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  1. Norzilawati MN, Shuhaila A, Zainul Rashid MR
    Singapore medical journal, 2007 Jun;48(6):e174-6.
    PMID: 17538741
    A 21-year-old primigravida with previous history of pulmonary tuberculosis had a normal but assisted vaginal delivery after a prolonged second stage. Within 12 hours, she complained of dyspnoea and was found to have abnormal neck and anterior chest wall swelling. A diagnosis of subcutaneous emphysema was made and this was confirmed with the chest radiograph, which also revealed pneumomediastinum. She recovered well within four days with conservative treatment.
  2. Siti-Aishah MA, Noriah O, Malini MN, Zainul-Rashid MR, Das S
    Clin Ter, 2011;162(5):447-50.
    PMID: 22041803
    A 30-year-old, nulliparous woman presented with a history of subfertility. On examination she was found to have uterine fibroid of 28 weeks size of gravid uterus and subsequently laporatomy myomectomy was performed. Multilobulated masses, with diameters ranging from 22 mm to 160 mm were found. Cut sections of the lobulated masses showed whitish whorled cut surface. One of the multilobulated masses had a cystic cavity, measuring 60x50x35 mm(3). Light microscopic findings of the mass with the cystic cavity showed a well-circumscribed cellular tumour composed of cells exhibiting moderate nuclear atypia which were enlarged, nuclei with prominent chromatin clumping and were distributed in areas. Some tumour cells showed large nuclear pseudoinclusions, multinucleated or multilobated tumour giant cells, smudging and few enlarged nucleoli. Mitotic activity was 4 MFs per 10 HPFs. Occasional cells with intracytoplasmic inclusions resembling rhabdoid - like features were seen. There were no atypical mitoses or tumour necroses were noted. Diagnosis of atypical leiomyoma or symplastic leiomyoma was made. Atypical or symplastic leiomyomas are rare in the region of Malaysia and the present case discusses its incidence in younger age, its morphological features along with diagnosis and clinical outcome.
  3. Nor Azlin MI, Maryasalwati I, Norzilawati MN, Mahdy ZA, Jamil MA, Zainul Rashid MR
    J Obstet Gynaecol, 2008 May;28(4):424-6.
    PMID: 18604680 DOI: 10.1080/01443610802150051
    Dysmenorrhoea is painful menstruation that occurs in 45-72% of all women. This was a prospective randomised study of the efficacy of etoricoxib (Arcoxia) compared with mefenamic acid (Ponstan) in treating primary dysmenorrhoea. All single, sexually inactive women with primary dysmenorrhoea were randomised into two groups (mefenamic acid and etoricoxib) of pain relief and underwent a cross-over study. The success of treatment as evidenced by pain relief, the side-effects and complications were observed and analysed. Some 80% (20 women) had significantly better pain relief with etoricoxib, compared with only 20 per cent in the mefenamic acid group (p = 0.007). Etoricoxib has significantly fewer side-effects compared with mefenamic acid (p = 0.005) with significantly reduced menstrual blood loss (p = 0.025). In conclusion, etoricoxib is a better treatment for primary dysmenorrhoea with better pain relief, less menstrual blood loss and fewer side-effects compared with mefenamic acid.
  4. Nor Azlin MI, Abdullah HS, Zainul Rashid MR, Jamil MA
    J Obstet Gynaecol, 2006 Aug;26(6):546-9.
    PMID: 17000504
    Gemeprost (Cervagem) has been used widely compared with Misoprostol (Cytotec) alone in second trimester pregnancy termination. This prospective randomised trial was to evaluate the efficacy of intravaginal Misoprostol (alone) and Gemeprost in second trimester termination of pregnancy. A total of 54 women with 27 on each arm were involved. A total of 25 patients (92.6%) in the Misoprostol group and 22 patients (81.5%) in the Gemeprost group delivered within 48 h. The Misoprostol group delivered earlier, although average number of tablets required were similar. The side-effects were not significant between the two groups in fact, but there was more pyrexia in the Gemeprost group (p = 0.004). Misoprostol in second trimester termination of pregnancy is clinically as effective and less costly than the standard regimen of Gemeprost.
  5. Azliana AF, Zainul-Rashid MR, Chandramaya SF, Farouk WI, Nurwardah A, Wong YP, et al.
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2018 1 13;60(4):515-520.
    PMID: 29323064 DOI: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_376_16
    INTRODUCTION: Hypertensive disorder in pregnancy (HDP) represents the most common medical complication in pregnancy. It is the leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates vascular endothelial cell growth, survival, and proliferation, and they are known to be expressed in human placenta. The aim of this study was to determine the VEGF expression in the placenta of hypertensive and normotensive patients.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015. A total of 30 placentae comprised of 15 hypertensive and 15 normotensive cases were assessed. VEGF expression in placenta was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and the number of syncytial knots was counted.

    RESULTS: Our study showed an increased syncytial knot formation in the placenta of hypertensive mothers. VEGF expression was seen in syncytiotrophoblasts of 14 of the hypertensive cases (14/15, 93.3%), while only two of the normotensive cases were positive (2/15, 13.3%). There were no statistically significant differences in VEGF expression in other placenta cells, that is, cytotrophoblasts (P = 1.0), decidual cells (0.1394), maternal endothelial cells (0.5977), and fetal endothelial cells (P = 1.0).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study showed an increased number of syncytial knots is a consistent histological finding in the placenta of patient with HDP. VEGF expression was significantly increased in syncytiotrophoblasts in placenta of hypertensive group, and it could be used as a biomarker for hypertension.

  6. Zainul Rashid MR, Lim JF, Nawawi NH, Luqman M, Zolkeplai MF, Rangkuty HS, et al.
    Gynecol. Endocrinol., 2014 Mar;30(3):217-20.
    PMID: 24552449 DOI: 10.3109/09513590.2013.860960
    Gestational hypertension (GH) remains one of the main causes of high maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide with the highest incidence among primigravidae of about 10%-15%. However, it was noted that the incidence of GH in primigravidae who conceived following assisted reproductive technique (ART) or intrauterine insemination (IUI) supplemented with dydrogesterone during the first trimester was low.

    Study site: Obstetrics and Gynecology
    Department, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia PPUKM
  7. Noorashikin M, Ong FB, Omar MH, Zainul-Rashid MR, Murad AZ, Shamsir A, et al.
    J. Assist. Reprod. Genet., 2008 Jul;25(7):297-303.
    PMID: 18654847 DOI: 10.1007/s10815-008-9239-9
    Low dose stimulation (LS) is emerging as an alternative regime in assisted reproductive technology (ART). This study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of LS to the high dose GnRH antagonist (Atg) regime.
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