Displaying all 4 publications

  1. Lakshmanan S, Yung YL
    PMID: 33596165 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2020.1842516
    Chloride reduction in crude palm oil (CPO) of greater than 80% was achieved with water washing conducted at 90°C. Inorganic chloride content in CPO was largely removed through washing, with no significant reduction in the organic chloride. Phosphorous content of CPO reduced by 20%, while trace elements such as calcium, magnesium and iron were also reduced in the washing operation. The 3-MCPDE formed in the refined, bleached and deodorised palm oil displayed (RBDPO) a linear relationship with the chloride level in washed CPO, which could be represented by the equation y = 0.91x, where y is 3-MCPDE and x represents the chloride in RBDPO refined from washed CPO. In plant scale trials using 5% water at 90°C, mild acidification of the wash water at 0.05% reduced chloride by average 76% in washed CPO. Utilising selected bleaching earths, controlled wash water temperature and wash water volume produced low chloride levels in RBDPO. Chloride content less than 1.4 mg kg-1 in plant RBDPO production was achieved, through physical refining of washed CPO containing less than 2 mg kg-1 chloride and would correspond to 3-MCPDE levels of 1.25 mg kg-1 in RBDPO. The 3-MCPDE reduced further to 1.1 mg kg-1 as the chloride level of washed CPO decreased below 1.8 mg kg-1. Chloride has been shown to facilitate the 3-MCPDE formation and its removal in lab scale washing study has yielded lower 3-MCPDE levels formed in RBDPO. In actual plant operations using washed CPO, 3-MCPDE levels below 1.25 mg kg-1 were achieved consistently in RBDPO.
  2. Yung YL, Lakshmanan S, Kumaresan S, Chu CM, Tham HJ
    Food Chem, 2023 Dec 15;429:136913.
    PMID: 37506659 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2023.136913
    The 3-Monochloropropane-1, 2-diol ester (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl ester (GE) are formed at high processing temperatures with the presence of respective precursors. Both are potentially harmful to humans, causing adverse health impacts including kidney damage, reproductive problems, and increased risk of cancer. The presence of 3-MCPDE and GE in palm oil is of particular concern because of its widespread use by the food industry. There are a variety of methods for reducing 3-MCPDE and GE. For example, water washing eliminates mostly inorganic chlorides that, in turn, reduce the formation of 3-MCPDE. 3-MCPDE has also been reduced by up to 99% using combinations of methods and replacing stripping steam with alcohol-based media. Activated carbon, clay, antioxidants, potassium-based salts, and other post-refining steps have positively lowered GE, ranging from 10 to 99%. Several approaches have been successful in reducing these process contaminants without affecting other quality metrics.
  3. Yung YL, Lakshmanan S, Chu CM, Kumaresan S, Tham HJ
    PMID: 37549246 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2023.2235608
    The rising concern about the presence of 3-monochloropropane 1,2 diol ester (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl ester (GE) in food has prompted much research to be conducted. Some process modifications and the use of specific chemicals have been employed to mitigate both 3-MCPDE and GE. Alkalisation using NaOH, KOH, alkali metals or alkaline earth metals and post sparging with steam or ethanol and short path distillation have shown simultaneous mitigation of 51-91% in 3-MCPDE and of 13-99% in GE, both contaminants achieved below 1000 µg/kg. Some of the mitigation methods have resulted in undesirable deterioration in other parameters of the refined oil. When the processed oil is used in food processing, it results in changes to 3-MCPDE and GE. Repeated deep frying above 170 °C in the presence of NaCl and baking at 200 °C with flavouring (dried garlic and onion), resulted in increased 3-MCPDE. Repeated frying in the presence of antioxidants (TBHQ, rosemary and phenolics) decreased 3-MCPDE in processed food. The GE content in foods tends to decline with time, indicating instability of GE's epoxide ring.
  4. Yung YL, Lakshmanan S, Chu CM, Tham HJ, Kumaresan S
    PMID: 38011619 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2023.2283873
    The presence of 3-monochloropropane-1,2 diol ester (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl ester (GE) in processed palm oils is of concern, as these oils are widely used for edible purposes. The mitigation method studied here optimizes the removal of chloride through water washing of crude palm oil (CPO), to limit the formation of 3-MCPDE. The contaminant removal obtained via washing CPO supports the quantitative findings. By utilizing 5% water in the washing step, water-soluble chlorides in CPO are removed by up to 76%, resulting in a 71% reduction of 3-MCPDE to within statutory limits. In this study, a linear correlation was developed between the chloride and the corresponding 3-MCPDE with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.99. Using the correlations, 1.0 mg/kg of 3-MCPDE in refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO) will be obtained from CPO with 1.2 mg/kg chloride with 7% wash water usage. The study also showed minor GE reduction between 7 and 11% was attained after water washing.
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