Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 707 in total

Abstract:
Sort:
  1. Lim CP, Md-Redzuan A, Lai YK, Borhanuddin B, Cheah FC
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 2017 10;46(10):395-398.
    PMID: 29177368
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug*
  2. Doi SA
    Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 1994 May;55(5):597-601.
    PMID: 8181204
    Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic information regarding warfarin is used to produce a predictive model based on the idea that pharmacodynamic variability is more important than pharmacokinetic variability in the overall dose-response variability to warfarin. A modification of the maximum effect model is tested on a group of patients initiating oral anticoagulation with warfarin. Results indicate that the model can account for at least half of the total variation in maintenance doses observed (sample coefficient of determination, 0.53) and offer the physician a framework for dose requirements at the onset of therapy. The basic prediction equation is as follows: Maintenance dose = (11/international normalized ratio)-1, with a coefficient of correlation of 0.73 (95% confidence limits, 0.46-0.88). Application of this model may improve on the traditional empiric approach to warfarin dose adjustment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  3. Tan GJ, Kwan TK
    Contraception, 1987 Sep;36(3):359-67.
    PMID: 3677679
    The effect of oxytocin on testicular function was examined in the adult male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). The monkeys were either infused with increasing concentrations of synthetic oxytocin (16-128 m.i.u./min for 3 h) or injected daily for a week with the same hormone (20 i.u., i.v.) and the plasma testosterone levels measured. The results of the present study show that acute infusion or chronic injection of oxytocin does not significantly affect the plasma testosterone levels, suggesting that systemic control of testicular endocrine function by oxytocin may be unimportant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  4. O'Holohan DR, Dondero TJ, Ponnampalam JT
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1973 Jun;27(4):310.
    PMID: 4270792
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  5. Shuhaimi-Othman M, Nur-Amalina R, Nadzifah Y
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:125785.
    PMID: 22666089 DOI: 10.1100/2012/125785
    Adult freshwater snails Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropod, Thiaridae) were exposed for a four-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), aluminium (Al), and manganese (Mn) concentrations. Mortality was assessed and median lethal times (LT₅₀) and concentrations (LC₅₀) were calculated. LT₅₀ and LC₅₀ increased with the decrease in mean exposure concentrations and times, respectively, for all metals. The LC(50) values for the 96-hour exposures to Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Al, and Mn were 0.14, 1.49, 3.90, 6.82, 8.46, 8.49, 68.23, and 45.59 mg L⁻¹, respectively. Cu was the most toxic metal to M. tuberculata, followed by Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Al (Cu > Cd > Zn > Pb > Ni > Fe > Mn > Al). Metals bioconcentration in M. tuberculata increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cu has the highest accumulation (concentration factor) in the soft tissues. A comparison of LC₅₀ values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater gastropods reveals that M. tuberculata is equally sensitive to metals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  6. Moneruzzaman Khandaker M, Nasrulhaq Boyce A, Osman N, Sharif Hossain A
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:728613.
    PMID: 22701370 DOI: 10.1100/2012/728613
    This study represents the first paper of the effects of growth regulators on the physiochemical and phytochemical properties of the wax apple fruit, a widely cultivated fruit tree in southeast Asia. Net photosynthesis, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity, peel color, fruit firmness, juice content, pH value, total soluble solids (TSSs), and the sugar acid ratio were all significantly increased in growth regulators (PGRs) treated fruits. The application of gibberellin (GA(3)), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) significantly reduced titratable acidity and increased total sugar and carbohydrate content compared to the control. The 50 mg/L GA₃, 10 mg/L NAA, and 5 mg/L 2,4-D treatments produced the greatest increases in phenol and flavonoid content; vitamin C content was also higher for these treatments. PGR treatment significantly affected chlorophyll, anthocyanin, and carotene content and produced higher phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity levels. There was a positive correlation between peel color and TSS and antioxidant activity and both phenol and flavonoid content and PAL activity and anthocyanin formation. A taste panel assessment was also performed, and the highest scores were given to fruits that had been treated with GA₃ or auxin. The study showed that application of 50 mg/L GA₃, 10 mg/L NAA, and 5 mg/L 2,4-D once a week from bud development to fruit maturation increased the physiochemical and phytochemical properties of wax apple fruits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  7. Gill JS, Pillai SK, Koh OH, Jambunathan ST
    Acta Neurol Belg, 2011 Jun;111(2):155-6.
    PMID: 21748939
    Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a sleep disorder of arousal. Compared to in adults, pediatric and adolescent sleep disorders is still under-researched and poorly described. We report the successful use of low dose quietiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, in the treatment of a 15-year-old Indian male who presented with significant somnambulism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of quetiapine for the treatment of somnambulism in the literature. The presence of high voltage delta waves in sleepwalkers has been offered as a possible explanation for the patho-physiology of sleepwalking Quetiapine has been reported to decrease brain delta activity, and we postulate that this may be the mechanism on how it was beneficial for our patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  8. Zakaria ZA, Mohamad AS, Ahmad MS, Mokhtar AF, Israf DA, Lajis NH, et al.
    Biol Res Nurs, 2011 Oct;13(4):425-32.
    PMID: 21112917 DOI: 10.1177/1099800410386590
    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been widely used for the treatment of inflammation. However, despite their effectiveness, most NSAIDs cause various side effects that negatively affect the management of inflammation and, in part, pain. Thus, there is a need to search for new anti-inflammatory agents with few, or no, side effects. Natural products of plant, animal, or microorganism origin have been good sources of new bioactive compounds. The present study was carried out to evaluate the acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil of the rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet (Zingiberaceae) using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma tests, respectively. The effect of the essential oil on inflammatory- and noninflammatory-mediated pain was also assessed using the formalin test. Essential oil of Z. zerumbet, at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, was administered intraperitoneally to rats. The substance exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity both in acute and chronic animal models. The essential oil also inhibited inflammatory- and noninflammatory-mediated pain when assessed using the formalin test. In conclusion, the essential oil of Z. zerumbet possessed anti-inflammatory activity, in addition to its antinociceptive activity, which may explain its traditional uses to treat inflammatory-related ailments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  9. Chuah TS, Loh JY, Hii YS
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2007 Nov;79(5):557-61.
    PMID: 17639329
    Acute and chronic effects of insecticide-endosulfan on the survival and reproduction performance of Moina macrocopa were determined in a laboratory study. Endosulfan concentrations that cause 50% mortality (LC50) after exposure for 24 and 48 h were 3.34 and 0.16 mg L(-1), respectively. Average longevity, initial age of reproduction and intrinsic rate of natural increase were reduced at 0.002 mg L(-1). Fecundity was greatly reduced by about 70% at 0.0004 mg L(-1) and approximately 97% at 0.002 mg L(-1) as compared to control organisms throughout the whole life span of 15 days. If environmental concentration of endosulfan do not exceed 0.0004 mg L(-1), application of this insecticide is unlikely to induce detrimental effects on these cladoceran populations in agro-ecosystem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  10. Zaizuhana S, Puteri J Noor MB, Noral'ashikin Y, Muhammad H, Rohana AB, Zakiah I
    Trop Biomed, 2006 Dec;23(2):214-9.
    PMID: 17322824 MyJurnal
    Kacip Fatimah also known as Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a traditional herbal medicine with a long history in the Malay community. It has been used by many generations of Malay women to induce and facilitate childbirth as well as a post-partum medicine. We tested the genotoxic potential of Kacip Fatimah in bone marrow cells obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats using micronuclei formation as the toxicological endpoints. Five groups of five male rats each were administered orally for two consecutive days with doses of 100, 700 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of Kacip Fatimah extract dissolved in distilled water. Micronucleus preparation was obtained from bone marrow cells of the animals following standard protocols. No statistically significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) was observed at any dose level and sacrifice/harvest time point (24, 48 and 72h). However, a significant decrease in polychromatic erythrocytes/normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE:NCE) ratio was observed from the highest dose level (2000 mg/kg of body weight) at 48h harvest time point. In this study, we investigated the effect of Kacip Fatimah on mammalian bone marrow cells using micronuclei formation to assess the genotoxicity of the herb.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  11. De Silva AE, Kadir MA, Aziz MA, Kadzimin S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2006 Feb 17;6:169-75.
    PMID: 16493521
    Differential effect of plant growth regulators and additives in proliferation of 18-month-old calli of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris were assessed in vitro. The proliferation of callus relied on the growth regulators and additives. Of the different auxins supplemented in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) media, 32.22 microM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) gave the highest mean fresh weight of callus (46.817 g). Medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was inferior to NAA, while b-naphthoxy acetic acid (BNOA) and p-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (4-CPA) were not effective in proliferating 18-months old callus. Addition of casein hydrolysate and coconut water to NAA supplemented medium showed better proliferation and production of callus. However, in terms of callus production, NAA at 32.22 microM was economically better.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  12. Kirton LG
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 2005 Oct;99(7):695-714.
    PMID: 16212803
    Citridiol is an extract of the leaves of Corymbia citriodora (Myrtaceae), the lemon eucalyptus, and mostly consists of p-menthane-3,8-diol isomers. The effectiveness of this extract as a repellent against land leeches of the genus Haemadipsa (Haemadipsidae), primarily H. sylvestris, was tested in the laboratory and field, in Peninsular Malaysia. The formulation tested, Mosi-guard Natural spray, contained 40% (w/w) Citridiol in a base of ethanol, water and isopropanol. In the laboratory test, specimens of H. sylvestris that were placed within moist, untreated arenas enclosed by treated paper rings made numerous attempts to cross the rings but were prevented or delayed from crossing over, in a dose-dependent manner. Mortality was high among the leeches that attempted to cross over the paper rings that had been sprayed to saturation point but low among the leeches that attempted to cross over paper rings that had only been partially treated, with a droplet-spray. The field study was carried out using indices that were formulated to reflect the severity of leech attack and the degree of repellency. Heavy or moderate spraying of footwear and trouser legs (tucked into socks) not only gave complete protection against bites by H. sylvestris and H. picta but also provided high enough repellency to keep the treated footwear virtually free of leeches. Even a light spray greatly reduced the numbers of leeches on footwear and delayed their progression toward biting the test subjects, although it failed to prevent bites completely. There was no decline in the repellency of the Citridiol when hourly assessments were made over a 6-h test period in the field. The results of the study show that Citridiol is highly repellent as well as toxic to leeches, and can be effectively used to prevent leech bites in the field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  13. Lee HL, Tien WD, Omar B
    PMID: 9322308
    The insecticide resistance status of 4 strains of adult male Blattella germanica, viz M (Malacca), E (England), F (restaurant) and K (cafeteria) against malathion and bendiocarb compared with a reference susceptible strain (S) was determined by using a modified WHO bioassay method. The results indicated that all the 4 strains were resistant to the insecticides albeit in different degrees. Resistance ratios for malathion ranged from 1.85-41.07-fold, whereas that of bendiocarb ranged from 1.68-4.83-fold. The biochemical microplate enzyme assays technique employed indicated that the resistance in M and E strains were attributed to acetylcholinesterase insensitivity. Multiple resistance was not detected in any of the 4 strains. Parameters of the identified resistance mechanism correlated well with the observed level of resistance. Agar gel electrophoresis showed that variations in esterase isoenzymes did not confer organophosphate and carbamate resistance to the 4 strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  14. Yap HH, Chong NL, Lee CY, Koay CA
    PMID: 9322312
    The residual efficacy of a relatively new pyrethroid, betacyfluthrin was compared with DDT against Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann in some village houses in Penang, Malaysia, for a period of 30 weeks. Efficacy was determined by exposing laboratory-cultured An. sinensis mosquitos to treated wall surfaces with either betacyfluthrin at 15 and 25 mg/m2 or DDT at 2,000 mg/m2 for one hour. Betacyfluthrin provided a longer residual effect (up to 210 days with > 70% mortality) compared with DDT. The potential of betacyfluthrin as a candidate for residual spraying for malaria control is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  15. Ismail R, Sarriff A, Abdul Rahman AF
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1990 Mar;45(1):57-64.
    PMID: 2152070
    We evaluated the usefulness of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for gentamicin and the use of a two-point peak and trough pair concentration method to adjust its dose. Of the 194 patients included, initial concentrations were appropriate in only sixty nine. In the seventy one cases of dosage adjustments using this method, those attaining therapeutic levels increased overall from 38% to 67%. It is concluded that TDM for gentamicin with dosage adjustment using this simple pharmacokinetic approach is useful and adequate in monitoring for gentamicin therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  16. Jahan N, Abd Manan F, Mansoor A, Zaidi MA, Shahwani MN, Javed MA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2018;2018:8180174.
    PMID: 30356418 DOI: 10.1155/2018/8180174
    Rice production is decreasing by abiotic stresses like heavy metals. In such circumstances, producing food for growing human population is a challenge for plant breeders. Excess of Al3+ in soil has become threat for high yield of rice. Improvement of crop is one of potential solution for high production. The aim of this study was to develop the new method for optimization of Al3+ toxicity tolerance in indica rice at germination stag using two-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple-range test (DMRT). Seeds of two indica rice cultivars (Pokkali and Pak Basmati) were exposed in different concentrations (control, 5 mM, 15 mM, and 20 mM) of Al3+ toxicity at pH 4 ±0.2 for two weeks. Germination traits such as final germination percentage (FG%), germination energy (GE), germination speed (GS), germination index (GI), mean time of germination (MGT), germination value (GV), germination velocity (GVe), peak value of germination (GPV), and germination capacity (GC) and growth traits such as root length (RL), shoot length (SL), total dry biomass (TDB), and germination vigour index (GVI) were measured. To obtain the maximum number of significance (≤ 0.01%) parameters in each concentration of Al3+ toxicity with control, two-way ANOVA was established and comparison of mean was done using DMRT. The results showed that 5 mM, 10 mM, and 15 mM have less significant effects on the above-mentioned parameters. However, 20 mM concentration of Al3+ produced significant effects (≤ 0.01%). Therefore, 20 mM of Al3+ is considered optimized limit for indica cultivars (Pokkali and Pak Basmati).
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  17. Kamishima M, Hattori T, Suzuki G, Matsukami H, Komine C, Horii Y, et al.
    J Appl Toxicol, 2018 05;38(5):649-655.
    PMID: 29271492 DOI: 10.1002/jat.3569
    Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may adversely affect animals, particularly during development. Tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) is an organophosphate with anti-androgen function in vitro that is present in indoor dust at relatively high concentrations. In male rats, androgens are necessary for the development of reproductive organs, as well as the endocrine and central nervous systems. However, we currently do not know the exact effects of TDCIPP exposure through suckling on subsequent reproductive behavior in males. Here, we show that TDCIPP exposure (25-250 mg kg-1 via oral administration over 28 consecutive days post-birth) suppressed male sexual behavior and reduced testes size. These changes were dose-dependent and appeared first in adults rather than in juveniles. These results demonstrate that TDCIPP exposure led to normal body growth and appearance in juveniles, but disrupted the endocrine system and physiology in adults. Therefore, assays should be performed using adult animals to ensure accuracy, and to confirm the influence of chemical substances given during early mammalian life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  18. Rahim J, Ahmad AH, Kassim NF, Ahmad H, Ishak IH, Rus AC, et al.
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 2016 Sep;32(3):210-216.
    PMID: 27802400
    Dengue vector control still heavily relies on the use of chemical insecticides, and the widespread use of insecticides has led to resistance in mosquitoes. The diagnostic dose is a key part of resistance monitoring. The present study corroborates the discriminating lethal doses of temephos and malathion based on dose-response of known susceptible strain of Aedes albopictus following the World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic test procedure. Late 3rd and early 4th instars were tested with a range of larvicides to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC99) values. A slightly higher diagnostic dose of 0.020 mg/liter as compared with the WHO-established value of 0.012 mg/liter was observed for temephos. Meanwhile, a malathion diagnostic dose of 0.200 mg/liter is also reported here since there are no such reported values by WHO. Doubling the LC99 values of susceptible strains, 3 of the 5 wild-collected populations showed resistance to temephos and 2 showed incipient resistance; all 5 populations showed incipient resistance to malathion. The revised and established lethal diagnostic dose findings from the current work are crucial to elaborate on the variation in susceptibility of Ae. albopictus in future resistance monitoring programs in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  19. Zia A, Kamaruzzaman SB, Tan MP
    Postgrad Med, 2015 Mar;127(2):186-93.
    PMID: 25622817 DOI: 10.1080/00325481.2015.996505
    Hypertension is a highly prevalent condition among older people, but many physicians avoid aggressive treatment in this age group due to concerns about adverse effects such as orthostatic hypotension and falls. Orthostatic hypotension, which also increases in prevalence with increasing age, has been considered to be associated with antihypertensive therapy. Both orthostatic hypotension and antihypertensive medications are considered independent yet closely related predictors for falls among older people. The prescription of antihypertensive therapy among the elderly remains a long-standing controversy in geriatric medicine due to ongoing concerns about potential complications such as falls, despite conclusive evidence supporting the treatment of hypertension even among the very elderly. However, recent evidence suggests a dose-dependent relationship between blood pressure lowering therapy and falls among older individuals with preexisting risk factors for falls. In response to the spate of revisions in hypertension treatment targets for older patients in international guidelines and the recent evidence on antihypertensive therapy and falls, this review article examines the complex relationship between hypertension, antihypertensives, orthostatic hypotension, and falls among older patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  20. Taha M, Ismail NH, Lalani S, Fatmi MQ, Atia-Tul-Wahab, Siddiqui S, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2015 Mar 6;92:387-400.
    PMID: 25585009 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.01.009
    In an effort to design and synthesize a new class of α-glucosidase inhibitor, we synthesized benzothiazole hybrid having benzohydrazide moiety (5). Compound 5 was reacted with various substituted aryl aldehyde to generate a small library of compounds 6-35. Synthesis of compounds was confirmed by the spectral information. These compounds were screened for their α-glucosidase activity. They showed a varying degree of α-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 values ranging between 5.31 and 53.34 μM. Compounds 6, 7, 9-16, 19, 21-30, 32-35 showed superior activity as compared to standard acarbose (IC50 = 906 ± 6.3 μM). This has identified a new class of α-glucosidase inhibitors. The predicted physico-chemical properties indicated the drug appropriateness for most of these compounds, as they obey Lipinski's rule of five (RO5). A hybrid B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) was employed for energy, minimization of 3D structures for all synthetic compounds using 6-311 + G(d,p) basis sets followed by molecular docking to explore their interactions with human intestinal C- and N-terminal domains of α-glucosidase. All compounds bind to the prospective allosteric site of the C- terminal domain, and consequently, may be considered as mixed inhibitors. It was hypothesized that both the dipole moment and H-bond interactions govern the biological activation of these compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Filters
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (tengcl@gmail.com)

External Links