Restenosis represents a major impediment to the success of coronary angioplasty. Abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has been shown to be an important process in the pathogenesis of restenosis. A number of agents, particularly rapamycin and paclitaxel, have been shown to impact on this process. This study was carried out to determine the mechanisms of cytotoxicity of goniothalamin (GN) on VSMCs. Results from MTT cytotoxicity assay showed that the IC(50) for GN was 4.4 microg/ml (22 microM), which was lower compared to the clinically used rapamycin (IC(50) of 25 microg/ml [27.346 microM]). This was achieved primarily via apoptosis where up to 25.83 +/- 0.44% of apoptotic cells were detected after 72 h treatment with GN. In addition, GN demonstrated similar effects as rapamycin in inhibiting VSMCs proliferation using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) cell proliferation assay after 72 h treatment at IC(50) concentration (p > 0.05). In order to understand the mechanisms of GN, DNA damage detection using comet assay was determined at 2h post-treatment with GN. Our results showed that there was a concentration-dependent increase in DNA damage in VSMCs prior to cytotoxicity. Moreover, GN effects were comparable to rapamycin. In conclusion, our data show that GN initially induces DNA damage which subsequently leads to cytotoxicity primarily via apoptosis in VSMCs.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.