This paper introduces new forms of bivariate generalized Poisson (BGP) and bivariate negative binomial (BNB) regression models which can be fitted to bivariate and correlated count data with covariates. The BGP and BNB regression models can be fitted to bivariate count data with positive, zero or negative correlations. Applications of new BGP and BNB regression models are illustrated on Australian health survey data.
Chicken breast muscle powder (CBMP) was treated as a function of heating temperature, heating time and amount of alkali added. The pre-treated CBMP was then blended with modified waxy corn starch (MWCS) and characterized by flow analysis and temperature sweep. Flow analysis revealed that the blend behaved as a shear thickening and time dependent fluid with a yield stress. Statistical analysis showed that only linear and quadratic effects of heating temperature and heating time caused significant effects on flow behaviour index, consistency index and yield stress (p
Combining forecast values based on simple univariate models may produce more favourable results than complex models. In this study, the results of combining the forecast values of Naïve model, Single Exponential Smoothing Model, The Autoregressive Moving Average (ARIMA) model, and Holt Method are shown to be superior to that of the Error Correction Model (ECM).Malaysia’s unemployment rates data are used in this study. The independent variable used in the ECM formulation is the industrial production index. Both data sets were collected for the months of January 2004 to December 2010. The selection criteria used to determine the best model, is the Mean Square Error (MSE), Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). Initial findings showed that both time series data sets were not influenced by the seasonality effect.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of using tapioca and sago flours with or without egg white powder (EWP) on the physicochemical and sensory properties of duck sausages. There was significant increase (P0.05) in hardness and cohesiveness attributes among all the samples examined but significant differences (P
All relevant and essential data of an existing vehicle seat assembly line such as the operating time and processes, material handling system, workstation layout, bill of materials, equipment and hand tools, were collected and analyzed. The time standards for each of the vehicle seat assembly elements were established using work study techniques. A simulation approach was used to determine the productivity and effi ciency of the existing and proposed lines. Simulation technique was also used to determine and identify bottle-necks in both existing and proposed systems. Comparison of the existing assembly line and the proposed assembly line in terms of their productivity and effi ciency are also highlighted.
A preliminary investigation to assess the relationship
in the severity of periodontal disease in diabetics when
compared with non-diabetic subjects. Materials and
Methods: A retrospective, comparative study using
periodontal case notes of 40 subjects (20 Type 2 diabetics,
20 non-diabetics) who were selected based on the
inclusion and exclusion criteria. Severity of periodontal
disease was assessed through number of periodontal
pocket ≥5mm. The results were compared between
subjects whose age, gender and plaque scores are matched
with the test group. Data obtained was then analyzed by
SPSS Version 12. Results: When comparisons were made
between test (Type 2 diabetic) and control (non-diabetic)
groups, there were no significant difference (p>0.05) in
the severity of periodontal disease. However, there was
a clinically mean difference between the two groups.
Conclusions: This preliminary investigation indicated
that the severity of chronic periodontitis, as indicated in
periodontal pocketing, increased in diabetic patients when
compared to non-diabetics clinically, although it was not
statistically significant. The finding of this investigation
was thus not conclusive as it was only a retrospective
study using patients’ case notes. However, the results
are now being further investigated with a proper clinical
trial which examines periodontal parameters and diabetic
status (HbA1c) of the subjects to determine the association
between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus.
Many recent studies focused on the patient’s safety from the administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), their concentration, the dose of administration and their effects on the image quality. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of reduced GBCAs (gadobutrol and gadoterate meglumine) volume on the image quality by using phantoms. Eight (8) human brain mimicking phantom made of nickel chloride (NiCl2) doped agarose gel were added with 0.00500 ml (100% volume), 0.00350 ml (75% volume), 0.00250 ml (50% volume) and 0.00125 ml (25% volume) of gadobutrol, 0.0100 ml (100% volume), 0.0075 ml (75% volume), 0.0050 ml (50% volume) and 0.0025 ml (25% volume) of gadoterate meglumine. The phantoms were scanned using a 1.5-T and a 3 T-MRI system. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast agents enhancement were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. The 50% volume of gadobutrol and gadoterate meglumine at 3 T showed greater enhancement when compared with 50% and 100% volumes of gadobutrol and gadoterate meglumine at 1.5 T. It can be concluded that the volume of gadobutrol and gadoterate meglumine contrast agents can be reduced when using a higher field system
This study investigated the role of parental and peer mediation in young adolescents' engagement in risk-taking in social networking sites (SNSs). A survey conducted in Malaysia with 469 SNS users aged 13-14 revealed that control-based parental mediation can cause boomerang effects, making young adolescents more inclined to taking risks in SNSs. While discussion-based parental mediation was found to be negatively related to young adolescents' befriending strangers in SNSs, it did not reduce privacy risks. Findings also suggested that peer influence could result in undesirable outcomes. In particular, the more young adolescents talked about Internet-related issues with peers, the more likely they were to disclose personally identifiable information on SNSs.
The central question to be examined in this study is associated with the value of the Malays traditional culinary practices of Malay chef in preparing the traditional food in Malaysian hotels. Present understanding highlighted that hotels are giving high priority on their superior services, such as luxury accommodations and intimate hospitalities. As such, promoting local foods in their dining establishment has taken a back seat. Research from past scholars indicated that hotel in Malaysia can be the one stop center for the local and international tourists to get the first hand information about local food specialities. On the hindsight, very limited efforts have been put into practice on the promotions of local food especially Malay cuisines in hotels. Main issue such as mass-produced Malay cuisines in the commercial kitchens, for example, should be highlighted to ensure that hotels are not jeopardizing the originality of traditional food preparations. Therefore, a qualitative reasearch focusing in in-depth interview with 10 Malay chefs was conducted in hotels around the Klang Valley. The results are so profound that majority of the Malay chefs under study shared similar understandings on technology advancements and modernizations that have taken place in their daily food preparations. Another finding revealed that one of the most challenging factors in preventing the Malay chefs to prepare the Malay food as it has been done traditionally is the attitude and awareness of the young generations to understand the values in traditional culinary practices. This study concludes with suggestion that aggressive knowledge sharing and information dissemination among the Malay chefs in hotels are needed to effectively market the traditional Malay food.
The effects of different types of low-sweetness sugar (lactitol, maltodexrin, palatinit, polydextrose,
trehalose) on the physicochemical properties of threadfin bream (Nemipterus spp.) surimi during six months of frozen storage were investigated. The characteristics analyzed were moisture content, pH, water-holding capacity, whiteness, folding test, gel strength, expressible moisture, and texture profile analyses. Generally, the cryoprotective effectiveness decreased as the storage time increased. Polydextrose was able to maintain a water-holding capacity of 77.0%, 98.6% whiteness, a folding test value of 100%, and a gel strength of 53.6% compared with its initial value during six months of frozen storage. Meanwhile, sucrose was able to maintain a water-holding capacity of 80.3%, 98.6% whiteness, a folding test value of 75%, and a gel strength of 56.8%
compared with its initial value. Raw surimi was able to maintain water holding capacity of 62.2%, 98.7% whiteness, a folding test value of 75%, and a gel strength of 36.0% compared with its initial value. It is suggested that, polydextrose as a potential alternative cryoprotectant to replace other low-sweetness sugars.
Nowadays, Concurrent Engineering (CE) is becoming more important as companies compete in the worldwide market. Reduced time in product development process, higher product quality, lower cost in manufacturing process and fulfilment of customers’ requirements are the key factors to determine the success of a company. To produce excellent products, the concept of Concurrent Engineering must be implemented. Concurrent Engineering is a systematic approach which can be achieved when all design activities are integrated and executed in a parallel manner. The CE approach has radically changed the method used in product development process in many companies. Thus, this paper reviews the basic principles and tools of Concurrent Engineering and discusses how to employ them. Similarly, to ensure a product development process in the CE environment to run smoothly and efficiently, some modifications of the existing product development processes are proposed; these should start from market investigation to detail design.
Reserve lipids of microalgae are promising for biodiesel production. However, economically feasible and sustainable energy production from microalgae requires optimization of cultivation conditions for both biomass yield and lipid production of microalgae. Biomass yield and lipid production in microalgae are a contradictory problem because required conditions for both targets are different. Simultaneously, the mass cultivation of microalgae for biofuel production also depends extremely on the performance of the microalgae strains used. In this study a green unicellular microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana (DS6) isolated from the holding tanks of farm wastewater treatment plant using multi-step screening and acclimation procedures was found high-lipid producing facultative heterotrophic microalgae strain capable of growing on dairy farm effluent (DFE) for biodiesel feedstock and wastewater treatment. Morphological features and the phylogenetic analysis for the 18S rRNA identified the isolated strains. A novel three stage cultivation process of facultative strain of C. sorokiniana was examined for lipid production.
Introduction: The study attempts to evaluate the students’ perception of pharmacology as a
subject, its usefulness in future practice, teaching methods currently used, and their patterns of
learning and preparing for exams. Methods: A structured, self-administered questionnaire was
distributed to second year medical students. Results: Of the 125 students who participated,
22.73 % considered pharmacology more important than any other subject. The students found
small group sessions most interesting followed by directed self-learning, computer aided
learning and lectures. Of those who responded, 79 and 66 % suggested to increase the small
group and directed-self-learning sessions respectively. Up to 40 % of the students felt that
pharmacology teaching must be through case-based discussions and 20 % requested for more
practical sessions. Conclusions: It appears that majority of students entering the medical
schools has little prior knowledge of pharmacology. While going through the preclinical years
they understood the importance of pharmacology and its application in future practice,
however, they tend to develop interest in one or other topics. Students prefer to have a greater
number of small group sessions as they feel that these sessions are most useful for learning.
Majority of the students tend to use both the textbooks and lecture notes and study regularly
for better performance in examinations. The students also preferred to have more case-based
learning sessions incorporated into the small group sessions.
KEYWORDS: Pharmacology teaching, student perception, teaching methodologies
Adjustment among new students at the university plays an important role in determining their success at university. This study showed one of the reasons students fail to complete their study is due to adjustment problems. Students found to be unable to deal with the challenges and demands on campus and experience a variety of problems that some of them failed to proceed to the next semester. The population of the study consist of 143 First Semester Diploma students in the Faculty of Business and Management studies at Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang Raub Campus. The instrument used is questionnaires. There are four subscales designed to measure the effectiveness of student adjustment to university that are academic adjustment, social adjustment, personal (emotional) adjustment and institutional commitment. The study shows that adaptability on campus has a relationship with psychosocial abilities possessed by the students. Among the psychosocial abilities have a positive and significant impact on student adjustment is emotional intelligence, coping, and social support. All three of these psychosocial capabilities found to play an important role in helping students adjust at the university. Thus, the university must take proactive steps to develop emotional intelligence, coping and social support among new students to improve their adaptability
Cerebral palsy is a neurological and motor condition characterised by muscle balance and posture impairments. Bruxism and malocclusion were frequently observed in patients with cerebral palsy, in contrast to other oral anomalies. The report outlines how severe awake bruxism is managed in a 16-year-old Korean boy who has nonverbal spastic cerebral palsy and global developmental delay. The treatment protocol involved the fabrication of soft occlusal splints of three and four millimetres in thickness, followed by the placement of stainless-steel crowns on all first permanent molars whilst video recording and a bruxism diary was kept. Fixed restorations demonstrate increased endurance in withstanding bruxism force in persons who are dependent on their caretaker.
Water is one of the most important precious resources found on the earth, and are most often affected by anthropogenic activities and by industry. Pollution caused by human beings and industries is a serious concern throughout the world. Population growth, massive urbanization, rapid rate of industrialization and modern techniques in agriculture have accelerated water pollution and led to the gradual deterioration of its quality. A large quantity of waste water disposed of at sea or on land has caused environmental problems which have led to environmental pollution, economic losses and chemical risks caused by the wastewater, and its impact on agriculture. However, waste water which contain nutrients and organic matter has possible advantages for agricultural purposes. Therefore, the presented study was undertaken to assess the impact of Dairy Effluent (treated and untreated waste water) on seed germination, seedling growth, dry matter production and the biochemical parameters of lady's fingers (Abelmoschus esculentus L.).
A new heterogeneous catalyst for sonocatalytic degradation of amaranth dye in water was synthesized by introducing titania into the pores of zeolite (NaY) through ion exchange method while Fe (III) was immobilized on the encapsulated titanium via impregnation method. XRD results could not detect any peaks for titanium oxide or Fe(2)O(3) due to its low loading. The UV-vis analysis proved a blue shift toward shorter wavelength after the loading of Ti into NaY while a red shift was detected after the loading of Fe into the encapsulated titanium. Different reaction variables such as TiO(2) content, amount of Fe, pH values, amount of hydrogen peroxide, catalyst loading and the initial dye concentration were studied to estimate their effect on the decolorization efficiency of amaranth. The maximum decolorization efficiency achieved was 97.5% at a solution pH of 2.5, catalyst dosage of 2 g/L, 20 mmol/100 mL of H(2)O(2) and initial dye concentration of 10 mg/L. The new heterogeneous catalyst Fe/Ti-NaY was a promising catalyst for this reaction and showed minimum Fe leaching at the end of the reaction.
This study aimed to identify the significant factors that give large effects on the efficiency of Cu(II) extraction from aqueous solutions by soybean oil-based organic solvents using fractional factorial design. Six factors (mixing time (t), di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid concentration ([D2EHPA]), organic to aqueous phase ratio (O:A), sodium sulfate concentration ([Na(2)SO(4)]), equilibrium pH (pH(eq)) and tributylphosphate concentration ([TBP])) affecting the percentage extraction (%E) of Cu(II) were investigated. A 2(6-1) fractional factorial design was applied and the results were analyzed statistically. The results show that only [D2EHPA], pH(eq) and their second-order interaction ([D2EHPA] × pH(eq)) influenced the %E significantly. Regression models for %E were developed and the adequacy of the reduced model was examined. The results of this study indicate that fractional factorial design is a useful tool for screening a large number of variables and reducing the number of experiments.
Various types of vegetable oil-based organic solvents (VOS), i.e. vegetable oils (corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils) with and without extractants (di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and tributylphosphate (TBP)), were investigated into their potentiality as greener substitutes for the conventional petroleum-based organic solvents to extract Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. The pH-extraction isotherms of Cu(II) using various vegetable oils loaded with both D2EHPA and TBP were investigated and the percentage extraction (%E) of Cu(II) achieved by different types of VOS was determined. Vegetable oils without extractants and those loaded with TBP alone showed a poor extractability for Cu(II). Vegetable oils loaded with both D2EHPA and TBP were found to be the most effective VOS for Cu(II) extraction and, thus, are potential greener substitutes for the conventional petroleum-based organic solvents.