Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellated protozoan parasite, is commonly found in the genitourinary tract of humans. Its mode of reproduction has always been reported to be binary fission. The high parasite numbers seen in a relatively short period in in vitro cultures led us to believe that there must be other modes of reproduction. The present study for the first time provides transformational evidence at the ultrastructural level seen in tropohozoites of T. vaginalis undergoing a multiple asexual mode of reproduction. The findings show that the single cell with a nucleus is capable of dividing to as many as eight nuclei within the cytoplasmic body. Before the commencement of division, the nucleus remained round or ovoid in shape with condensed chromatin masses and only a few endoplasmic reticula surrounding the nucleus. During the division, the nucleus started to elongate and become irregular in shape with visible chromatin masses condensing with the accumulation of numerous endoplasmic reticula. Nuclear division gave rise to as many as eight nuclei within a cell, which could be seen to be connected by numerous endoplasmic reticula. In addition, a high number of hydrogenosomes and vacuoles can be seen in multinucleated T. vaginalis compared with single nucleated T. vaginalis. This study confirms that multiple modes of nuclear division do exist in T. vaginalis and are a precursor to progeny formation.
In the present study we investigated the effects of panduratin A, isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda, on proliferation and apoptosis in A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells. Cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis was determined by the real-time cellular analyzer (RTCA), MTT assay and High Content Screening (HCS). The RTCA assay indicated that panduratin A exhibited cytotoxicity, with an IC₅₀ value of 4.4 µg/mL (10.8 µM). Panduratin A arrested cancer cells labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and phospho-Histone H3 in the mitotic phase. The cytotoxic effects of panduratin A were found to be accompanied by a dose-dependent induction of apoptosis, as assessed by DNA condensation, nuclear morphology and intensity, cell permeability, mitochondrial mass/ potential, F-actin and cytochrome c. In addition, treatment with an apoptosis-inducing concentration of panduratin A resulted in significant inhibition of Nuclear Factor-kappa Beta (NF-κB) translocation from cytoplasm to nuclei activated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), as illustrated by the HCS assay. Our study provides evidence for cell growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis by panduratin A in the A549 cell line, suggesting its therapeutic potential as an NF-κB inhibitor.
Forty-eight patients with breast carcinoma were subjected to four quadrant fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology examination of the ipsilateral and contralateral breast in an attempt to detect any accompanying benign proliferative lesion. Mastectomy of ipsilateral and open biopsy of contralateral breast provided material for histopathological study. Cytological evidence of epithelial proliferation was found in 8 (16.6%) cases which included atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH), lobular neoplasia in-situ (LNIS), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and proliferative disease without atypia (PDWA). In lobular proliferative lesions, cytological smears showed configurations of cells that resembled filled up or expanded lobular units. The cytology was not distinctive enough to distinguish the sub-types of lobular proliferations. Likewise, the presence of ductal alterations could be suggested by cytological study but the distinction of proliferative disease without atypia (PDWA) from atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) was not possible on a cytological basis.
Seventy-eight symptomatic females without palpable breast lumps were subjected to bilateral four quadrant fine needle aspiration cytology. Cytological evidence of an epithelial proliferative lesion was seen in 44 of these cases. Based on the cytological evidence of proliferation, the site for open biopsy was determined. Histopathological study of the breast biopsies in these patients showed proliferative disease without atypia (PDWA) in 40 cases, atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) in two, atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) in one and ADH with ALH in one case. Cytology was thus useful in establishing the presence of proliferative activity, commenting on the extent of proliferation, and thereby roughly mapping out the area of the breast most suitable for biopsy. On cytological grounds, it was not possible to distinguish the atypical hyperplastic lesions from the proliferative diseases without atypia.
Camel milk has been gaining immmense importance due to high nutritious value and medicinal properties. Peptides from milk proteins is gaining popularity in various therapeutics including human cancer. The study was aimed to investigate the anti-cancerous and anti-inflammatory properties of camel whey protein hydrolysates (CWPHs). CWPHs were generated at three temperatures (30 ℃, 37 ℃, and 45 ℃), two hydrolysis timepoints (120 and 360 min) and with three different enzyme concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2 %). CWPHs demonstrated an increase in anti-inflammatory effect between 732.50 (P-6.1) and 3779.16 (P-2.1) µg Dicolfenac Sodium Equivalent (DSE)/mg protein. CWPHs (P-4.3 & 5.2) inhibited growth of human colon carcinoma cells (HCT116) with an IC50 value of 231 and 221 μg/ml, respectively. P-4.3 induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and modulated the expression of Cdk1, p-Cdk1, Cyclin B1, p-histone H3, p21 and p53. Docking of two peptides (AHLEQVLLR and ALPNIDPPTVER) from CWPHs (P-4.3) identified Polo like kinase 1 as a potential target, which strongly supports our in vitro data and provides an encouraging insight into developing a novel peptide-based anticancer formulation. These results suggest that the active component, CWPHs (P-4.3), can be further studied and modeled to form a small molecule anti-cancerous therapy.
Stem cells, also known as mother cells are capable of undergoing both cell division and differentiation. The most primitive stem cells are totipotent cells which are capable of producing a complete organism from one cell. There are two types of haemopoietic stem cells depending on their developmental stages known as embryo and adult haemopoietic stem cells. Studies showed that only 0.01-0.05% of total bone marrow cell population consists of haemopoietic stem cells. This small population of stem cells exists in three different sizes with different characteristics. In addition, the microenvironment which contains various regulatory molecules plays an important role in the differentiation of stem cells into specific adult cells.
[Sel stem juga dikenali sebagai sel induk berupaya untuk menjalani kedua-dua proses pembahagian dan pembezaan sel. Sel stem yang paling primitif iaitu sel totipoten berupaya untuk membentuk satu organisma lengkap daripada satu sel. Sel stem hemopoietik terdiri daripada dua jenis bergantung kepada peringkat perkembangan individu iaitu sel stem hemopoietik embrio dan dewasa. Kajian mendapati hanya 0.01-0.05% daripada keseluruhan populasi sel sumsum tulang berupaya bertindak sebagai sel stem hemopoietik. Daripada julat yang kecil ini sel stem hemopoietik wujud dalam tiga saiz yang mempunyai ciri yang berbeza. Selain daripada itu mikrosekitaran yang mempunyai molekul-molekul regulatori yang berbeza-beza juga memainkan peranan yang penting dalam pembezaan sel stem kepada sel-sel matang yang spesifik].
Erythropoietin receptors (EPORs) are present not only in erythrocyte precursors but also in non-hematopoietic cells including cancer cells. In this study, we determined the effect of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in culture medium on the EPOR expression and viability of the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 and ER-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Using flow cytometry, we showed that the inclusion of 10% FBS in the medium increased the EPOR expressions and viabilities of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. The MDA-MB-231 showed greater EPOR expression than MCF-7 cells, suggesting that the presence of ERs on cells is associated with poor expression of EPOR. Culture medium containing 10% FBS also caused increased number of breast cancer cells entering the synthesis phase of the cell cycle. The study also showed that rHuEPO treatment did not affect viability of breast cancer cells. In conclusion, it was shown that the inclusion of FBS in culture medium increased expression of EPOR in breast cancer cells and rHuEPO treatment had no effect on the proliferation of these cancer cells.
Selections of collagen available commercially were tested for their biocompatibility as scaffold to promote cell growth in vitro via simple collagen fast test and cultivation of mammalian cells on the selected type of collagen. It was found that collagen type C9791 promotes the highest degree of aggregation as well as cells growth. This preliminary study also indicated potential use of collagen as scaffold in engineered tissue.
To date there is no optimal approach to reconstruct an external ear. However, advances in tissue engineering technologies have indicated that in vitro autologous elastic cartilage might be of great importance in the future treatment of these patients. The aim of this study was to observe monolayer expansion of auricular cartilage and to evaluate engineered cartilage using standard histochemical study.
There was a significant increased in Absolute Contact Length measurements of endosteal bone growth along the Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) implant coated with the natural coral powder and Hydroxyapatite (HA) compared to the non-calcium coated implants. This study demonstrated that coated implants seemed to show earlier and higher osseointergration phenomena compared to non coated ones. Furthermore, there was significantly greater bone-to-implant contact at the apical 1/3rd of the coated implants.
The strategy used to generate tissue-engineered bone construct, in view of future clinical application is presented here. Osteoprogenitor cells from periosteum of consenting scoliosis patients were isolated. Growth factors viz TGF-B2, bFGF and IGF-1 were used in concert to increase cell proliferation during in vitro cell expansion. Porous tricalcium phosphate (TCP)-hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold was used as the scaffold to form 3D bone construct. We found that the addition of growth factors, greatly increased cell growth by 2 to 7 fold. TCP/HA proved to be the ideal scaffold for cell attachment and proliferation. Hence, this model will be further carried out on animal trial.
Animal serum is commonly used in chondrocytes culture expansion to promote cell proliferation and shorten the time lag before new tissue reconstruction is possible. However, animal serum is not suitable for regeneration of clinical tissue because it has potential risk of viral and prion related disease transmission particularly mad cow disease and foreign protein contamination that can stimulate immune reaction leading to graft rejection. In this context, human serum as homologous supplement has a greater potential as growth promoting agents for human chondrocytes culture.
Autologous cells are usually preferred in treating damaged tissue to avoid risks of immunological rejection and transmitting infectious diseases. Since only limited amount of tissue can be obtained without causing morbidity at the donor site, in vitro expansion of isolated cell is essential in order to acquire sufficient number of cells to reconstruct neocartilage. The aim of this study was to examine whether serial expanded chondrocytes can be use to generate neocartilage in vivo.
Culture media supplemented with animal serum e.g. fetal bovine serum; FBS is commonly used for human culture expansion. However, for clinical application, FBS is restricted as its carry a risk of viral or prion transmission. Engineering autologous cartilage with autologous human serum supplementation is seen as a better solution to reduce the risk of transmitting infectious diseases and immune rejection during cartilage transplantation. The purpose of this study is to establish and compare the effects of 10% autologous human serum (AHS) and 10% FBS on the growth of chondrocytes and the formation of tissue engineered human articular cartilage.
The tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) of palm oil consists of tocotrienols and some alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T). Tocotrienols are a form of vitamin E having an unsaturated side-chain, rather than the saturated side-chain of the more common tocopherols. Because palm oil has been shown not to promote chemically-induced mammary carcinogenesis, we tested effects of TRF and alpha-T on the proliferation, growth, and plating efficiency (PE) of the MDA-MB-435 estrogen-receptor-negative human breast cancer cells. TRF inhibited the proliferation of these cells with a concentration required to inhibit cell proliferation by 50% of 180 microgram/mL whereas alpha-T had no effect at concentrations up to 1000 microgram/mL as measured by incorporation of [3H]thymidine. The effects of TRF and alpha-T also were tested in longer-term growth experiments, using concentrations of 180 and 500 microgram/mL. We found that TRF inhibited the growth of these cells by 50%, whereas alpha-T did not. Their effect on the ability of these cells to form colonies also was studied, and it was found that TRF inhibited PE, whereas alpha T had no effect. These results suggest that the inhibition is due to the presence of tocotrienols in TRF rather than alpha T.
Previous studies have shown that a styrylpyrone derivative (SPD) from a local tropical plant had antiprogestin and antiestrogenic effects in early pregnant mice models (Azimahtol et al. 1991). Antiprogestins and antiestrogens can be exploited as a therapeutic approach to breast cancer treatment and thus the antitumor activity of SPD was tested in three different human breast cancer cell lines that is: MCF- 7, T47D and MDA-MB-231, employing, the antiproliferative assay of Lin and Hwang (1991) slightly modified. SPD (10(-10) - 10(-6) M) exhibited strong antiproliferative activity in estrogen and progestin-dependent MCF-7 cells (EC50 = 2.24 x 10(-7) M) and in hormone insensitive MDA-MB-231 (EC50 = 5.62 x 10(-7) M), but caused only partial inhibition of the estrogen- insensitive T47D cells (EC50 = 1.58 x 10(-6) M). However, tamoxifen showed strong inhibition of MCF-7 cells (EC50 = 1.41 x 10(-6) M) and to a lesser extent the T47D cells (EC50 = 2.5 x 10(-6) M) but did not affect the MDA-MB-231 cells. SPD at 1 microM exerted a beffer antiestrogenic activity than 1 microM tamoxifen in suppressing the growth of MCF-7 cells stimulated by 1 nM estradiol. Combined treatment of both SPD and tamoxifen at 1 microM showed additional inhibition on the growth of MCF-7 cells in culture. The antiproliferative properties of SPD are effective on both receptor positive and receptor negative mammary cancer cells, and thus appear to be neither dependent on cellular receptor status nor cellular hormone responses. This enhances in vivo approaches as tumors are heterogenous masses with varying receptor status.
Sporulation of Clostridium bifermentans serovar malaysia, which has a larvicidal activity towards mosquitoes, was examined by electron microscopy. Parasporal inclusion bodies lacking a crystalline structure were first detected at t5 (5 h after the end of exponentional growth). Also, the presence of "brush-bottle"-like appendages appearing first at t5 was noted; these remained attached to the spores when released after sporangium lysis. Larvicidal activity assayed on Anopheles stephensi larvae appeared at t0 and increased rapidly to a maximum between t5 and t8. However, a decrease in bacterial toxicity occurred with sporangium lysis.