Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 26 in total

  1. Oon SF, Nallappan M, Tee TT, Shohaimi S, Kassim NK, Sa'ariwijaya MS, et al.
    Cancer Cell Int., 2015;15:100.
    PMID: 26500452 DOI: 10.1186/s12935-015-0255-4
    Xanthorrhizol (XNT) is a bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoid compound extracted from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. It has been well established to possess a variety of biological activities such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, antiplatelet, nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects. Since many synthetic drugs possess toxic side effects and are unable to support the increasing prevalence of disease, there is significant interest in developing natural product as new therapeutics. XNT is a very potent natural bioactive compound that could fulfil the current need for new drug discovery. Despite its importance, a comprehensive review of XNT's pharmacological activities has not been published in the scientific literature to date. Here, the present review aims to summarize the available information in this area, focus on its anticancer properties and indicate the current status of the research. This helps to facilitate the understanding of XNT's pharmacological role in drug discovery, thus suggesting areas where further research is required.
  2. Ramasamy TS, Ayob AZ, Myint HH, Thiagarajah S, Amini F
    Cancer Cell Int., 2015;15:96.
    PMID: 26457069 DOI: 10.1186/s12935-015-0241-x
    Colorectal cancer is one of the commonest cancers in the world and it is also a common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite advanced treatment strategies, the disease is rarely cured completely due to recurrence. Evidence shows that this is due to a small population of cells, called cancer stem cells (CSCs), in the tumour mass that have the self-renewal and differentiation potential to give rise to a new tumour population. Many pre-clinical and clinical studies have used curcumin and its analogues as anti-cancer agents in various types of cancer, including colorectal cancer. Intriguingly, curcumin and its analogues have also recently been shown to be effective in lowering tumour recurrence by targeting the CSC population, hence inhibiting tumour growth. In this review, we highlight the efficacy of curcumin and its analogues in targeting colorectal CSC and also the underlying molecular mechanism involved. Curcumin, in the presence or absence of other anti-cancer agents, has been shown to reduce the size of tumour mass and growth in both in vivo and in vitro studies by affecting many intracellular events that are associated with cancer progression and CSC formation. An insight into the molecular mechanism has unraveled the mode of action via which curcumin could affect the key regulators in CSC, importantly; (1) the signaling pathways, including Wnt/β-catenin, Sonic Hedgehog, Notch and PI3K/Akt/mTOR, (2) microRNA and (3) the epithelial-mesenchymal transition at multiple levels. Therefore, curcumin could play a role as chemosensitiser whereby the colorectal CSCs are now sensitised towards the anti-cancer therapy, therefore, combination therapy using anti-cancer agent with curcumin could be much more effective than treatment using a single cancer agent. This potential treatment modality can be further developed by employing an effective delivery system using a nanotechnology based approach to treat colorectal cancer.
  3. Daker M, Ahmad M, Khoo AS
    Cancer Cell Int., 2012;12(1):34.
    PMID: 22809533
    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a unique tumour of epithelial origin with a distinct geographical distribution, genetic predisposition and environmental as well as dietary influence as aetiological factors. Standard NPC treatment regimes, such as radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy with cytotoxic drugs, can produce undesirable complications often associated with significant toxicity. Here, we report the effects of a widely distributed flavonoid, quercetin, on cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The effects of combining quercetin and cisplatin on human NPC cells were explored.
  4. Stanislaus A, Bakhtiar A, Salleh D, Tiash S, Fatemian T, Hossain S, et al.
    Cancer Cell Int., 2012 Jun 18;12(1):30.
    PMID: 22709569 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2867-12-30
    BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach in functional genomics to selectively silence messenger mRNA (mRNA) expression and can be employed to rapidly develop potential novel drugs against a complex disease like cancer. However, naked siRNA being anionic is unable to cross the anionic cell membrane through passive diffusion and therefore, delivery of siRNA remains a major hurdle to overcome before the potential of siRNA technology can fully be exploited in cancer. pH-sensitive carbonate apatite has recently been developed as an efficient tool to deliver siRNA into the mammalian cells by virtue of its high affinity interaction with the siRNA and the desirable size distribution of the resulting siRNA-apatite complex for effective cellular endocytosis. Moreover, internalized siRNA was found to escape from the endosomes in a time-dependent manner and efficiently silence gene expression.

    RESULTS: Here we show that carbonate apatite-mediated delivery of siRNA against PLC-gamma-2 (PLCG2) and calmodulin 1 (CALM1) genes has led to the sensitization of a human cervical cancer cell line to doxorubicin- and paclitaxel depending on the dosage of the individual drug whereas no such enhancement in cell death was observed with cisplatin irrespective of the dosage following intracellular delivery of the siRNAs.

    CONCLUSION: Thus, PLCG2 and CALM1 genes are two potential targets for gene knockdown in doxorubicin and paclitaxel-based chemotherapy of cervical cancer.

  5. Lee AT, Azimahtol HL, Tan AN
    Cancer Cell Int., 2003 Oct 4;3(1):16.
    PMID: 14580263
    BACKGROUND: Styrylpyrone derivative (SPD) is a plant-derived pharmacologically active compound extracted from Goniothalamus sp. Previously, we have reported that SPD inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by inducing apoptotic cell death, while having minimal effects on non-malignant cells. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the mode of action of SPD. RESULTS: We found that the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was invoked, with the accumulation of cytosolic cytochrome c and processing of the initiator caspase-9. Cleaved products of procaspase-8 were not detected. Next, the executioner caspase-7 was cleaved and activated in response to SPD treatment. To confirm that apoptosis was induced following caspase-7 activation, the caspase inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO was used. Pre-incubation of cells with this inhibitor reversed apoptosis levels and caspase-7 activity in SPD-treated cells to untreated levels. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest SPD as a potent antiproliferative agent on MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis in a caspase-7-dependent manner.
  6. Nassar ZD, Aisha AF, Ahamed MB, Ismail Z, Abu-Salah KM, Alrokayan SA, et al.
    Cancer Cell Int., 2011;11(1):12.
    PMID: 21524294 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2867-11-12
    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, has become an important target in cancer therapy. Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor growth and metastasis. Koetjapic acid (KA) is a seco-A-ring oleanene triterpene isolated from S. koetjape. The solvent extract of this plant species was shown previously to have strong antiangiogenic activity; however the active ingredient(s) that conferred the biological activity and the mode of action was not established. Given the high concentration of KA in S. koetjape, an attempt has been made in this study to investigate the antiangiogenic properties of KA.
  7. Yazid MD, Ariffin SH, Senafi S, Razak MA, Wahab RM
    Cancer Cell Int., 2010;10:42.
    PMID: 20979664 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2867-10-42
    The main morphological features of primitive cells, such as stem and progenitor cells, are that these cells consists only one nucleus. The main purpose of this study was to determine the differentiation capacities of stem and progenitor cells. This study was performed using mononucleated cells originated from murine peripheral blood and MC3T3-E1 cells. Three approaches were used to determine their differentiation capacities: 1) Biochemical assays, 2) Gene expression analysis, and 3) Morphological observations.
  8. Abdullah H, Pihie AH, Hohmann J, Molnár J
    Cancer Cell Int., 2010;10:14.
    PMID: 20441573 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2867-10-14
    Hydnophytum formicarium Jack is an epyphytic shrub that belongs to the family of Rubiaceae and is native to the tropical rain forests of the Asean region, which includes Malaysia. A flavanoid derivative, 7, 3', 5'-trihydroxyflavanone (3HFD), isolated from H. formicarium has been reported to have cytotoxic effects on the human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7. The aim of the current study was to investigate the mode of cell death in MCF-7 cells treated with 3HFD. A DNA fragmentation assay was conducted on isolated genomic DNA, a TUNEL assay was used to determine the mode of cell death and Western blotting was used to evaluate the expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2. Immunofluorescence staining of MCF-7 cells was also performed to confirm the up-regulation of the Bax protein.
  9. Tan AA, Mu AK, Kiew LV, Chen Y
    Cancer Cell Int., 2014;14(1):120.
    PMID: 25484625 DOI: 10.1186/s12935-014-0120-x
    Concurrent study of secretomic and glycoproteomic profiles in cancer cell lines represents an excellent approach for investigating cancer progression and identifying novel biomarker candidates. In this study, we performed a comparative secretomic and N-glycoprotein profiling from the secretions of normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEpC) and the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line.
  10. Fakiruddin KS, Baharuddin P, Lim MN, Fakharuzi NA, Yusof NA, Zakaria Z
    Cancer Cell Int., 2014;14(1):122.
    PMID: 25469108 DOI: 10.1186/s12935-014-0122-8
    Tumour homing capacity of engineered human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ADMSCs) expressing anti-tumour agents might be the key for a much safer and yet efficient targeted tumour therapy. However, ADMSCs exhibit resistant to most gene transfection techniques and the use of highly efficient viral vectors has several disadvantages primarily concerning safety risk. Here, we optimized the use of highly efficient and safe nucleofection-based transfection using plasmid encoded for TNF-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) into ADMSCs and investigated the potential anti-tumourigenic of TRAIL-expressing ADMSCs (ADMSCs-TRAIL) on selected cancer models in vitro.
  11. Boon SS, Sim SP
    Cancer Cell Int., 2015;15:54.
    PMID: 26019688 DOI: 10.1186/s12935-015-0205-1
    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is commonly found in Asia, especially among the Chinese ethnic group. Chromosome rearrangements are common among NPC patients. Although the mechanism underlying the chromosome rearrangements in NPC is unclear, various mechanisms including activation of caspase-activated DNase (CAD) were proposed to contribute to chromosome rearrangements in leukaemia. Activation of CAD can be initiated by multiple agents, including oxidative stress, which is well implicated in carcinogenesis. CAD is the main enzyme that causes DNA fragmentation during apoptosis, and CAD is also implicated in promoting cell differentiation. In view of the role of oxidative stress in carcinogenesis and CAD activation, and since CAD was suggested to contribute to chromosome rearrangement in leukaemia, we hypothesise that oxidative stress-induced CAD activation could be one of the mechanisms that leads to chromosome rearrangements in NPC.
  12. Hoe SL, Tan LP, Jamal J, Peh SC, Ng CC, Zhang WC, et al.
    Cancer Cell Int., 2014;14(1):101.
    PMID: 25317078 DOI: 10.1186/s12935-014-0101-0
    Side population (SP) assay identifies cells with dye/drug extrusion ability, a characteristic of stem cells. Here, we determined if SP cells exist in a verified cell line originating from recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and a xenograft established from recurrent metastatic NPC. These cells were evaluated for stem-like properties via functional assays as well as for tumourigenicity.
  13. Kong DC, Chew KY, Tan EL, Khoo SP
    Cancer Cell Int., 2014;14:65.
    PMID: 25866477 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2867-14-65
    Epiregulin (EPR) is a novel member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family. It has been shown to promote wound healing in oral epithelium, enhance proliferation of other epithelial tissues, and is involved in several epithelial-related malignancies such as colorectal, lung, and bladder carcinoma. More recently, EPR transcripts were found to be high in a study on archival oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) specimens. This implies that EPR may be responsible for the progression of OSCC. The aim of this was to elucidate the effects of EPR on (i) cell morphological changes, (ii) cell proliferation and (iii) receptor expression of the H-series OSCC cell lines.
  14. Abu N, Ho WY, Yeap SK, Akhtar MN, Abdullah MP, Omar AR, et al.
    Cancer Cell Int., 2013;13(1):102.
    PMID: 24148263 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2867-13-102
    Plant-based compounds have been in the spotlight in search of new and promising drugs. Flavokawain A, B and C are naturally occurring chalcones that have been isolated from several medicinal plants; namely the piper methysticum or commercially known as the kava-kava. Multiple researches have been done to evaluate the bioactivities of these compounds. It has been shown that all three flavokawains may hold promising anti-cancer effects. It has also been revealed that both flavokawain A and B are involved in the induction of cell cycle arrest in several cancer cell lines. Nevertheless, flavokawain B was shown to be more effective in treating in vitro cancer cell lines as compared to flavokawain A and C. Flavokawain B also exerts antinociceptive effects as well as anti-inflammation properties. This mini-review attempts to discuss the biological properties of all the flavokawains that have been reported.
  15. Ismail NI, Kaur G, Hashim H, Hassan MS
    Cancer Cell Int., 2008;8:12.
    PMID: 18771601 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2867-8-12
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and cause of deaths in women around the world. Oncogene amplification usually occurs late in tumor progression and correlates well with aggressiveness of tumor. In fact the function of the S100A4 protein and its role in metastasis is unclear at present. The purpose of the study was to determine the expression of S100A4 protein in the invasion status and metastatic potential of breast cancer by using tissue microarray and to determine its role in breast cancer based on the expression of S100A4 gene product.
  16. Ismail NI, Kaur G, Hashim H, Hassan MS
    Cancer Cell Int., 2008;8:6.
    PMID: 18454879 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2867-8-6
    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the western world. The expression differences of many proteins are associated with breast cancer progression or suppression. The purpose of the study was to determine the expression of nm23 protein in the invasion status and metastatic potential of breast cancer by using tissue microarray and to determine its role in breast cancer based on the expression of nm23 gene product.
  17. Zakaria Y, Rahmat A, Pihie AH, Abdullah NR, Houghton PJ
    Cancer Cell Int., 2009;9:16.
    PMID: 19508737 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2867-9-16
    Eurycomanone is a cytotoxic compound found in Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Previous studies had noted the cytotoxic effect against various cancer cell lines. The aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxicity against human hepato carcinoma cell in vitro and the mode of action. The cytotoxicity of eurycomanone was evaluated using MTT assay and the mode of cell death was detected by Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining and flow cytometry with Annexin-V/propidium iodide double staining. The protein expression Bax, Bcl-2, p53 and cytochrome C were studied by flow cytometry using a spesific antibody conjugated fluorescent dye to confirm the up-regulation of p53 and Bax in cancer cells.
  18. Zainal Ariffin SH, Wan Omar WH, Zainal Ariffin Z, Safian MF, Senafi S, Megat Abdul Wahab R
    Cancer Cell Int., 2009;9:6.
    PMID: 19257877 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2867-9-6
    Piper sarmentosum, locally known as kaduk is belonging to the family of Piperaceae. It is our interest to evaluate their effect on human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) for the potential of anticarcinogenic activity.
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