Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 25 in total

  1. Cheng FY
    Bull World Health Organ, 1968;38(3):469-77.
    PMID: 5302337
    In certain areas of Sabah, East Malaysia, local houses are frequently built without walls or with incomplete walls. Also, the people in these areas often refuse permission for their houses to be sprayed inside with insecticide (DDT). These special conditions are the reason for the persistence of malaria transmission under a WHO malaria eradication programme.Field trials were conducted in specially constructed huts, similar to the local houses, in which all-night collections of mosquitos were made, both those biting human baits and those resting on walls, in order to determine (1) the effectiveness of spraying DDT in houses without, or with incomplete, walls; and (2) the best way to protect people against mosquito bites with DDT-spraying where the house-owners have refused indoor spraying.The results indicate that (1) as expected, DDT-spraying inside a hut with incomplete walls is less effective than in a hut with complete walls, especially 6 months or more after spraying; (2) external spraying of walls with DDT at double the normal dose (i.e., 4 g/m(2)) greatly reduced contacts between man and mosquito and thereby limited transmission of malaria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/drug effects
  2. Chand G, Behera P, Bang A, Singh N
    Pathog Glob Health, 2017 Oct;111(7):362-366.
    PMID: 28971738 DOI: 10.1080/20477724.2017.1378836
    An. culicifacies is the major vector of malaria in tribal community and tribal dominated areas in India. Development of resistance to insecticides is the major challenge to curb the transmission. Gadchiroli (Maharashtra) is a tribal district in central India where incidence of malaria increased from 2012 to 2015 despite indoor space spray with synthetic pyrethroids. To determine the susceptibility status of An. culicifacies against commonly used insecticides in public health program in Gadchiroli. standard WHO method and test kit were used. The insecticide impregnated papers were procured from vector control unit Malaysia. An. culicifacies found resistance to three major groups of pesticides i.e. organochlorine (DDT 4%), organophosphorous (Malathion 5%) and pyrethroids (Cyfluthrin 0.15%, Deltametherin 0.05% and Lambdacyhalothrin 0.05%). The susceptibility status in Permethrin 0.75% needs further confirmation. Development of resistance to different insecticides of varied groups is an adverse finding for the elimination of malaria, explaining the recent increase in malaria incidence in Gadchiroli. The phenomenon further needs to be studied in different locations and the susceptibility needs to test against other insecticides. The findings may have significant implications to the choice of insecticides in the malaria control program in tribal areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/drug effects*
  3. Elamathi N, Barik TK, Verma V, Velamuri PS, Bhatt RM, Sharma SK, et al.
    Parasitol Res, 2014 Oct;113(10):3859-66.
    PMID: 25098343 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-014-4054-y
    The WHO adult susceptibility test is in use for insecticide resistance monitoring. Presently, materials are being imported from the Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia and sometimes it is cost prohibitive. As an alternative, we present here a method of bottle bioassay using indigenous material. Different aspects related to the assay were studied and validated in the field. Bottle assay was standardized in the laboratory by using locally sourced material and laboratory-maintained insecticide-susceptible Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti strains against technical grade deltamethrin and cyfluthrin insecticides dissolved in ethanol in a range of different concentrations. The frequency of use of the deltamethrin-coated bottles and shelf-life were determined. Discriminating dose for deltamethrin and cyfluthrin was 10 μg against An. stephensi and 2 μg against Ae. aegypti females. Insecticide-coated bottles stored at 25 to 35 °C can be used for three exposures within 7 days of coating. The study carried out in the laboratory was validated on wild caught An. culicifacies in the states of Odisha and Chhattisgarh against deltamethrin-coated bottles in comparison to WHO adult susceptibility test. Results of the study indicated that deltamethrin-coated bottles were effective up to three exposures within 7 days of coating for field population and 100% mortality was recorded within 35 min as observed in laboratory studies for field collected susceptible population. Also in the WHO adult susceptibility test, 100% knock-down within 35 min and 100% mortality after 24 h holding period were observed in susceptible population, while in it was 50% knock-down in 1 h and 64% mortality after 24 h holding period for resistant population (50% mortality in bottle assay in 60 min). The bottle assay can be used as an alternative to the WHO adult susceptibility test both in the laboratory and field for monitoring insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors using locally sourced material.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/drug effects*
  4. Bashir A, Hassan AA, Salmah MR, Rahman WA
    PMID: 18564706
    The efficacy of the larvicidal and pupicidal agent (Agnique) MMF was evaluated against larvae of An. arabiensis and Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) under field conditions in Bahary Locality, Khartoum, Sudan. At an applied dosage of 0.25 ml/m2, MMF resulted in 89.4, 79.8 and 88.2% reductions in L3-L4 instars An. arabiensis and 63.5% in Culex larvae (all stages) 24 to 72 hours post-treatment. Pupae were completely eliminated (100%) within 24 hours posttreatment. The earlier instars (L1-L2) of An. arabiensis were more tolerant with a 62.5% reduction at 72 hours post-treatment compared to (L3-L4) instars and pupae. At 7-days post-treatment Agnique gave a 57.5% reduction in L1-L2 and 92.6% in L3-L4 instar larvae of An. arabiensis and 57.3% and 86.4% in Culex larvae and pupae, respectively. We conclude that Agnique can perform effectively against L3-L4 instars and pupae of An. arabiensis for only 1 week, and 3 to 4 days against L1-L2 instars of Culex spp.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/drug effects*
  5. Singh RK, Haq S, Kumar G, Dhiman RC
    J Commun Dis, 2013 Mar-Jun;45(1-2):1-16.
    PMID: 25141549
    Anopheles annularis is widely distributed mosquito species all over the country. An. annularis has been incriminated as a malaria vector in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Indonesia, Malaysia and China. In India, it has been reported to play an important role in malaria transmission as a secondary vector in certain parts of Assam, West Bengal and U.P. In Odisha and some neighbouring countries such as Sri Lanka, Nepal and Myanmar it has been recognised as a primary vector of malaria. This is a species complex of two sibling species A and B but the role of these sibling species in malaria transmission is not clearly known. An. annularis is resistant to DDT and dieldrin/HCH and susceptible to malathion and synthetic pyrethorides in most of the parts of India. In view of rapid change in ecological conditions, further studies are required on the bionomics of An. annularis and its role in malaria transmission in other parts of the country. Considering the importance of An. annularis as a malaria vector, the bionomics and its role in malaria transmission has been reviewed in this paper. In this communication, an attempt has been made to review its bionomics and its role as malaria vector. An. annularis is a competent vector of malaria, thus, due attention should be paid for its control under the vector control programmes specially in border states where it is playing a primary role in malaria transmission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/drug effects
  6. Nicolas L, Charles JF, de Barjac H
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 1993 Oct 01;113(1):23-8.
    PMID: 8243978
    The toxicity of Clostridium bifermentans serovar malaysia to mosquito larvae is due to protein toxins, belonging to a novel class of insecticidal toxins. Toxic extracts contains three major proteins of 66, 18 and 16 kDa. The 18-kDa and 16-kDa proteins are probably involved in toxicity. They are synthesised during sporulation, concomitant with activity. They are absent from non-toxic strains of C. bifermentans and are present at very low levels in non-toxic C. bifermentans serovar malaysia cultures produced at 42 degrees C. The 66-kDa protein is present throughout the growth phases of C. bifermentans serovar malaysia, and an immunologically related 66-kDa protein is present in non-toxic C. bifermentans strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/drug effects*
  7. Hii JL
    PMID: 6740370
    Susceptibilities of two colonies of the taxon An. dirus (one from Perlis and from Thailand) and one colony of An. balabacensis from Sabah to DDT, dieldrin, malathion, fenitrothion and propoxur were determined. DDT and fenitrothion tolerance was found in An. dirus species B and An. balabacensis. No resistant strain was isolated as the two colonies were not either homozygous or nearly so for resistance. Field testing of the susceptibility of the adults of An. balabacensis to DDT was carried out between 1957 to 1976. The results indicated a progressive rise in the LC50 levels greater than 1% in almost all instance. The variation in the number of sprays applied in some districts have resulted in varying sensitivities. Association between the changes in levels of DDT susceptibility and exophilic habit of An. balabacensis has been observed but needs further confirmation. The significance of these findings and the difficulties in distinguishing tolerant from truly resistant individuals are discussed in relation to accurate species identification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/drug effects
  8. Yap HH, Lau BL, Leong YP
    PMID: 6189198
    The toxic effects of Abate (temephos) on mosquito larvae and non-target organisms were studied in the rice-field and in the laboratory. In the laboratory tests, Culex tritaeniorhychus larvae and cladoceran zooplanktons (predominantly Diaphanosoma and Moinodaphnia species) were found to be highly susceptible to Abate with LC50 values of 0.27 and less than 0.10 parts per billion respectively. Other non-target species in decreasing degree of susceptibility to Abate were copepods (Tropodiaptomus spp.), Aplocheilus panchax and Tubifex worms. In field study, Abate at concentrations 60, 100 and 200 gm hectare-1 is effective in maintaining the rice-fields free of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes for at least 2 days. No mortality was observed for Aplocheilus panchax and Tubifex worms at the above concentrations; nevertheless, populations of cladoceran zooplanktons and copepods were reduced up to seven days posttreatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/drug effects
  9. Contreras E, Masuyer G, Qureshi N, Chawla S, Dhillon HS, Lee HL, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2019 06 28;10(1):2869.
    PMID: 31253776 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-10732-w
    Clostridial neurotoxins, including tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins, generally target vertebrates. We show here that this family of toxins has a much broader host spectrum, by identifying PMP1, a clostridial-like neurotoxin that selectively targets anopheline mosquitoes. Isolation of PMP1 from Paraclostridium bifermentans strains collected in anopheline endemic areas on two continents indicates it is widely distributed. The toxin likely evolved from an ancestral form that targets the nervous system of similar organisms, using a common mechanism that disrupts SNARE-mediated exocytosis. It cleaves the mosquito syntaxin and employs a unique receptor recognition strategy. Our research has an important impact on the study of the evolution of clostridial neurotoxins and provides the basis for the use of P. bifermentans strains and PMP1 as innovative, environmentally friendly approaches to reduce malaria through anopheline control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/drug effects*
  10. Ho LY, Zairi J
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Mar;30(1):125-30.
    PMID: 23665718 MyJurnal
    A 14-months survey was carried out to identify the species composition of Anopheles mosquitoes from Kampung Bongor, Grik, Perak. Adding to that, a preliminary one month mosquito population screening was done at Kampung Tepin, Serian, Sarawak. Consequently, the insecticide susceptibility status of a pyrethroid was tested against two selected species of Anopheles collected from these two locations in Malaysia. A total of 4,497 Anopheles from 11 species were identified from collections in Kampung Bongor, whereas 2,654 An. letifer were collected from Kampung Tepin. The An. maculatus of Kampung Bongor and An. letifer of Kampung Tepin were then selected and tested using WHO standard diagnostic test kits and impregnated papers with 0.75% permethrin. The response values of KT50 and KT95 for An. maculatus were recorded at 28.09 minutes and 62.98 minutes respectively. Anopheles letifer recorded much slower response values of KT50 and KT95, which was at 35.09 minutes and 73.03 minutes respectively. Both An. maculatus and An. letifer showed 100% mortality after 24 hours holding period. The results indicate that both species were still susceptible to the tested pyrethroid. For effective vector control and resistance management, accurate and periodic insecticide resistance monitoring should be undertaken especially in rural areas with agricultural usage of insecticides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/drug effects*
  11. Qureshi N, Chawla S, Likitvivatanavong S, Lee HL, Gill SS
    Appl Environ Microbiol, 2014 Sep;80(18):5689-97.
    PMID: 25002432 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01139-14
    The management and control of mosquito vectors of human disease currently rely primarily on chemical insecticides. However, larvicidal treatments can be effective, and if based on biological insecticides, they can also ameliorate the risk posed to human health by chemical insecticides. The aerobic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus have been used for vector control for a number of decades. But a more cost-effective use would be an anaerobic bacterium because of the ease with which these can be cultured. More recently, the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium bifermentans subsp. malaysia has been reported to have high mosquitocidal activity, and a number of proteins were identified as potentially mosquitocidal. However, the cloned proteins showed no mosquitocidal activity. We show here that four toxins encoded by the Cry operon, Cry16A, Cry17A, Cbm17.1, and Cbm17.2, are all required for toxicity, and these toxins collectively show remarkable selectivity for Aedes rather than Anopheles mosquitoes, even though C. bifermentans subsp. malaysia is more toxic to Anopheles. Hence, toxins that target Anopheles are different from those expressed by the Cry operon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/drug effects
  12. Vythilingam I, Foo LC, Chiang GL, Chan ST, Eng KL, Mahadevan S, et al.
    PMID: 8629075
    The effect of permethrin impregnated bednets on Anopheles maculatus Theobald was studied in four villages in Pos Betau, Pahang, Malaysia from August 1990 to July 1992. Collections of mosquitos were carried out indoors and outdoors from 1900 to 0700 hours. All mosquitos were dissected for sporozoites and parity. In May 1991 two villages received bednets impregnated with permethrin at 0.5 g/m2 and two villages received placebo bednets. There was a significant difference in the sporozoite and parous rates between the treated and control villages after the distribution of bednets (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the bites/man/night of An. maculatus between the pre and post treatment periods in the control villages. However there was a significant difference in bites/man/night between pre and post treatment in the treated villages (p < 0.001).
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/drug effects*
  13. Rohani A, Aziz I, Zurainee MN, Rohana SH, Zamree I, Lee HL
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Mar;31(1):159-65.
    PMID: 24862056 MyJurnal
    Chemical insecticides are still considered as important control agents for malaria vector control. However, prolonged use of these chemicals may select mosquito vectors for resistance. In this study, susceptibility status of adult Anopheles maculatus collected from 9 localities in peninsular Malaysia, viz., Jeli, Temerloh, Pos Banun, Senderut, Jeram Kedah, Segamat, Kota Tinggi, Kluang and Pos Lenjang were determined using the standard WHO bioassay method in which the adult mosquitoes were exposed to standard insecticide impregnated papers malathion, permethrin, DDT and deltamethrin--at pre-determined diagnostic dosage. Deltamethrin was most effective insecticide among the four insecticides tested, with the LT50 of 29.53 min, compared to malathion (31.67 min), DDT (47.76 min) and permethrin (48.01 min). The effect of all insecticides on the laboratory strain was greater (with all insecticides demonstrated LT50 < 1 hour) than the field strains (deltamethrin 32.7, malathion 53.0, permethrin 62.0, DDT 67.4 min). An. maculatus exhibited low degree of resistance to all test insecticides, indicating that these chemical insecticides are still effective in the control of malaria vector.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/drug effects*
  14. Abu Hasan Z', Williams H, Ismail NM, Othman H, Cozier GE, Acharya KR, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 03 27;7:45409.
    PMID: 28345667 DOI: 10.1038/srep45409
    The control of mosquitoes is threatened by the appearance of insecticide resistance and therefore new control chemicals are urgently required. Here we show that inhibitors of mosquito peptidyl dipeptidase, a peptidase related to mammalian angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), are insecticidal to larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae. ACE inhibitors (captopril, fosinopril and fosinoprilat) and two peptides (trypsin-modulating oostatic factor/TMOF and a bradykinin-potentiating peptide, BPP-12b) were all inhibitors of the larval ACE activity of both mosquitoes. Two inhibitors, captopril and fosinopril (a pro-drug ester of fosinoprilat), were tested for larvicidal activity. Within 24 h captopril had killed >90% of the early instars of both species with 3rd instars showing greater resistance. Mortality was also high within 24 h of exposure of 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars of An. gambiae to fosinopril. Fosinopril was also toxic to Ae. aegypti larvae, although the 1st instars appeared to be less susceptible to this pro-drug even after 72 h exposure. Homology models of the larval An. gambiae ACE proteins (AnoACE2 and AnoACE3) reveal structural differences compared to human ACE, suggesting that structure-based drug design offers a fruitful approach to the development of selective inhibitors of mosquito ACE enzymes as novel larvicides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/drug effects*
  15. Murugan K, Wei J, Alsalhi MS, Nicoletti M, Paulpandi M, Samidoss CM, et al.
    Parasitol Res, 2017 Feb;116(2):495-502.
    PMID: 27815736 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-016-5310-0
    A main challenge in parasitology is the development of reliable tools to prevent or treat mosquito-borne diseases. We investigated the toxicity of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) produced by Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense (strain MSR-1) on chloroquine-resistant (CQ-r) and sensitive (CQ-s) Plasmodium falciparum, dengue virus (DEN-2), and two of their main vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti, respectively. MNP were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. They were toxic to larvae and pupae of An. stephensi, LC50 ranged from 2.563 ppm (1st instar larva) to 6.430 ppm (pupa), and Ae. aegypti, LC50 ranged from 3.231 ppm (1st instar larva) to 7.545 ppm (pupa). MNP IC50 on P. falciparum were 83.32 μg ml(-1) (CQ-s) and 87.47 μg ml(-1) (CQ-r). However, the in vivo efficacy of MNP on Plasmodium berghei was low if compared to CQ-based treatments. Moderate cytotoxicity was detected on Vero cells post-treatment with MNP doses lower than 4 μg ml(-1). MNP evaluated at 2-8 μg ml(-1) inhibited DEN-2 replication inhibiting the expression of the envelope (E) protein. In conclusion, our findings represent the first report about the use of MNP in medical and veterinary entomology, proposing them as suitable materials to develop reliable tools to combat mosquito-borne diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/drug effects
  16. Rohani A, Fakhriy HA, Suzilah I, Zurainee MN, Najdah WMAW, Ariffin MM, et al.
    PLoS One, 2020;15(5):e0230860.
    PMID: 32413033 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0230860
    Since 2000, human malaria cases in Malaysia were rapidly reduced with the use of insecticides in Indoor Residual Spray (IRS) and Long-Lasting Insecticide Net (LLIN). Unfortunately, monkey malaria in humans has shown an increase especially in Sabah and Sarawak. The insecticide currently used in IRS is deltamethrin K-Othrine® WG 250 wettable granule, targeting mosquitoes that rest and feed indoor. In Sabah, the primary vector for knowlesi malaria is An. balabacensis a species known to bite outdoor. This study evaluates an alternative method, the Outdoor Residual Spray (ORS) using a novel formulation of deltamethrin K-Othrine® (PolyZone) to examine it suitability to control knowlesi malaria vector in Sabah, compared to the current method. The study was performed at seven villages in Sabah having similar type of houses (wood, bamboo and concrete). Houses were sprayed with deltamethrin K-Othrine® (PolyZone) at two different dosages, 25 mg/m2 and 30 mg/m2 and deltamethrin K-Othrine® WG 250 wettable granule at 25 mg/m2, sprayed indoor and outdoor. Residual activity on different walls was assessed using standard cone bioassay techniques. For larval surveillances, potential breeding sites were surveyed. Larvae were collected and identified, pre and post spraying. Adult survey was done using Human Landing Catch (HLC) performed outdoor and indoor. Detection of malaria parasite in adults was conducted via microscopy and molecular methods. Deltamethrin K-Othrine® (PolyZone) showed higher efficacy when sprayed outdoor. The efficacy was found varied when sprayed on different types of wall surfaces. Deltamethrin K-Othrine® (PolyZone) at 25 mg/m2 was the most effective with regards to ability to high mortality and effective knock down (KD). The vector population was reduced significantly post-spraying and reduction in breeding sites as well. The number of simian malaria infected vector, human and simian malaria transmission were also greatly reduced.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/drug effects*
  17. Ismail BA, Kafy HT, Sulieman JE, Subramaniam K, Thomas B, Mnzava A, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2018 03 02;11(1):122.
    PMID: 29499751 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-018-2732-9
    BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) (with pyrethroids) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the cornerstones of the Sudanese malaria control program. Insecticide resistance to the principal insecticides in LLINs and IRS is a major concern. This study was designed to monitor insecticide resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from 140 clusters in four malaria-endemic areas of Sudan from 2011 to 2014. All clusters received LLINs, while half (n = 70), distributed across the four regions, had additional IRS campaigns.

    METHODS: Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) mosquitoes were identified to species level using PCR techniques. Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility bioassays were carried out to detect resistance to deltamethrin (0.05%), DDT (4%) and bendiocarb (0.1%). TaqMan assays were performed on random samples of deltamethrin-resistant phenotyped and pyrethrum spray collected individuals to determine Vgsc-1014 knockdown resistance mutations.

    RESULTS: Anopheles arabiensis accounted for 99.9% of any anopheline species collected across all sites. Bioassay screening indicated that mosquitoes remained susceptible to bendiocarb but were resistance to deltamethrin and DDT in all areas. There were significant increases in deltamethrin resistance over the four years, with overall mean percent mortality to deltamethrin declining from 81.0% (95% CI: 77.6-84.3%) in 2011 to 47.7% (95% CI: 43.5-51.8%) in 2014. The rate of increase in phenotypic deltamethrin-resistance was significantly slower in the LLIN + IRS arm than in the LLIN-only arm (Odds ratio 1.34; 95% CI: 1.02-1.77). The frequency of Vgsc-1014F mutation varied spatiotemporally with highest frequencies in Galabat (range 0.375-0.616) and New Halfa (range 0.241-0.447). Deltamethrin phenotypic-resistance correlated with Vgsc-1014F frequency.

    CONCLUSION: Combining LLIN and IRS, with different classes of insecticide, may delay pyrethroid resistance development, but the speed at which resistance develops may be area-specific. Continued monitoring is vital to ensure optimal management and control.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/drug effects*
  18. Panneerselvam C, Murugan K, Roni M, Aziz AT, Suresh U, Rajaganesh R, et al.
    Parasitol Res, 2016 Mar;115(3):997-1013.
    PMID: 26612497 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-015-4828-x
    Malaria remains a major public health problem due to the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum strains resistant to chloroquine. There is an urgent need to investigate new and effective sources of antimalarial drugs. This research proposed a novel method of fern-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap plant extract of Pteridium aquilinum, acting as a reducing and capping agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Phytochemical analysis of P. aquilinum leaf extract revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, glycosides, steroids, and triterpenoids. LC/MS analysis identified at least 19 compounds, namely pterosin, hydroquinone, hydroxy-acetophenone, hydroxy-cinnamic acid, 5, 7-dihydroxy-4-methyl coumarin, trans-cinnamic acid, apiole, quercetin 3-glucoside, hydroxy-L-proline, hypaphorine, khellol glucoside, umbelliferose, violaxanthin, ergotamine tartrate, palmatine chloride, deacylgymnemic acid, methyl laurate, and palmitoyl acetate. In DPPH scavenging assays, the IC50 value of the P. aquilinum leaf extract was 10.04 μg/ml, while IC50 of BHT and rutin were 7.93 and 6.35 μg/ml. In mosquitocidal assays, LC50 of P. aquilinum leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi larvae and pupae were 220.44 ppm (larva I), 254.12 ppm (II), 302.32 ppm (III), 395.12 ppm (IV), and 502.20 ppm (pupa). LC50 of P. aquilinum-synthesized AgNP were 7.48 ppm (I), 10.68 ppm (II), 13.77 ppm (III), 18.45 ppm (IV), and 31.51 ppm (pupa). In the field, the application of P. aquilinum extract and AgNP (10 × LC50) led to 100 % larval reduction after 72 h. Both the P. aquilinum extract and AgNP reduced longevity and fecundity of An. stephensi adults. Smoke toxicity experiments conducted against An. stephensi adults showed that P. aquilinum leaf-, stem-, and root-based coils evoked mortality rates comparable to the permethrin-based positive control (57, 50, 41, and 49 %, respectively). Furthermore, the antiplasmodial activity of P. aquilinum leaf extract and green-synthesized AgNP was evaluated against CQ-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of P. falciparum. IC50 of P. aquilinum were 62.04 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 71.16 μg/ml (CQ-r); P. aquilinum-synthesized AgNP achieved IC50 of 78.12 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 88.34 μg/ml (CQ-r). Overall, our results highlighted that fern-synthesized AgNP could be candidated as a new tool against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum and different developmental instars of its primary vector An. stephensi. Further research on nanosynthesis routed by the LC/MS-identified constituents is ongoing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/drug effects
  19. Cheah SX, Tay JW, Chan LK, Jaal Z
    Parasitol Res, 2013 Sep;112(9):3275-82.
    PMID: 23835922 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-013-3506-0
    This study focuses on the larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of a crude extract of Artemisia annua against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Dried cells of Artemisia annua from cell suspension cultures were extracted using hexane. The extract showed moderate larvicidal effects against mosquitoes. At 24-h post treatment, the LC50 values for Anopheles sinensis, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were recorded as 244.55, 276.14, and 374.99 ppm, respectively. The percentage mortality of larvae was directly proportional to the tested concentration. Anopheles sinensis was found to be the most susceptible species, whereas Culex quinquefasciatus was the most tolerant to the Artemisia annua extract. The results indicated that the Artemisia annua extract showed concentration-dependent oviposition deterrent activity and had a strong deterrent effect. At 500 ppm, the percentage effective repellency was more than 85% compared with the control group for all the species, with oviposition activity index values of -0.94, -0.95, and -0.78 for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. In the ovicidal assay, the percentage hatchability of eggs after treatment with 500 ppm of Artemisia annua extract was significantly lower than the control, with values of 48.84 ± 4.08, 38.42 ± 3.67, and 79.35 ± 2.09% for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. Artemisia annua was found to be more effective against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles sinensis compared with Culex quinquefasciatus. This study indicated that crude extract of A. annua could be a potential alternative for use in vector management programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/drug effects*
  20. Rohani A, Zamree I, Lim LH, Rahini H, David L, Kamilan D
    PMID: 17333767
    The bioefficacy of indoor residual-sprayed deltamethrin wettable granule (WG) formulation at 25 mg a.i./m2 and 20 mg a.i./m2 for the control of malaria was compared with the current dose of 20 mg/m2 deltamethrin wettable powder (WP) in aboriginal settlements in Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia. The malaria vector has been previously identified as Anopheles maculatus. The assessment period for the 20 mg/m2 dosage was six months, but for the 25 mg/m2 dosage, the period was 9 months. Collections of mosquitoes using the bare-leg techniques were carried out indoors and outdoors from 7:00 PM to 7:00 AM. All mosquitoes were dissected for sporozoites and parity. Larval collections were carried out at various locations to assess the extent and distribution of breeding of vectors. A high incidence of human feeds was detected during May 2005 and a low incidence during January 2005 for all the study areas. Our study showed that deltamethrin WG at 25 mg/m2 suppressed An. maculatus biting activity. More An. maculatus were caught in outdoor landing catches than indoor landing catches for all the study areas. The results indicate that 25 mg/m2 WG is good for controlling malaria for up to 9 months. Where residual spraying is envisaged, the usual two spraying cycles per year with 20 mg/m2 deltamethrin may be replaced with 25 mg/m2 deltamethrin WG every 9 months.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/drug effects*
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