The rising concern about the presence of 3-monochloropropane 1,2 diol ester (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl ester (GE) in food has prompted much research to be conducted. Some process modifications and the use of specific chemicals have been employed to mitigate both 3-MCPDE and GE. Alkalisation using NaOH, KOH, alkali metals or alkaline earth metals and post sparging with steam or ethanol and short path distillation have shown simultaneous mitigation of 51-91% in 3-MCPDE and of 13-99% in GE, both contaminants achieved below 1000 µg/kg. Some of the mitigation methods have resulted in undesirable deterioration in other parameters of the refined oil. When the processed oil is used in food processing, it results in changes to 3-MCPDE and GE. Repeated deep frying above 170 °C in the presence of NaCl and baking at 200 °C with flavouring (dried garlic and onion), resulted in increased 3-MCPDE. Repeated frying in the presence of antioxidants (TBHQ, rosemary and phenolics) decreased 3-MCPDE in processed food. The GE content in foods tends to decline with time, indicating instability of GE's epoxide ring.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.