METHODS: Soil and water samples near leptospirosis patients' residences were collected, processed and cultured into EMJH media. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed to confirm the identity of Leptospira.
RESULTS: EMJH culture and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed predominant growth of pathogenic Leptospira kmetyi (17%, n=7/42). All tested locations had at least one Leptospira sp., mostly from the soil samples.
CONCLUSION: More than one species of Leptospira may be present in a sampling area. The most common environmental isolates were pathogenic L. kmetyi.
RESULTS: A set of SREHP gene specific LAMP primers were designed for the specific detection of Entamoeba histolytica. This set of primers recorded 100% specificity when it was evaluated against 3 medically important Entamoeba species and 75 other pathogenic microorganisms. These primers were later modified for conventional PCR, nPCR and qPCR applications. Besides, 3 different post-LAMP analyses including agarose gel electrophoresis, nucleic acid lateral flow immunoassay and calcein-manganese dye techniques were used to compare their limit of detection (LoD). One E. histolytica trophozoite was recorded as the LoD for all the 3 post-LAMP analysis methods when tested with E. histolytica DNA extracted from spiked stool samples. In contrast, none of the PCR method outperformed LAMP as both qPCR and nPCR recorded LoD of 100 trophozoites while the LoD of conventional PCR was 1000 trophozoites.
CONCLUSIONS: The analytical sensitivity comparison among the conventional PCR, nPCR, qPCR and LAMP reveals that the LAMP outperformed the others in terms of LoD and amplification time. Hence, LAMP is a relevant alternative DNA-based amplification platform for sensitive and specific detection of pathogens.
METHODS: A cross sectional study involve retrospective record review were done involving 90 MRSA positive isolates between November 2016 and October 2017. Multiplex PCR was performed to detect femA, mecA and PVL genes. Clinical presentation and outcomes of patients were reviewed and presented as descriptive analysis.
RESULTS: All of the 90 MRSA isolates included in this study were positive for femA and mecA genes following PCR. PVL gene was detected in 20% (n = 18) of the isolates of which 61.1% (n = 11) were community acquired infections and 38.8% (n = 7) were hospital acquired. Case distribution from community acquired infections include patients with skin and soft tissue infections (33.3%, n = 6), infected diabetic foot ulcers (16.7%, n = 3), and one patient each (5.5%, n = 1) for community acquired pneumonia and meningitis. Half of the PVL positive MRSA cases (50%, n = 9) were having sepsis and four of them succumbed to death due to severe infection.
CONCLUSION: This study shows a high prevalence of PVL positive MRSA infection in our population. Skin and soft tissue infections accounting for the major sources. In addition, the presence of the PVL gene is associated with increased risk for developing sepsis.
METHODS: A set of primers and probe targeting rrs genes of 22 Leptospira spp. were designed and evaluated on 31 Leptospira isolates, 41 other organisms and 65 clinical samples from suspected patients.
RESULTS: The developed assay was able to detect as low as 20 fg Leptospira DNA per reaction (equivalent to approximately 4 copies) and showed high specificity against the tested leptospiral strains. No cross amplification was observed with the other organisms. During the evaluation of the confirmed clinical specimens, the developed assay was able to correctly identify all positive samples (n = 10/10). One amplification was observed in a negative sample (n = 1/55). The sequencing of the PCR product of the discordant sample revealed that the sequences were similar to those of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri.
CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the developed Taqman qPCR assay is sensitive, specific and has potential to be applied in a larger subsequent study.