Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

  1. Yap HH
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc, 1986 Mar;2(1):63-7.
    PMID: 2906963
    Two soap formulations, both containing 20% deet and one each containing permethrin at 0.5 and 1.0%, respectively, were applied to exposed arms and legs of volunteers as personal protection against outdoor human biting mosquitoes in six locations on Penang Island, Malaysia. The predominant mosquito species collected from these locations were Aedes albopictus, Mansonia uniformis, Culex gelidus, Anopheles lesteri and Armigeres subalbatus. Efficacy and residual effects up to 4 hours indicated good protection against these species. Reduction in mosquito landing-biting rates in treated groups ranged from 83.8 to 100.0%. At high densities, small percentages of Ma. uniformis and An. lesteri landed or bit on treated skin. Use of the soap formulations in terms of cost-effectiveness, safety and overall vector control strategy for some tropical diseases is discussed.
  2. Yap HH
    PMID: 1226538
    An ovitrap survey was carried out in April and May of 1975 at twenty-one locations scattered throughout Penang Island excluding the City of Georgetown. The results showed the ubiquitous presence of Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti was recorded only in Tanjung Tokong Lama, an area adjacent to the City of Georgetown. In the survey, Ae. albopictus females were found to prefer the outdoor ovitraps than indoor ones. The effectiveness of ovitrap in Aedes survey was discussed.
  3. Yap HH, Hanapi S
    PMID: 67647
    Insecticides Abate, DDT, Dowco-214, Dursban, fenitrothion, fenthion, gamma-HCH, and malathion were tested against the field collected fourth instars larvae of Mansonia from Penang Island, Malaysia. The larvae appeared to be highly susceptible to Dursban and Abate with LC50 values of 1.54 and 1.92 parts per billion respectively. Other chemicals, in decreasing degree of effectiveness, were gamma-HCH, fenthion, P,P'-DDT, Dowco-214, fenithrothion and malathion. The potential use of these chemicals in Mansonia control was discussed. A simple method for collecting and testing Mansonia larvae was also described.
  4. Serit MA, Yap HH
    PMID: 6151744
    Comparative laboratory bioassays of Tolypocladium cylindrosporum, California strain (Kal) was conducted against third instar larvae of four species of mosquito, viz. Aedes aegypti, Anopheles balabacensis, Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia uniformis in Malaysia. Of the four mosquito species tested, Ma. uniformis was found to be the most susceptible, followed by Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. balabacensis and Ae. aegypti, in a decreasing order. The LC50 values for Ma. uniformis, Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. balabacensis and Ae. aegypti after four days of exposure were 1.18 X 10(4), 2.02 X 10(5), 4.76 X 10(5) and 1.84 X 10(7) spores per ml test media, respectively. The high sensitivity of Ma. uniformis and its longer life cycle seems to indicate that T. cylindrosporum Kal has good potential as a biocontrol agent for this species of mosquito. But, for Ae. aegypti, this fungus appears to be less effective.
  5. Cheong WC, Yap HH
    PMID: 4023816
    The pathogenicity of Bacillus sphaericus strain 1593 was tested against laboratory-reared larvae of four local species of mosquitoes of public health importance in Malaysia; Aedes aegypti, Anopheles balabacensis, Mansonia uniformis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The bacteria was shake-cultured at 28 +/- 1 degrees C for three days, using Glucose-Yeast Extract Salts medium. After which, the spores and vegetative cells were harvested and stored at 4 degrees C before use. Conditions for bioassays were mean temperature of 25 +/- 1 degrees C and relative humidity 65 +/- 5.0. Twenty third-instar larvae of each species were assayed in 90 ml of diluted spore solution. Each concentration and a control were replicated three times for each bioassay. Larval mortalities at 24 hours and 48 hours were taken and analyzed through Probit Analysis using a computer (IBM 370). LC50 values after 48 hours of exposure showed an increasing order of larval susceptibility as follows: Ae. aegypti (417.70 x 10(4)), An. balabacensis (45.84 x 10(4)), Ma. uniformis (18.23 x 10(4)) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (4.14 x 10(4) spores/ml). With the ability to kill 90% of the Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae tested with just a concentration of 10(5) spores/ml, B. sphaericus (strain 1593) has shown good potential as a biocontrol agent for this species of mosquito.
  6. Foo AE, Yap HH
    PMID: 6128794
    Comparative laboratory bioassays of three formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 (IPS-78, San 402-I and Bactimos) were conducted against late 3rd/early 4th instar larvae of four species of mosquito, viz., Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles balabacensis and Mansonia (Mansonioides) indiana, in Malaysia. From the average response of the mosquito larvae to the three formulations of B. thuringiensis H-14, Ae. aegypti was found to be most susceptible, followed by Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. balabacensis and M. (M.) indiana in decreasing order. The LC50 values for Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. balabacensis and M. (M.) indiana after a 48-hour exposure to IPS-78 formulation were 50.9, 129.3, 117.8 and 169.6 International Toxic Unit (ITU) Ae. ae./l; to San 402-I formulation were 54.6, 223.1, 405.1 and 177.6 ITU Ae. ae/l and to Bactimos formulation were 57.2, 175.7, 35.6 and 514.5 ITU Ae. ae./l respectively. The efficacy of the bacterial product was also found to be determined by its formulation in relation to the feeding and resting habits of the mosquito larvae. No delayed pupation or emergence was observed on the larvae exposed to B. thuringiensis H-14 at sub-lethal concentrations.
  7. Yap HH, Jahangir K, Zairi J
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc, 2000 Sep;16(3):241-4.
    PMID: 11081653
    Four insect repellent products (RPs) (RP 1, Experimental Repellent Lotion [Bayrepel 12%]; RP 2, Experimental Repellent Cream [Bayrepel 5%]; RP 3, Off! Insect Repellent II Aerosol [deet 15%]; and RP 4, Off! Skintastic II Cream [deet 7.5%]) were evaluated simultaneously for their efficacy against vector and nuisance mosquitoes. The aim of this study was to compare the relative efficacy of RPs based on a new repellent compound, Bayrepel (1-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-methylpropylester), with deet (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide)-based RPs. An 8-h field efficacy of above repellents was evaluated against the day-biting mosquito (Aedes albopictus) and night-biting mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles spp.). Evaluation was carried out by exposing humans with repellent-treated bare limbs to mosquitoes landing and to mosquitoes landing and biting. Repellent product 1 or 2 was applied on the left arm and leg, whereas RP 3 or 4 was applied on the right arm and leg, respectively. Application of these 4 RPs significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the landing and the landing and biting of day-biting and night-biting mosquitoes. All 4 RPs were found to be equally effective (P < 0.05) against Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, for protection against Anopheles spp., RPs 1 and 3 exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) better repellency effect than RPs 2 and 4.
  8. Yap HH, Ho SC
    PMID: 70078
    Emulsifiable concentrates of DursbanR (chlorpyrifos) and Dowco 214 (chlorpyrifos-methyl) were tested as mosquito larvicides using Hudson knapsack sprayers on small plots of rice-fields on Penang Island. The mosquitoes found in these rice-fields are predominantly Anopheles campestris and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. At dosages of 14, 28 and 56 gm hectare-1, Dursban is effective in maintaining the rice-fields free of Anopheles larvae for at least 2, 3 and 7 days respectively. Dowco 214 at 56 gm hectare-1 is able to keep the fields free of all mosquito larvae for at least 2 days.
  9. Yap HH, Lau BL, Leong YP
    PMID: 6189198
    The toxic effects of Abate (temephos) on mosquito larvae and non-target organisms were studied in the rice-field and in the laboratory. In the laboratory tests, Culex tritaeniorhychus larvae and cladoceran zooplanktons (predominantly Diaphanosoma and Moinodaphnia species) were found to be highly susceptible to Abate with LC50 values of 0.27 and less than 0.10 parts per billion respectively. Other non-target species in decreasing degree of susceptibility to Abate were copepods (Tropodiaptomus spp.), Aplocheilus panchax and Tubifex worms. In field study, Abate at concentrations 60, 100 and 200 gm hectare-1 is effective in maintaining the rice-fields free of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes for at least 2 days. No mortality was observed for Aplocheilus panchax and Tubifex worms at the above concentrations; nevertheless, populations of cladoceran zooplanktons and copepods were reduced up to seven days posttreatment.
  10. Loong KP, Chiang GL, Yap HH
    PMID: 2633349
    Susceptibility tests were carried between 1987-1989 on Anopheles maculatus female adults collected from twelve different localities in Peninsular Malaysia to DDT. Mosquitoes collected from all localities except those from Kuala Berang, Trengganu state were found to be susceptible to DDT when tested with 4% impregnated paper. Several factors contributing to the lack of development of resistance despite many years of residual spraying in Peninsular Malaysia include exophily, exophagic and excito-repellency behaviour of An. maculatus and the inadequate spraying coverage of houses.
  11. Yap HH, Lee YW, Zairi J
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc, 2002 Mar;18(1):52-6.
    PMID: 11998931
    Bioefficacy of thermal fogging application of 2 Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis formulations, Vectobac ABG 6511 water-dispersible granules (3,000 international toxic unit [ITU]/mg) and Vectobac 12AS liquid (1,200 ITU/mg), was assessed for larvicidal activities against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles dirus, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Portable Agrofog AF35 sprayers were used to apply the 2 formulations indoors in residential premises on Penang Island, Malaysia. Vectobac ABG 6511 showed good larvicidal effect against all 4 mosquito species at 3 of the higher doses tested (2.91 x 10(9), 1.45 x 10(9), and 0.71 x 10(9) ITU/ha), with more than 96% mortality at 48 h after spraying. As a comparative formulation, Vectobac 12AS also showed good larvicidal activity against all 4 mosquito species at 2 of the higher doses tested (2.87 x 10(9) and 1.46 x 10(9) ITU/ha), with more than 92.5% mortality at 48 h after spraying. Larvae of An. dirus were significantly more susceptible to both water-based Vectobac formulations when compared to the other 3 mosquito species. Both microbial formulations showed better efficacy at higher doses. However, even at the lowest dose tested, Vectobac ABG 6511 and Vectobac 12AS (both at 0.36 x 10(9) ITU/ha) showed larvicidal properties, with more than 66% mortality at 48 h after spraying. Overall, for this bacterial agent, the water-dispersible granule formulation has better prospects than the liquid formulation for the control of larvae of vector mosquitoes.
  12. Yap HH, Chong NL, Foo AE, Lee CY
    Gaoxiong Yi Xue Ke Xue Za Zhi, 1994 Dec;10 Suppl:S102-8.
    PMID: 7844836
    Dengue Fever (DF) and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) have been the most common urban diseases in Southeast Asia since the 1950s. More recently, the diseases have spread to Central and South America and are now considered as worldwide diseases. Both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are involved in the transmission of DF/DHF in Southeast Asian region. The paper discusses the present status and future prospects of Aedes control with reference to the Malaysian experience. Vector control approaches which include source reduction and environmental management, larviciding with the use of chemicals (synthetic insecticides and insect growth regulators and microbial insecticide), and adulticiding which include personal protection measures (household insecticide products and repellents) for long-term control and space spray (both thermal fogging and ultra low volume sprays) as short-term epidemic measures are discussed. The potential incorporation of IGRs and Bacillus thuringiensis-14 (Bti) as larvicides in addition to insecticides (temephos) is discussed. The advantages of using water-based spray over the oil-based (diesel) spray and the use of spray formulation which provide both larvicidal and adulticidal effects that would consequently have greater impact on the overall vector and disease control in DF/DHF are highlighted.
  13. Yap HH, Chong NL, Lee CY, Koay CA
    PMID: 9322312
    The residual efficacy of a relatively new pyrethroid, betacyfluthrin was compared with DDT against Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann in some village houses in Penang, Malaysia, for a period of 30 weeks. Efficacy was determined by exposing laboratory-cultured An. sinensis mosquitos to treated wall surfaces with either betacyfluthrin at 15 and 25 mg/m2 or DDT at 2,000 mg/m2 for one hour. Betacyfluthrin provided a longer residual effect (up to 210 days with > 70% mortality) compared with DDT. The potential of betacyfluthrin as a candidate for residual spraying for malaria control is discussed.
  14. Lee YW, Zairi J, Yap HH, Adanan CR
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc, 2005 Mar;21(1):84-9.
    PMID: 15825767
    Studies were carried out on the bioefficacy and residual activity of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis H-14 (Bti) (water-dispersible granules of VectoBac ABG 6511 and liquid formulations of VectoBac 12AS) and pyriproxyfen (insect growth regulator, Sumilarv 0.5%) as direct applications for control of larvae of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Two dosages of each Bti formulation (285 and 570 international toxic units [ITU]/liter) and the integration of both Bti formulations and pyriproxyfen were used for residual tests with 45-liter earthen jars for a period of 4 wk. In 1 test series, the treated water was replenished daily with 6 liters of seasoned untreated water. In the 2nd test series, the water in the jars was topped up to the 40-liter level during evaluation. Neither Bti formulation remained effective for a full week. Water-dispersible Bti granules provided effective initial control activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for both test designs (with replenishment and without replenishment of water). The higher dosage (570 ITU/liter) for both Bti formulations was only partially effective at the end of 1 wk after being diluted. After 1 wk, water-dispersible Bti granules provided greater larval mortality than did liquid Bti formulation against both mosquito species when integrated with pyriproxyfen. Pyriproxyfen (79.5 and 159 mg/liter) on its own showed low larvicidal activity but provided very effective control of adult emergence. In this study, integration of Bti (285 and 570 ITU/liter) with pyriproxyfen (79.5 mg/liter) extended the duration of partial larval control somewhat, but live larvae persisted throughout the 4-wk test. The integration effect was more obvious when water-dispersible Bti granules were integrated with pyriproxyfen than when liquid Bti was used. Integration of Bti with pyriproxyfen had a negative effect on adult emergence, which was completely inhibited by pyriproxyfen after day 1. Daily replenishment of water increased Bti activity and provided slightly better larval control. Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti were both completely susceptible to the higher concentration of Bti and pyriproxyfen in both test designs (with replenishment and without replenishment of water).
  15. Yap HH, Lee YW, Zairi J, Jahangir K, Adanan CR
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc, 2001 Mar;17(1):28-32.
    PMID: 11345415
    Indoor bioefficacy of the thermal fogging application of Pesguard FG 161, a formulation containing both knockdown and killing agents (active ingredient [AI]: d-tetramethrin 4% [w/w] and cyphenothrin 12% [w/w]) was compared with Resigen5 (AI: s-bioallethrin 0.8% [w/w], permethrin 125/75] 18.7% [w/w], and piperonyl butoxide 16.8% [w/w]), another pyrethroid formulation, as larvicides and adulticides against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus using a portable Agrofog AF35 sprayer indoors in houses on Penang Island, Malaysia. Pesguard FG 161 at the concentrations tested was effective against all 4 mosquito species tested. The water-based Pesguard FG 161 performed far better as a larvicide than the diesel-based formulation. Resigen was also effective as a larvicide and adulticide against all 4 mosquito species tested. Larvae of Ae. aegypti were most susceptible to water-based Pesguard FG 161, followed by Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. sinensis, and Ae. albopictus. Even at the lowest concentrations tested, Pesguard FG 161 showed adequate adulticidal properties. At higher dosages, water-based Pesguard FG 161 proved effective as a larvicide against all 4 mosquito species.
  16. Yap HH, Tan HT, Yahaya AM, Baba R, Chong NL
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc, 1991 Mar;7(1):24-9.
    PMID: 1675256
    Five formulations of Bacillus sphaericus (strain 2362) including aqueous suspension BSP 1, BSP 2, technical powder ABG 6184, corncob granules ABG 6185 (potencies 2 x 10(10), 2 x 10(7), 9.5 x 10(10), 5 x 10(10), 5 x 10(10) spore/g, respectively) and wettable powder ABG 6232 (1,000 BS ITU/mg) were tested against laboratory-cultured late third/early fourth instar larvae of Mansonia uniformis in floating screened cages in small plots at swampy ditches on Penang Island, Malaysia. Mean dosage/response values at 90% mortality levels were 6.93, 95.32, 1.45, 11.92 and 2.86 liters or kg per ha, respectively, for the formulations tested. There were practically no residual effects for the formulations tested with larvae introduced at 48, 96, and 168 h post-treatment. In trials of BSP 1, ABG 6184 and ABG 6185 (1 liter or 1 kg per ha) against immature Mansonia spp. in impounded paddy field ditches, improved efficacy and residual effects were obtained with mean reductions of 93.1, 91.9 and 80.4% at days 3, 7 and 14 posttreatment, respectively.
  17. Lee CY, Hemingway J, Yap HH, Chong NL
    Med Vet Entomol, 2000 Mar;14(1):11-8.
    PMID: 10759307
    The possible insecticide resistance mechanisms of four Malaysian field-collected strains of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (Linnaeus) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae), were characterized with biochemical assays and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Elevated esterase activity (at low to moderate frequency) and altered acetylcholinesterase (low frequency) were detected in all field strains, while elevated glutathione S-transferase levels were present in only two strains. Seven esterase bands were separated by native PAGE; a greater intensity occurred in three bands in the resistant strains compared to the susceptible strain. Inhibition studies using specific inhibitors on polyacrylamide gels suggested that the slowest of these three esterases is a cholinesterase, while the other two are carboxylesterases with a preference for beta- over alpha-naphthyl acetate.
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