 T > G in intron 2. Two novel mutations at c.109C > T p. (Arg37*) in exon 2 and at c.706C > T p. (Arg236*) in exon 7 of SLC25A20 gene were found in patient 2. Patient 3 and 4 (siblings) exhibited a compound heterozygous mutation at c.638A > G p. (Asp213Gly) and novel mutation c.1073 T > G p. (Leu358Arg) in exon 4 of CPT2 gene. A significant combined prevalence at 0.01% of CACT and CPT2 deficiencies was found in the symptomatic Malaysian patients.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of the (C16 + C18:1)/C2 acylcarnitine ratio in dried blood spot in our experience improves the diagnostic specificity for CACT/CPT2 deficiencies over long chain acylcarnitine (C16 and C18:1) alone. DNA sequencing for both genes aids in confirming the diagnosis.
METHODS: This is a multicentre descriptive case series of 21 patients comprising all MPS IVA patients in Malaysia. Mutational analysis was performed by PCR and Sanger sequencing of the GALNS gene in 17 patients.
RESULTS: The patients (15 females and 6 males) had a mean age (± SD) of 15.5 (± 8.1) years. Mean age at symptom onset was 2.6 (± 2.1) years and at confirmed diagnosis was 6.9 (± 4.5) years. The study cohort included patients from all the main ethnic groups in Malaysia - 57% Malay, 29% Chinese and 14% Indian. Common presenting symptoms included pectus carinatum (57%) and genu valgum (43%). Eight patients (38%) had undergone surgery, most commonly knee surgeries (29%) and cervical spine decompression (24%). Patients had limited endurance with lower mean walking distances with increasing age. GALNS gene analysis identified 18 distinct mutations comprising 13 missense, three nonsense, one small deletion and one splice site mutation. Of these, eight were novel mutations (Tyr133Ser, Glu158Valfs*12, Gly168*, Gly168Val, Trp184*, Leu271Pro, Glu320Lys, Leu508Pro). Mutations in exons 1, 5 and 9 accounted for 51% of the mutant alleles identified.
CONCLUSIONS: All the MPS IVA patients in this study had clinical impairments. A better understanding of the natural history and the clinical and genetic spectrum of MPS IVA in this population may assist early diagnosis, improve management and permit timely genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis.
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