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  1. Lubowa M, Yeoh SY, Easa AM
    Food Sci Technol Int, 2018 Sep;24(6):476-486.
    PMID: 29600879 DOI: 10.1177/1082013218766984
    This study investigated the influence of pregelatinized high-amylose maize starch and chilling treatment on the physical and textural properties of canned rice noodles thermally processed in a retort. Rice noodles were prepared from rice flour partially substituted with pregelatinized high-amylose maize starch (Hylon VII™) in the ratios 0, 5, 10, and 15% (wt/wt). High-amylose maize starch improved the texture and brightness of fresh (not retorted) noodles. Chilling treatment led to significant (P ≤ 0.05) improvement in the texture of fresh noodles at all levels of substitution with high-amylose starch. The highest hardness was recorded at 15% amylose level in chilled nonretorted noodles. Retort processing induced a major loss of quality through water absorption, retort cooking loss, decreased noodle hardness, and lightness. However, the results showed that amylose and chilling treatment positively reduced the impact of retorting. For each level of amylose substitution, a low retort cooking loss and increased noodle hardness were associated with a chilling treatment. For both chilled and nonchilled noodles, retort cooking loss and hardness increased with increasing levels of amylose substitution.
  2. Yeoh SY, Alkarkhi AF, Ramli SB, Easa AM
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2011 Jun;62(4):410-7.
    PMID: 21306189 DOI: 10.3109/09637486.2010.539555
    Yellow alkaline noodles (YAN) prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with soy protein isolate and treated with microbial transglutaminase (MTG) and ribose were investigated during cooking. Cooking caused an increase in lightness but a decrease in redness and yellowness, pH, tensile strength and elasticity values of noodles. The extents of these changes were influenced by formulation and cross-linking treatments. The pH and lightness for YAN-ribose were lowest but the yellowness and redness were the highest whilst the tensile strength and elasticity values remained moderate. For YAN-MTG, the color and pH values were moderate, but tensile strength and elasticity values were the highest. YAN prepared with both cross-linking agents had physical values between YAN-ribose and YAN-MTG. Although certain sensory parameters showed differences in score, the overall acceptability of all 10-min-cooked YAN was similar. It is possible to employ cross-linking agents to improve physical properties of cooked YAN.
  3. Tham CL, Yeoh SY, Ong CH, Harith HH, Israf DA
    Mediators Inflamm, 2021;2021:9725903.
    PMID: 33883974 DOI: 10.1155/2021/9725903
    2,6-Bis-(4-hydroxyl-3-methoxybenzylidine) cyclohexanone (BHMC), a synthetic curcuminoid analogue, has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in cellular models of inflammation and improve the survival of mice from lethal sepsis. We further evaluated the therapeutic effect of BHMC on acute airway inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA), followed by intraperitoneal administration of 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg of BHMC. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, blood, and lung samples were collected, and the respiratory function was measured. OVA sensitization and challenge increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and pulmonary inflammation. All three doses of BHMC (0.1-10 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of eosinophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils, as well as the levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as compared to OVA-challenged mice. However, serum level of IgE was not affected. All three doses of BHMC (0.1-10 mg/kg) were effective in suppressing the infiltration of inflammatory cells at the peribronchial and perivascular regions, with the greatest effect observed at 1 mg/kg which was comparable to dexamethasone. Goblet cell hyperplasia was inhibited by 1 and 10 mg/kg of BHMC, while the lowest dose (0.1 mg/kg) had no significant inhibitory effect. These findings demonstrate that BHMC, a synthetic nonsteroidal small molecule, ameliorates acute airway inflammation associated with allergic asthma, primarily by suppressing the release of inflammatory mediators and goblet cell hyperplasia to a lesser extent in acute airway inflammation of allergic asthma.
  4. Yeoh SY, Lubowa M, Tan TC, Murad M, Mat Easa A
    Food Chem, 2020 Dec 15;333:127425.
    PMID: 32683254 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127425
    Zero-salted yellow alkaline noodles (YAN) were immersed in solutions of resistant starch HYLON™ VII (HC) or fruit coating Semperfresh™ (SC) containing a range of salt (NaCl) between 10 and 30% (w/v). The objective was to evaluate the effect of salt-coatings on the textural, handling, cooking, and sensory properties of YAN. Increasing salt in the coatings caused a reduction in optimum cooking time, cooking loss and increase in cooking yield. The mechanical and textural parameters, sensory hardness, springiness and overall sensory acceptability of the salt-coated noodles however decreased with increasing salt application. HC-Na10 and SC-Na10 showed the highest textural and mechanical parameters, sensory hardness and springiness. The differences in the parameters were attributed mainly to the water absorption properties of starch that was affected by salt application. Thus, the quality of salt-coated noodles was dependent mainly on the amounts of salt applied in the coatings rather than on the types of coatings used.
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