• 1 Chemical Engineering Programme, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia
  • 2 Research & Development Department, IOI Edible Oils Sdn. Bhd, Sandakan, Malaysia
PMID: 38011619 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2023.2283873


The presence of 3-monochloropropane-1,2 diol ester (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl ester (GE) in processed palm oils is of concern, as these oils are widely used for edible purposes. The mitigation method studied here optimizes the removal of chloride through water washing of crude palm oil (CPO), to limit the formation of 3-MCPDE. The contaminant removal obtained via washing CPO supports the quantitative findings. By utilizing 5% water in the washing step, water-soluble chlorides in CPO are removed by up to 76%, resulting in a 71% reduction of 3-MCPDE to within statutory limits. In this study, a linear correlation was developed between the chloride and the corresponding 3-MCPDE with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.99. Using the correlations, 1.0 mg/kg of 3-MCPDE in refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO) will be obtained from CPO with 1.2 mg/kg chloride with 7% wash water usage. The study also showed minor GE reduction between 7 and 11% was attained after water washing.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.