• 1 School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Gelugor 11800, Malaysia
  • 2 Sime Darby Plantation Research Sdn Bhd, Pulau Carey, Kuala Langat, Pulau Carey 42960, Malaysia
  • 3 Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Kuching 93350, Malaysia
  • 4 Green Chemistry and Sustainability Cluster, Branch Campus, Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering, Technology University Kuala Lumpur, Taboh Naning, Alor Gajah, Melaka 78000, Malaysia
Foods, 2022 Jan 05;11(1).
PMID: 35010250 DOI: 10.3390/foods11010124


The presence of glyceryl esters (GE) and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) in refined, bleached, and deodorized (RBD) palm oil is severely concerning to the palm oil consumer. In the present study, the influence of the phosphoric acid degumming process on the formation of GE and 3-MCDE and in the RBD palm oil was determined with varying the acid dose (0.03-0.06 wt%), temperature (70-100 °C), and reaction time (15-45 min). The experimental conditions of the acid degumming process were designed following the central composite design of experiments, and they were optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on the minimal formation of GE and 3-MCDE in the RBD palm oil. The optimal experimental conditions of the acid degumming process were a reaction time of 30 min, phosphoric acid concentration of 0.06 wt%, and temperature of 90 °C. Under these experimental conditions, the minimal GE and 3-MCDE formation in RBD palm oil were determined to be 0.61 mg/kg and 0.59 mg/kg; respectively. Several analytical methods were employed to determine RBD palm oil quality, including color, phosphorus, free fatty acids (FFAs), peroxide values, and fatty acid properties. It was found that the phosphoric acid degumming of CPO effectively removed the phosphorus and hydroperoxide content without conceding the quality of palm oil.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.