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  1. Shreaz S, Shiekh RA, Raja V, Wani WA, Behbehani JM
    Chem. Biol. Interact., 2016 Mar 5;247:64-74.
    PMID: 26806515 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2016.01.015
    In this study, we have used aldehyde function of cinnamaldehyde to synthesize N, N'-Bis (cinnamaldehyde) ethylenediimine [C20H20N2] and Co(II) complex of the type [Co(C40H40N4)Cl2]. The structures of the synthesized compounds were determined on the basis of physiochemical analysis and spectroscopic data ((1)H NMR, FTIR, UV-visible and mass spectra) along with molar conductivity measurements. Anticandidal activity of cinnamaldehyde its ligand [L] and Co(II) complex was investigated by determining MIC80, time-kill kinetics, disc diffusion assay and ergosterol extraction and estimation assay. Ligand [L] and Co(II) complex are found to be 4.55 and 21.0 folds more efficient than cinnamaldehyde in a liquid medium. MIC80 of Co(II) complex correlated well with ergosterol inhibition suggesting ergosterol biosynthesis to be the primary site of action. In comparison to fluconazole, the test compounds showed limited toxicity against H9c2 rat cardiac myoblasts. In confocal microscopy propidium iodide (PI) penetrates the yeast cells when treated with MIC of metal complex, indicating a disruption of cell membrane that results in imbibition of dye. TEM analysis of metal complex treated cells exhibited notable alterations or damage to the cell membrane and the cell wall. The structural disorganization within the cell cytoplasm was noted. It was concluded that fungicidal activity of Co(II) complex originated from loss of membrane integrity and a decrease in ergosterol content is only one consequence of this.
  2. Salga MS, Ali HM, Abdulla MA, Abdelwahab SI
    Chem. Biol. Interact., 2012 Jan 25;195(2):144-53.
    PMID: 22178775 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2011.11.008
    Zinc complexes were reported to have anti-ulcer activity and used as drug for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. A novel compound dichlorido-zinc(II)-4-(2-(5-methoxybenzylidene amino)ethyl)piperazin-1-iumphenolate (ZnHMS) was synthesized, characterized and evaluated for its gastroprotective activity against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. Gross and microscopic lesions, histochemical staining of glycogen storage, biochemical and immunological parameters were taken into consideration. Oral administration of ZnHMS (30 and 60 mg/kg; 14 days) dose-dependently inhibited gastric lesions. It significantly increased the mucus content and total acidity compared to the control group (P<0.01). Serum levels of aspartate (AST), alanine (ALT) transaminases, pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the rats exposed to ethanol induced ulceration have been altered. ZnHMS considerably enhances (P<0.05) the protection of gastric epithelia by modulating the acute alterations of AST, ALT, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and stomach glycogen. Interestingly, ZnHMS did interfere with the natural release of nitric oxide. In addition, acute toxicity study revealed no abnormal sign to the rats treated with ZnHMS (2000 mg/kg). These findings suggest that the gastroprotective activity of ZnHMS might contribute in adjusting the inflammatory cytokine-mediated oxidative damage to the gastric mucosa.
  3. Pan Y, Abd-Rashid BA, Ismail Z, Ismail R, Mak JW, Pook PC, et al.
    Chem. Biol. Interact., 2011 Mar 15;190(1):1-8.
    PMID: 21276781 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2011.01.022
    Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) has been traditionally used to treat diabetes, kidney and urinary disorders, high blood pressure and bone or muscular pain. To assess the possibility of drug-herb interaction via interference of metabolism, effects of four OS extracts of different polarity and three active constituents (sinensetin, eupatorin and rosmarinic acid) on major human cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes were investigated. Three substrate-probe based high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assays were established to serve as activity markers for CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. Our results indicate that OS extracts and constituents exhibited differential modulatory effects on different CYPs. While none of the OS components showed significant inhibition on CYP2C9, eupatorin strongly and uncompetitively inhibited CYP2D6 activity with a K(i) value of 10.2μM. CYP3A4 appeared to be the most susceptible enzyme to OS inhibitory effects. It was moderately inhibited by OS dichloromethane and petroleum ether extract with mixed-type and noncompetitive inhibitions (K(i)=93.7 and 44.9μg/mL), respectively. Correlation study indicated that the inhibition was accounted for by the presence of eupatorin in the extracts. When IC(50) values of these extracts were expressed in volume per dose unit to reflect inhibitory effect at recommended human doses from commercially available products, moderate inhibition was also observed. In addition, CYP3A4 was strongly and noncompetitively inhibited by eupatorin alone, with a K(i) value of 9.3μM. These findings suggest that co-administration of OS products, especially those with high eupatorin content, with conventional drugs may have the potential to cause drug-herb interactions involving inhibition of major CYP enzymes.
  4. Taha MM, Abdul AB, Abdullah R, Ibrahim TA, Abdelwahab SI, Mohan S
    Chem. Biol. Interact., 2010 Aug 5;186(3):295-305.
    PMID: 20452335 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2010.04.029
    Zerumbone (ZER), a monosesquiterpene found in the subtropical ginger (Zingiber zerumbet Smith), possesses antiproliferative properties to several cancer cells lines, including the cervical, skin and colon cancers. In this study, the antitumourigenic effects of ZER were assessed in rats induced to develop liver cancer with a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 200 mg/kg) and dietary 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) (0.02%). The rats also received intraperitoneal ZER injections at 15, 30 or 60 mg/kg body wt. twice a week for 11 weeks, beginning week four post-DEN injection. The hepatocytes of positive control (DEN/AAF) rats were smaller with larger hyperchromatic nuclei than normal, showing cytoplasmic granulation and intracytoplasmic violaceous material, which were characteristics of hepatocarcinogenesis. Histopathological evaluations showed that ZER protects the rat liver from the carcinogenic effects of DEN and AAF. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were significantly lower (P<0.05) in ZER-treated than untreated rats with liver cancer. The liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations significantly (P<0.05) increased in the untreated DEN/AAF rats indicating hepatic lipid peroxidation. There was also significant (P<0.05) reduction in the hepatic tissue glutathione (GSH) concentrations. The liver sections of untreated DEN/AAF rats also showed abundant proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), while in ZER-treated rats the expression of this antigen was significantly (P<0.05) lowered. By the TUNEL assay, there were significantly (P<0.05) higher numbers of apoptotic cells in DEN/AAF rats treated with ZER than those untreated. Zerumbone treatment had also increased Bax and decreased Bcl-2 protein expression in the livers of DEN/AAF rats, which suggested increased apoptosis. Even after 11 weeks of ZER treatment, there was no evidence of abnormality in the liver of normal rats. This study suggests that ZER reduces oxidative stress, inhibits proliferation, induces mitochondria-regulated apoptosis, thus minimising DEN/AAF-induced carcinogenesis in rat liver. Therefore, ZER has great potential in the treatment of liver cancers.
  5. Chan KM, Rajab NF, Ishak MH, Ali AM, Yusoff K, Din LB, et al.
    Chem. Biol. Interact., 2006 Feb 1;159(2):129-40.
    PMID: 16297902
    Restenosis represents a major impediment to the success of coronary angioplasty. Abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has been shown to be an important process in the pathogenesis of restenosis. A number of agents, particularly rapamycin and paclitaxel, have been shown to impact on this process. This study was carried out to determine the mechanisms of cytotoxicity of goniothalamin (GN) on VSMCs. Results from MTT cytotoxicity assay showed that the IC(50) for GN was 4.4 microg/ml (22 microM), which was lower compared to the clinically used rapamycin (IC(50) of 25 microg/ml [27.346 microM]). This was achieved primarily via apoptosis where up to 25.83 +/- 0.44% of apoptotic cells were detected after 72 h treatment with GN. In addition, GN demonstrated similar effects as rapamycin in inhibiting VSMCs proliferation using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) cell proliferation assay after 72 h treatment at IC(50) concentration (p > 0.05). In order to understand the mechanisms of GN, DNA damage detection using comet assay was determined at 2h post-treatment with GN. Our results showed that there was a concentration-dependent increase in DNA damage in VSMCs prior to cytotoxicity. Moreover, GN effects were comparable to rapamycin. In conclusion, our data show that GN initially induces DNA damage which subsequently leads to cytotoxicity primarily via apoptosis in VSMCs.
  6. Inayat-Hussain SH, McGuinness SM, Johansson R, Lundstrom J, Ross D
    Chem. Biol. Interact., 2000 Aug 15;128(1):51-63.
    PMID: 10996300
    The hydroquinone and catechol like metabolites, NCQ344 and NCQ436 respectively, of the antipsychotic remoxipride have recently been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in myeloperoxidase (MPO)-rich human bone marrow progenitor and HL-60 cells [S.M. McGuinness, R. Johansson, J. Lundstrom, D. Ross, Induction of apoptosis by remoxipride metabolites in HL-60 and CD34+/CD19- human bone marrow progenitor cells: potential relevance to remoxipride-induced aplastic anemia, Chem. Biol. Interact. 121 (1999) 253-265]. In the present study, we determined the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis induced by these remoxipride metabolites in HL-60 cells. Our results show that apoptosis was accompanied by phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, activation of caspases-9, -3, -7 and DNA cleavage. In HL-60 cells treated with the hydroquinone NCQ344 and catechol NCQ436, the general caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp. fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD.FMK) blocked DNA cleavage and activation of caspases-9, -3/-7. In addition, PS exposure was significantly but not completely inhibited by Z-VAD.FMK. These results demonstrate that although Z-VAD.FMK inhibitable caspases are necessary for maximal apoptosis induced by NCQ344 and NCQ436, additional caspase-independent processes may orchestrate changes leading to PS exposure during apoptosis induced by the remoxipride polyphenolic metabolites.
  7. Inayat-Hussain SH, Ibrahim HA, Siew EL, Rajab NF, Chan KM, G T Williams, et al.
    Chem. Biol. Interact., 2010 Mar 19;184(1-2):310-2.
    PMID: 20025857 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2009.12.009
  8. Navanesan S, Abdul Wahab N, Manickam S, Cheow YL, Sim KS
    Chem. Biol. Interact., 2017 Aug 01;273:37-47.
    PMID: 28578903 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2017.05.022
    The active isolate of LF1 in Leptospermum javanicum was further looked into its capabilities in provoking an apoptotic reaction and suppressing the metastasis process in treated non-small lung cancer cells. LF1 underwent isolation and purification to yield a white powder which was identified as Betulinic acid (BA) via NMR, LCMS and IR spectroscopy. The isolate, BA, which produced an encouraging cytotoxic effect against non-small lung cancer cells (A549 and NCI-H1299) through the MTT assay, was further assessed with TUNEL, Sub-G1 population quantification, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining as well as activated caspase-3 detection. The results pointed towards the induction of apoptosis as a result of increasing doses of BA, regardless of the p53 status in both cell lines. Treatment with BA also prevented an effective attachment of the invasive A549 cells onto a new culture surface in addition to diminishing the migratory potential of treated cells across a porous membrane. Further investigation through the ELISA detection and gelatin zymography showed an adverse effect to production of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) while the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were not negatively affected. The findings from this study validate the potential of L. javanicum as a potential anti-cancer treatment as stated in our previous study. The isolate, BA not only showed a capacity in inducing apoptotic cell death in non-small lung cancer cells, but managed to distort the ability of the cancer cells in effectively undergoing the metastasis process.
  9. Ismail N, Ismail M, Azmi NH, Bakar MFA, Yida Z, Stanslas J, et al.
    Chem. Biol. Interact., 2017 Sep 25;275:61-73.
    PMID: 28734741 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2017.07.014
    The study determined the effect of thymoquinone rich fraction (TQRF) and thymoquinone (TQ) in the forms of nano- and conventional emulsions on learning and memory, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant status, antioxidants genes expression and soluble β-amyloid (Aβ) levels in rats fed with a high fat-cholesterol diet (HFCD). The TQRF was extracted from Nigella sativa seeds using a supercritical fluid extraction system and prepared into nanoemulsion, which later named as TQRF nanoemulsion (TQRFNE). Meanwhile, TQ was acquired commercially and prepared into thymoquinone nanoemulsion (TQNE). The TQRF and TQ conventional emulsions (CE), named as TQRFCE and TQCE, respectively were studied for comparison. Statin (simvastatin) and non-statin (probucol) cholesterol-lowering agents, and a mild-to-severe Alzheimer's disease drug (donepezil) were served as control drugs. The Sprague Dawley rats were fed with HFCD for 6 months, and treated with the intervention groups via oral gavage daily for the last 3 months. As a result, HFCD-fed rats exhibited hypercholesterolaemia, accompanied by memory deficit, increment of lipid peroxidation and soluble Aβ levels, decrement of total antioxidant status and down-regulation of antioxidants genes expression levels. TQRFNE demonstrated comparable effects to the other intervention groups and control drugs in serum biomarkers as well as in the learning and memory test. Somehow, TQRFNE was more prominent than those intervention groups and control drugs in brain biomarkers concomitant to gene and protein expression levels. Supplementation of TQRFNE into an HFCD thus could ameliorate memory deficit, lipid peroxidation and soluble Aβ levels as well as improving the total antioxidant status and antioxidants genes expression levels.
  10. Hematpoor A, Paydar M, Liew SY, Sivasothy Y, Mohebali N, Looi CY, et al.
    Chem. Biol. Interact., 2018 Jan 05;279:210-218.
    PMID: 29174417 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2017.11.014
    The aim of the present study is to isolate bioactive compounds from the roots of Piper sarmentosum and examine the mechanism of action using human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). Bioassay guided-fractionation of methanolic extract led to the isolation of asaricin (1) and isoasarone (2). Asaricin (1) and isoasarone (2) had significant cytotoxicity towards MDA-MB-231. MCF-10A (human normal breast epithelial cells) cells are less sensitive than MDA-MB-231, but they respond to the treatment with the same unit of measurement. Both compounds increase reactive oxygen species (ROS), decrease mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and enhance cytochrome c release in treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Isoasarone (2) markedly elevated caspase -8 and -3/7 activities and caused a decline in nuclear NF-κB translocation, suggesting extrinsic, death receptor-linked apoptosis pathway. Quantitative PCR results of MDA-MB-231 treated with asaricin (1) and isoasarone (2) showed altered expression of Bcl-2: Bax level. The inhibitory potency of these isolates may support the therapeutic uses of these compounds in breast cancer.
  11. Dua K, Malyla V, Singhvi G, Wadhwa R, Krishna RV, Shukla SD, et al.
    Chem. Biol. Interact., 2019 Feb 01;299:168-178.
    PMID: 30553721 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2018.12.009
    Oxidative stress is intensely involved in enhancing the severity of various chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), infections and lung cancer. Even though there are various existing anti-inflammatory therapies, which are not enough to control the inflammation caused due to various contributing factors such as anti-inflammatory genes and antioxidant enzymes. This leads to an urgent need of novel drug delivery systems to combat the oxidative stress. This review gives a brief insight into the biological factors involved in causing oxidative stress, one of the emerging hallmark feature in CRDs and particularly, highlighting recent trends in various novel drug delivery carriers including microparticles, microemulsions, microspheres, nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, solid lipid nanocarriers etc which can help in combating the oxidative stress in CRDs and ultimately reducing the disease burden and improving the quality of life with CRDs patients. These carriers improve the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability to the target site. However, there is an urgent need for translational studies to validate the drug delivery carriers for clinical administration in the pulmonary clinic.
  12. Fateh AH, Mohamed Z, Chik Z, Alsalahi A, Md Zin SR, Alshawsh MA
    Chem. Biol. Interact., 2019 May 01;304:28-42.
    PMID: 30807743 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2019.02.016
    Verbena officinalis is widely used by women for maintaining general health and treating various gynaecological disorders during pregnancy. A case report has indicated that the consumption of V. officinalis induced an abortifacient effect. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the prenatal developmental toxicity of this plant according to OECD guideline (no. 414). A total of 50 pregnant female rats (dams) were distributed into five groups (n = 10); 500 mg/kg 1000 mg/2000 mg/kg and 3000 mg/kg of V. offcinalis extracts and the fifth group served as a normal control. All dams received their respective oral single daily treatment from the 6th to the 20th day of gestation. Maternal clinical toxicity signs, body weight and weight gain were recorded. Caesarean sections were performed on day 21 to evaluate embryo-foetal developmental toxicity. For dams, ovaries were harvested and weighed. The number of corpora lutea, implantation sites, and resorptions were recorded. No mortality was observed in dams, but their body weight gain was significantly reduced particularly in dams treated with 2000 and 3000 mg/kg V. officinalis. Asymmetrical distribution of implantation sites and embryos were observed. Embryo-fetotoxicity retardation was observed as evident by the decrease in foetal weight, head cranium, tail length, and higher incidence in the pre-and post-implantation loss. Some foetal skeleton abnormalities such as incomplete ossification of skull, sternebrae, and metatarsal bones were observed in foetuses of the 2000 and 3000 mg/kg V. officinalis-treated dams. LC/MS analysis identified the major constituents including geniposidic acid, tuberonic acid glucoside, luteolin 7, 3'-digalacturonide, iridotrial and apigenin. The glycosylated flavonoids such as apigenin and luteolin could be responsible for the reported prenatal developmental toxicity. In conclusion, the use of V. officinalis during pregnancy is not safe indicating evidence-based toxic effects on the reproductive performance of dams and dose-dependent risk potentials to the foetuses.
  13. Mehta M, Deeksha, Sharma N, Vyas M, Khurana N, Maurya PK, et al.
    Chem. Biol. Interact., 2019 May 01;304:10-19.
    PMID: 30849336 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2019.02.021
    Macrophages are considered as the most flexible cells of the hematopoietic system that are distributed in the tissues to act against pathogens and foreign particles. Macrophages are essential in maintaining homeostatic tissue processes, repair and immunity. Also, play important role in cytokine secretion and signal transduction of the infection so as to develop acquired immunity. Accounting to their involvement in pathogenesis, macrophages present a therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory respiratory diseases. This review focuses on novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) including nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, microspheres etc that can target alveolar macrophage associated with inflammation, intracellular infection and lung cancer. The physiochemical properties and functional moieties of the NDDS attributes to enhanced macrophage targeting and uptake. The NDDS are promising for sustained drug delivery, reduced therapeutic dose, improved patient compliance and reduce drug toxicity. Further, the review also discuss about modified NDDS for specificity to the target and molecular targeting via anti-microbial peptides, kinases, NRF-2 and phosphodiesterase.
  14. Jaćević V, Nepovimova E, Kuča K
    Chem. Biol. Interact., 2019 Aug 01;308:312-316.
    PMID: 31153983 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2019.05.035
    K-oximes were developed as modern drug candidates acting as AChE reactivators. In this study, it has been investigated which interspecies and intergender differences changes could be observed in Wistar rats and Swiss mice, both genders, after the treatment with increasing doses of selected acetylcholinesterase reactivators - asoxime, obidoxime, K027, K048, and K075. After the 24 h, a number of died animals was counted and the median lethal dose (LD50) for each oxime was calculated. By using the intramuscular route of administration, asoxime and K027 had the least toxicity in female rats (640.21 mg/kg and 686.08 mg/kg), and in female mice (565.75 mg/kg and 565.74 mg/kg), respectively. Moreover, asoxime and K027 showed 3, 4 or 8 times less acute toxicity in comparison to K048, obidoxime and K075, respectively. Beyond, K075 had the greatest toxicity in male rats (81.53 mg/kg), and in male mice (57.34 mg/kg), respectively. Our results can help to predict likely adverse toxic effects, target organ systems and possible outcome in the event of massive human overexposure, and in establishing risk categories or in dose selection for the initial repeated dose toxicity tests to be conducted for each oxime.
  15. Sah SK, Samuel VP, Dahiya S, Singh Y, Gilhotra RM, Gupta G, et al.
    Chem. Biol. Interact., 2019 Jun 01;306:117-122.
    PMID: 31004596 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2019.04.022
    Major challenges of dealing elder patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are the individualization of consideration in persons with various comorbid types of conditions. In spite of the fact that microvascular and macrovascular problems associated with DM are well documented, there is only a few numbers of reports viewing different conditions, for example, cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive dysfunction is of specific significance due to its effect on self-care and quality of life. All in all, the etiology of cognitive dysfunction in the maturing populace is probably going to be the grouping of ischemic and degenerative pathology. It is likewise trusted that Hyperglycemia is engaged with the system of DM-related cognitive dysfunction. At present, it isn't certain in the case of enhancing glycemic control or utilizing therapeutic agents can enhance the risk of cognitive decay. Amylin was later characterized as an amyloidogenic peptide, confined from a beta cell tumor and called islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), and after that, amylin. Conversely, we investigate the beneficial role and hypothesizing the mechanism of amylin related expanding the level and activation of CGRP receptor to enhance the cognition declination amid diabetic dementia.
  16. Mehta M, Deeksha, Tewari D, Gupta G, Awasthi R, Singh H, et al.
    Chem. Biol. Interact., 2019 Aug 01;308:206-215.
    PMID: 31136735 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2019.05.028
    Oligonucleotide-based therapies are advanced novel interventions used in the management of various respiratory diseases such as asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). These agents primarily act by gene silencing or RNA interference. Better methodologies and techniques are the need of the hour that can deliver these agents to tissues and cells in a target specific manner by which their maximum potential can be reached in the management of chronic inflammatory diseases. Nanoparticles play an important role in the target-specific delivery of drugs. In addition, oligonucleotides also are extensively used for gene transfer in the form of polymeric, liposomal and inorganic carrier materials. Therefore, the current review focuses on various novel dosage forms like nanoparticles, liposomes that can be used efficiently for the delivery of various oligonucleotides such as siRNA and miRNA. We also discuss the future perspectives and targets for oligonucleotides in the management of respiratory diseases.
  17. Chellappan DK, Sze Ning QL, Su Min SK, Bin SY, Chern PJ, Shi TP, et al.
    Chem. Biol. Interact., 2019 Sep 01;310:108732.
    PMID: 31276660 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2019.108732
    BACKGROUND: The human body is a home to thousands of microbiotas. It is defined as a community of symbiotic, commensal and pathogenic microorganisms that have existed in all exposed sites of the body, which have co-evolved with diet, lifestyle, genetic factors and immune factors. Human microbiotas have been studied for years on their effects with relation to health and diseases.

    METHODS: Relevant published studies, literature and reports were searched from accessible electronic databases and related institutional databases. We used keywords, viz; microbiome, microbiota, microbiome drug delivery and respiratory disease. Selected articles were carefully read through, clustered, segregated into subtopics and reviewed.

    FINDINGS: The traditional belief of sterile lungs was challenged by the emergence of culture-independent molecular techniques and the recently introduced invasive broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) sampling method. The constitution of a lung microbiome mainly depends on three main ecological factors, which include; firstly, the immigration of microbes into airways, secondly, the removal of microbes from airways and lastly, the regional growth conditions. In healthy conditions, the microbial communities that co-exist in our lungs can build significant pulmonary immunity and could act as a barrier against diseases, whereas, in an adverse way, microbiomes may interact with other pathogenic bacteriomes and viromes, acting as a cofactor in inflammation and host immune responses, which may lead to the progression of a disease. Thus, the use of microbiota as a target, and as a drug delivery system in the possible modification of a disease state, has started to gain massive attention in recent years. Microbiota, owing to its unique characteristics, could serve as a potential drug delivery system, that could be bioengineered to suit the interest. The engineered microbiome-derived therapeutics can be delivered through BC, bacteriophage, bacteria-derived lipid vesicles and microbe-derived extracellular vesicles. This review highlights the relationships between microbiota and different types of respiratory diseases, the importance of microbiota towards human health and diseases, including the role of novel microbiome drug delivery systems in targeting various respiratory diseases.

  18. Sharma P, Mehta M, Dhanjal DS, Kaur S, Gupta G, Singh H, et al.
    Chem. Biol. Interact., 2019 Aug 25;309:108720.
    PMID: 31226287 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2019.06.033
    Cancer is one of the major diseases that cause a high number of deaths globally. Of the major types of cancers, lung cancer is known to be the most chronic form of cancer in the world. The conventional management of lung cancer includes different medical interventions like chemotherapy, surgical removal, and radiation therapy. However, this type of approach lacks specificity and also harms the adjacent normal cells. Lately, nanotechnology has emerged as a promising intervention in the management and treatment of lung cancers. Nanotechnology has revolutionized the existing modalities and focuses primarily on reducing toxicity and improving the bioavailability of anticancer drugs to the target tumor cells. Nanocarrier systems are being currently used extensively to exploit and to overcome the obstructions induced by cancers in the lungs. The nano-carrier-loaded therapeutic drug delivery methods have shown promising potential in treating lung cancer as its target is to control the growth of tumor cells. In this review, various modes of nano drug delivery options like liposomes, dendrimers, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes and metallic nanoparticles have been discussed. Nano-carrier drug delivery systems emerge as a promising approach and thus is expected to provide newer and advanced avenues in cancer therapeutics.
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