The toxic effects of Abate (temephos) on mosquito larvae and non-target organisms were studied in the rice-field and in the laboratory. In the laboratory tests, Culex tritaeniorhychus larvae and cladoceran zooplanktons (predominantly Diaphanosoma and Moinodaphnia species) were found to be highly susceptible to Abate with LC50 values of 0.27 and less than 0.10 parts per billion respectively. Other non-target species in decreasing degree of susceptibility to Abate were copepods (Tropodiaptomus spp.), Aplocheilus panchax and Tubifex worms. In field study, Abate at concentrations 60, 100 and 200 gm hectare-1 is effective in maintaining the rice-fields free of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes for at least 2 days. No mortality was observed for Aplocheilus panchax and Tubifex worms at the above concentrations; nevertheless, populations of cladoceran zooplanktons and copepods were reduced up to seven days posttreatment.
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