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  1. Azemin MZ, Daud NM, Ab Hamid F, Zahari I, Sapuan AH
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:783525.
    PMID: 25371914 DOI: 10.1155/2014/783525
    The aim of this study was to compare the retinal vasculature complexity between emmetropia, and myopia in younger subjects.
  2. Karam DS, Arifin A, Radziah O, Shamshuddin J, Majid NM, Hazandy AH, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:641346.
    PMID: 22606055 DOI: 10.1100/2012/641346
    Deforestation leads to the deterioration of soil fertility which occurs rapidly under tropical climates. Forest rehabilitation is one of the approaches to restore soil fertility and increase the productivity of degraded areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare soil biological properties under enrichment planting and secondary forests at Tapah Hill Forest Reserve, Perak after 42 years of planting. Both areas were excessively logged in the 1950s and left idle without any appropriate forest management until 1968 when rehabilitation program was initiated. Six subplots (20 m × 20 m) were established within each enrichment planting (F1) and secondary forest (F2) plots, after which soil was sampled at depths of 0-15 cm (topsoil) and 15-30 cm (subsoil). Results showed that total mean microbial enzymatic activity, as well as biomass C and N content, was significantly higher in F1 compared to F2. The results, despite sample variability, suggest that the rehabilitation program improves the soil biological activities where high rate of soil organic matter, organic C, N, suitable soil acidity range, and abundance of forest litter is believed to be the predisposing factor promoting higher population of microbial in F1 as compared to F2. In conclusion total microbial enzymatic activity, biomass C and biomass N evaluation were higher in enrichment planting plot compared to secondary forest. After 42 years of planting, rehabilitation or enrichment planting helps to restore the productivity of planted forest in terms of biological parameters.
  3. Ab Hamid F, Che Azemin MZ, Salam A, Aminuddin A, Mohd Daud N, Zahari I
    Curr. Eye Res., 2016 Jun;41(6):823-31.
    PMID: 26268475 DOI: 10.3109/02713683.2015.1056375
    PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to provide the empirical evidence of fractal dimension as an indirect measure of retinal vasculature density.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred retinal samples of right eye [57.0% females (n = 114) and 43.0% males (n = 86)] were selected from baseline visit. A custom-written software was used for vessel segmentation. Vessel segmentation is the process of transforming two-dimensional color images into binary images (i.e. black and white pixels). The circular area of approximately 2.6 optic disc radii surrounding the center of optic disc was cropped. The non-vessels fragments were removed. FracLac was used to measure the fractal dimension and vessel density of retinal vessels.

    RESULTS: This study suggested that 14.1% of the region of interest (i.e. approximately 2.6 optic disk radii) comprised retinal vessel structure. Using correlation analysis, vessel density measurement and fractal dimension estimation are linearly and strongly correlated (R = 0.942, R(2) = 0.89, p 

  4. Chiang JCB, Zahari I, Markoulli M, Krishnan AV, Park SB, Semmler A, et al.
    Ocul Surf, 2020 07;18(3):403-417.
    PMID: 32344148 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtos.2020.03.008
    Cancer is a global health problem and is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Pleasingly, the rate of survival has improved and continues in an upward trend mainly due to better diagnosis and treatment modalities. In particular, the development of anticancer drugs including cytotoxic chemotherapy, hormonal agents and targeted therapies have provided the most effective treatment options in combatting cancerous cells. However, the antineoplastic mechanisms of these drugs can also lead to undesirable systemic and ocular side effects resulting from cytotoxicity, inflammation and neurotoxicity. While survival rates are projected to increase with time, the number of patients presenting with these side effects that can substantially impact quality of life will also rise. The current paper reviews the ocular surface and adnexal side effects of anticancer drugs, the appropriate management and possible interactions between drugs for ocular surface pathology treatment and the anticancer drugs.
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