Displaying all 12 publications

  1. Abdul Nasir NA, Agarwal R, Vasudevan S, Tripathy M, Alyautdin R, Ismail NM
    Mol. Vis., 2014;20:822-35.
    PMID: 24940038
    Oxidative and nitrosative stress underlies cataractogenesis, and therefore, various antioxidants have been investigated for anticataract properties. Several vitamin E analogs have also been studied for anticataract effects due to their antioxidant properties; however, the anticataract properties of tocotrienols have not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of topically applied tocotrienol on the onset and progression of cataract and lenticular oxidative and nitrosative stress in galactosemic rats.
  2. Mimivati Z, Nurliza K, Marini M, Liza-Sharmini A
    Mol. Vis., 2014;20:714-23.
    PMID: 24883016
    To screen for mutations in the coding region of the myocilin (MYOC) gene in a large Malay family with juvenile-onset open angle glaucoma (JOAG).

    A total of 122 family members were thoroughly examined and screened for JOAG. Venipuncture was conducted. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. The presence of a mutation and a polymorphism was ascertained with PCR amplification followed by the direct sequencing technique.

    Thirty-two of the 122 screened family members were identified to have JOAG (11 new cases and 21 known cases). An autosomal dominant inheritance pattern with incomplete penetrance was observed. A C→A substitution at position 1440 in exon 3 that changes asparagine (AAC) to lysine (AAA) was identified in affected family members except two probands (III:5 and IV:6). Six probands were identified as having the Asn480Lys mutation but have not developed the disease yet. An intronic polymorphism IVS2 730 +35 G>A was also identified. There was a significant association between Asn480Lys (p<0.001) and IVS2 730+35G>A (p<0.001) in the affected and unaffected probands in this family.

    The Asn480Lys mutation and the IVS2 730+35 G>A polymorphism increased susceptibility to JOAG in this large Malay pedigree. Identifying the MYOC mutations and polymorphisms is important for providing presymptomatic molecular diagnosis.
  3. Lim MN, Hussin NH, Othman A, Umapathy T, Baharuddin P, Jamal R, et al.
    Mol. Vis., 2012;18:1289-300.
    PMID: 22665977
    The presence of multipotent human limbal stromal cells resembling mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) provides new insights to the characteristic of these cells and its therapeutic potential. However, little is known about the expression of stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 (SSEA-4) and the embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like properties of these cells. We studied the expression of SSEA-4 surface protein and the various ESC and MSC markers in the ex vivo cultured limbal stromal cells. The phenotypes and multipotent differentiation potential of these cells were also evaluated.
  4. Noh SM, Abdul Kadir SH, Crowston JG, Subrayan V, Vasudevan S
    Mol. Vis., 2015;21:1191-200.
    PMID: 26539031
    Inhibiting exaggerated wound healing responses, which are primarily mediated by human Tenon's fibroblast (HTF) migration and proliferation, has become the major determining factor for a successful trabeculectomy. Antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) has showed promising results as a potential antifibrotic candidate for use concurrently in trabeculectomy. Preliminary cohort studies have revealed improved bleb morphology following trabeculectomy augmented with ranibizumab. However, the effects on HTFs remain unclear. This study was conducted to understand the effects of ranibizumab on transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 expression by HTFs.
  5. Mohd Khalid MK, Yakob Y, Md Yasin R, Wee Teik K, Siew CG, Rahmat J, et al.
    Mol. Vis., 2015;21:1185-90.
    PMID: 26539030
    The availability of molecular genetic testing for retinoblastoma (RB) in Malaysia has enabled patients with a heritable predisposition to the disease to be identified, which thus improves the clinical management of these patients and their families. In this paper, we presented our strategy for performing molecular genetic testing of the RB1 gene and the findings from our first 2 years of starting this service.
  6. Dongare S, Gupta SK, Mathur R, Saxena R, Mathur S, Agarwal R, et al.
    Mol. Vis., 2016;22:599-609.
    PMID: 27293376
    Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of long-standing diabetes. Several complex interconnecting biochemical pathways are activated in response to hyperglycemia. These pathways culminate into proinflammatory and angiogenic effects that bring about structural and functional damage to the retinal vasculature. Since Zingiber officinale (ginger) is known for its anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties, we investigated the effects of its extract standardized to 5% 6-gingerol, the major active constituent of ginger, in attenuating retinal microvascular changes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
  7. Agarwal P, Daher AM, Agarwal R
    Mol. Vis., 2015;21:612-20.
    PMID: 26019480
    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucomatous eyes is often due to increased resistance to aqueous outflow. Previous studies have shown that increased extracellular material deposition in outflow pathways leads to increased resistance to aqueous outflow, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β seems to play a role in the deposition of extracellular material. TGF-β2 is the predominant isoform in ocular tissue. Hence, comparison of the aqueous humor TGF-β2 level between patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and controls would provide direct evidence for the role of TGF-β2 in the etiology of OAG. Hence, we performed this meta-analysis to develop an accurate estimate of the changes in aqueous humor TGF-β2 levels among OAG patients.
  8. Iezhitsa I, Agarwal R, Saad SD, Zakaria FK, Agarwal P, Krasilnikova A, et al.
    Mol. Vis., 2016;22:734-47.
    PMID: 27440992
    PURPOSE: Increased lenticular oxidative stress and altered calcium/magnesium (Ca/Mg) homeostasis underlie cataractogenesis. We developed a liposomal formulation of magnesium taurate (MgT) and studied its effects on Ca/Mg homeostasis and lenticular oxidative and nitrosative stress in galactose-fed rats.

    METHODS: The galactose-fed rats were topically treated with liposomal MgT (LMgT), liposomal taurine (LTau), or corresponding vehicles twice daily for 28 days with weekly anterior segment imaging. At the end of the experimental period, the lenses were removed and subjected to analysis for oxidative and nitrosative stress, Ca and Mg levels, ATP content, Ca(2+)-ATPase, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, and calpain II activities.

    RESULTS: The LTau and LMgT groups showed significantly lower opacity index values at all time points compared to the corresponding vehicle groups (p<0.001). However, the opacity index in the LMgT group was lower than that in the LTau group (p<0.05). Significantly reduced oxidative and nitrosative stress was observed in the LTau and LMgT groups. The lens Ca/Mg ratio in LMgT group was decreased by 1.15 times compared to that in the LVh group. Calpain II activity in the LMgT group was decreased by 13% compared to the LVh group. The ATP level and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities were significantly increased in the LMgT group compared to the LVh group (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Topical liposomal MgT delays cataractogenesis in galactose-fed rats by maintaining the lens mineral homeostasis and reducing lenticular oxidative and nitrosative stress.

  9. Jafri AJA, Agarwal R, Iezhitsa I, Agarwal P, Spasov A, Ozerov A, et al.
    Mol. Vis., 2018;24:495-508.
    PMID: 30090013
    Purpose: Retinal nitrosative stress associated with altered expression of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) plays an important role in excitotoxic retinal ganglion cell loss in glaucoma. The present study evaluated the effects of magnesium acetyltaurate (MgAT) on changes induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in the retinal expression of three NOS isoforms, retinal 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) levels, and the extent of retinal cell apoptosis in rats. Effects of MgAT with taurine (TAU) alone were compared to understand the benefits of a combined salt of Mg and TAU.

    Methods: Excitotoxic retinal injury was induced with intravitreal injection of NMDA in Sprague-Dawley rats. All treatments were given as pre-, co-, and post-treatment with NMDA. Seven days post-injection, the retinas were processed for measurement of the expression of NOS isoforms using immunostaining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), retinal 3-NT content using ELISA, retinal histopathological changes using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and retinal cell apoptosis using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining.

    Results: As observed on immunohistochemistry, the treatment with NMDA caused a 4.53-fold increase in retinal nNOS expression compared to the PBS-treated rats (p<0.001). Among the MgAT-treated groups, only the pretreatment group showed significantly lower nNOS expression than the NMDA-treated group with a 2.00-fold reduction (p<0.001). Among the TAU-treated groups, the pre- and cotreatment groups showed 1.84- and 1.71-fold reduction in nNOS expression compared to the NMDA-treated group (p<0.001), respectively, but remained higher compared to the PBS-treated group (p<0.01). Similarly, iNOS expression in the NMDA-treated group was significantly greater than that for the PBS-treated group (2.68-fold; p<0.001). All MgAT treatment groups showed significantly lower iNOS expression than the NMDA-treated groups (3.58-, 1.51-, and 1.65-folds, respectively). However, in the MgAT co- and post-treatment groups, iNOS expression was significantly greater than in the PBS-treated group (1.77- and 1.62-folds, respectively). Pretreatment with MgAT caused 1.77-fold lower iNOS expression compared to pretreatment with TAU (p<0.05). In contrast, eNOS expression was 1.63-fold higher in the PBS-treated group than in the NMDA-treated group (p<0.001). Among all treatment groups, only pretreatment with MgAT caused restoration of retinal eNOS expression with a 1.39-fold difference from the NMDA-treated group (p<0.05). eNOS expression in the MgAT pretreatment group was also 1.34-fold higher than in the TAU pretreatment group (p<0.05). The retinal NOS expression as measured with ELISA was in accordance with that estimated with immunohistochemistry. Accordingly, among the MgAT treatment groups, only the pretreated group showed 1.47-fold lower retinal 3-NT than the NMDA-treated group, and the difference was significant (p<0.001). The H&E-stained retinal sections in all treatment groups showed statistically significantly greater numbers of retinal cell nuclei than the NMDA-treated group in the inner retina. However, the ganglion cell layer thickness in the TAU pretreatment group remained 1.23-fold lower than that in the MgAT pretreatment group (p<0.05). In line with this observation, the number of apoptotic cells as observed after TUNEL staining was 1.69-fold higher after pretreatment with TAU compared to pretreatment with MgAT (p<0.01).

    Conclusions: MgAT and TAU, particularly with pretreatment, reduce retinal cell apoptosis by reducing retinal nitrosative stress. Pretreatment with MgAT caused greater improvement in NMDA-induced changes in iNOS and eNOS expression and retinal 3-NT levels than pretreatment with TAU. The greater reduction in retinal nitrosative stress after pretreatment with MgAT was associated with lower retinal cell apoptosis and greater preservation of the ganglion cell layer thickness compared to pretreatment with TAU.

  10. Man RC, Yong TK, Hwei NM, Halim WHWA, Zahidin AZM, Ramli R, et al.
    Mol. Vis., 2017;23:810-822.
    PMID: 29225457
    Various clinical disorders and injuries, such as chemical, thermal, or mechanical injuries, may lead to corneal loss that results in blindness. PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to differentiate human buccal mucosa (BMuc) into corneal epithelial-like cells, to fabricate engineered corneal tissue using buccal mucosal epithelial cells, and to reconstruct a damaged corneal epithelium in a nude rat model.

    Methods: BMuc were subjected to 10 d of induction factors to investigate the potential of cells to differentiate into corneal lineages.

    Results: Corneal stem cell markers β1-integrin, C/EBPδ, ABCG2, p63, and CK3 were upregulated in the gene expression analysis in induced BMuc, whereas CK3 and p63 showed significant protein expression in induced BMuc compared to the uninduced cells. BMuc were then left to reach 80% confluency after differential trypsinization. The cells were harvested and cultivated on a commercially available untreated air-dried amniotic membrane (AM) in a Transwell system in induction medium. The corneal constructs were fabricated and then implanted into damaged rat corneas for up to 8 weeks. A significant improvement was detected in the treatment group at 8 weeks post-implantation, as revealed by slit lamp biomicroscopy analysis. The structure and thickness of the corneal layer were also analyzed using histological staining and time-domain optical coherence tomography scans and were found to resemble a native corneal layer. The protein expression for CK3 and p63 were continuously detected throughout the corneal epithelial layer in the corneal construct.

    Conclusions: In conclusion, human BMuc can be induced to express a corneal epithelial-like phenotype. The addition of BMuc improves corneal clarity, prevents vascularization, increases corneal thickness and stromal alignment, and appears to have no adverse effect on the host after implantation.

  11. Benson MD, Khor CC, Gage PJ, Lehmann OJ
    Mol. Vis., 2017;23:952-962.
    PMID: 29296075
    Purpose: To evaluate the ability of a targeted genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genes associated with central corneal thickness (CCT).

    Methods: A targeted GWAS was used to investigate whether ten candidate genes with known roles in corneal development were associated with CCT in two Singaporean populations. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within a 500 kb interval encompassing each candidate were analyzed, and in light of the resulting data, members of the Wnt pathway were subsequently screened using similar methodology.

    Results: Variants within the 500 kb interval encompassing three candidate genes, DKK1 (rs1896368, p=1.32×10-3), DKK2 (rs17510449, p=7.34×10-4), and FOXO1 (rs7326616, p=1.56×10-4 and rs4943785, p=1.19×10-3), were statistically significantly associated with CCT in the Singapore Indian population. DKK2 was statistically significantly associated with CCT in a separate Singapore Malaysian population (rs10015200, p=2.26×10-3). Analysis of Wnt signaling pathway genes in each population demonstrated that TCF7L2 (rs3814573, p=1.18×10-3), RYK (rs6763231, p=1.12×10-3 and rs4854785, p=1.11×10-3), and FZD8 (rs640827, p=5.17×10-4) were statistically significantly associated with CCT.

    Conclusions: The targeted GWAS identified four genes (DKK1, DKK2, RYK, and FZD8) with novel associations with CCT and confirmed known associations with two genes, FOXO1 and TCF7L2. All six participate in the Wnt pathway, supporting a broader role for Wnt signaling in regulating the thickness of the cornea. In parallel, this study demonstrated that a hypothesis-driven candidate gene approach can identify associations in existing GWAS data sets.

  12. Arumugam B, Palanisamy UD, Chua KH, Kuppusamy UR
    Mol. Vis., 2019;25:47-59.
    PMID: 30820141
    Purpose: Oxidative stress is implicated in the etiology of diabetes and its debilitating complications, such as diabetic retinopathy (DR). Various flavonoids have been reported to be useful in reducing DR progression. Myricetin derivatives (F2) isolated from leaf extract of Syzygium malaccense have the potential to serve as functional food as reported previously. The present study was performed with the aim of determining the antioxidant potential and protective effect of myricetin derivatives (F2) isolated from leaf extract of S. malaccense against glucose oxidase (GO)-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production that causes oxidative stress in ARPE-19 (RPE) cells.

    Methods: Antioxidant properties were assessed through various radical (DPPH, ABTS, and nitric oxide) scavenging assays and determination of total phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant power level. ARPE-19 cells were preincubated with samples before the addition of GO (to generate H2O2). Cell viability, change in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2 levels in cell culture supernatant, and gene expression were assessed.

    Results: F2 showed higher antioxidant levels than the extract when assessed for radical scavenging activities and ferric reducing antioxidant power. F2 protected the ARPE-19 cells against GO-H2O2-induced oxidative stress by reducing the production of H2O2 and intracellular reactive oxygen species. This was achieved by the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2/NFE2L2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2), as well as downregulation of nitric oxide producer (NOS2) at the transcriptional level.

    Conclusions: The results showed that myricetin derivatives from S. malaccense have the capacity to exert considerable exogenous antioxidant activities and stimulate endogenous antioxidant activities. Therefore, these derivatives have excellent potential to be developed as therapeutic agents for managing DR.

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