Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 92 in total

  1. Ng S, Lasekan O, Muhammad K, Sulaiman R, Hussain N
    Chem Cent J, 2014;8(1):55.
    PMID: 25317204 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-014-0055-2
    Proper roasting is crucial to flavor, color, and texture development in the final product. In recent years, several research studies have been carried out to establish the best optimum roasting conditions for some common edible nuts such as; hazelnut, peanut, and pistachio nut. Although roasting is an important process for nuts and oilseeds, there is little or no information on the development of color, aroma, and textural changes in Terminalia catappa nuts during roasting.
  2. Rizwan K, Zubair M, Rasool N, Ali S, Zahoor AF, Rana UA, et al.
    Chem Cent J, 2014;8:74.
    PMID: 25685184 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-014-0074-z
    It is seen that the regioselective functionalizations of halogenated heterocycles play an important role in the synthesis of several types of organic compounds. In this domain, the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction has emerged as a convenient way to build carbon-carbon bonds in synthesizing organic compounds. Some of the most important applications of these reactions can be seen in the synthesis of natural products, and in designing targeted pharmaceutical compounds. Herein, we present the regioselective synthesis of the novel series of 2-(bromomethyl)-5-aryl-thiophenes 3a-i, via Suzuki cross-coupling reactions of various aryl boronic acids with 2-bromo-5-(bromomethyl)thiophene (2).
  3. Kura AU, Hussein MZ, Fakurazi S, Arulselvan P
    Chem Cent J, 2014;8(1):47.
    PMID: 25177361 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-014-0047-2
    The production of layered double hydroxide(LDH) nanocomposite as an alternative drug delivery system against various ailments is on the increase. Their toxicity potential is usually dose and time dependent with particle sizes, shapes and surface charge playing some role both in the in vitro and in vivo studies. The reticular endothelial system of especially the liver and spleen were shown to sequestrate most of these nanocomposite, especially those with sizes greater than 50 nm. The intracellular drug delivery by these particles is mainly via endocytotic pathways aided by the surface charges in most cases. However, structural modification of these nanocomposite via coating using different types of material may lower the toxicity where present. More importantly, the coating may serve as targeting ligand hence, directing drug distribution and leading to proper drug delivery to specific area of need; it equally decreases the unwanted nanocomposite accumulation in especially the liver and spleen. These nanocomposite have the advantage of wider bio-distribution irrespective of route of administration, excellent targeted delivery potential with ease of synthetic modification including coating.
  4. Hemamalini M, Loh WS, Quah CK, Fun HK
    Chem Cent J, 2014;8:31.
    PMID: 24887234 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-8-31
    Co-crystal is a structurally homogeneous crystalline material that contains two or more neutral building blocks that are present in definite stoichiometric amounts. The main advantage of co-crystals is their ability to generate a variety of solid forms of a drug that have distinct physicochemical properties from the solid co-crystal components. In the present investigation, five co-crystals containing 2-amino-6-chloropyridine (AMPY) moiety were synthesized and characterized.
  5. Lee HV, Juan JC, Binti Abdullah NF, Nizah Mf R, Taufiq-Yap YH
    Chem Cent J, 2014;8:30.
    PMID: 24812574 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-8-30
    Transesterification catalyzed by solid base catalyst is a brilliant technology for the noble process featuring the fast reaction under mild reacting condition in biodiesel production. Heterogeneous base catalysts are generally more reactive than solid acid catalysts which require extreme operating condition for high conversion and biodiesel yield. In the present study, synthesis of biodiesel was studied by using edible (palm) or non-edible (Jatropha) feedstock catalyzed by heterogeneous base catalysts such as supported alkali metal (NaOH/Al2O3), alkaline-earth metal oxide (MgO, CaO and SrO) and mixed metal oxides catalysts (CaMgO and CaZnO).
  6. Salimon J, Abdullah BM, Yusop RM, Salih N
    Chem Cent J, 2014;8(1):16.
    PMID: 24612780 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-8-16
    Vegetable oils have different unique properties owing to their unique chemical structure. Vegetable oils have a greater ability to lubricate and have higher viscosity indices. Therefore, they are being more closely examined as base oil for biolubricants and functional fluids. In spite of their many advantages, vegetable oils suffer from two major drawbacks of inadequate oxidative stability and poor low-temperature properties, which hinder their utilization as biolubricant base oils. Transforming alkene groups in fatty acids to other stable functional groups could improve the oxidative stability, whereas reducing structural uniformity of the oil by attaching alkyl side chains could improve the low-temperature performance. In that light, the epoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids is very interesting as it can provide diverse side chains arising from the mono- or di-epoxidation of the unsaturated fatty acid. Oxirane ring opening by an acid-catalyzed reaction with a suitable reagent provides interesting polyfunctional compounds.
  7. Imran M, Rasool N, Rizwan K, Zubair M, Riaz M, Zia-Ul-Haq M, et al.
    Chem Cent J, 2014;8(1):12.
    PMID: 24524349 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-8-12
    Current study has been designed to estimate the possible antioxidant, antimicrobial and hemolytic potential of Ficus benjamina different parts (leaves, stem and root).
  8. Balavandy SK, Shameli K, Biak DR, Abidin ZZ
    Chem Cent J, 2014;8(1):11.
    PMID: 24524329 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-8-11
    This study aims to investigate the influence of different stirring time for synthesis of silver nanoparticles in glutathione (GSH) aqueous solution. The silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were prepared by green synthesis method using GSH as reducing agent and stabilizer, under moderate temperature at different stirring times. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) was taken as the metal precursor while Ag-NPs were prepared in the over reaction time.
  9. Anarjan N, Nehdi IA, Tan CP
    Chem Cent J, 2013;7(1):127.
    PMID: 23875816 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-7-127
    The emulsification-evaporation method was used to prepare astaxanthin nanodispersions using a three-component emulsifier system composed of Tween 20, sodium caseinate and gum Arabic. Using Response-surface methodology (RSM), we studied the main and interaction effects of the major emulsion components, namely, astaxanthin concentration (0.02-0.38 wt %, x1), emulsifier concentration (0.2-3.8 wt %, x2) and organic phase (dichloromethane) concentration (2-38 wt %, x3) on nanodispersion characteristics. The physicochemical properties considered as response variables were: average particle size (Y1), PDI (Y2) and astaxanthin loss (Y3).
  10. Moniruzzaman M, Sulaiman SA, Khalil MI, Gan SH
    Chem Cent J, 2013;7:138.
    PMID: 23938192 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-7-138
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of four Malaysian monofloral types of honey (gelam, longan, rubber tree and sourwood honeys) compared to manuka honey. Several physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content, were measured. A number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) levels were determined using high performance liquid chromatography.
  11. Abdollahi Y, Zakaria A, Aziz RS, Tamili SN, Matori KA, Shahrani NM, et al.
    Chem Cent J, 2013;7:137.
    PMID: 23938168 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-7-137
    In fabrication of ZnO-based low voltage varistor, Bi2O3 and TiO2 have been used as former and grain growth enhancer factors respectively. Therefore, the molar ratio of the factors is quit important in the fabrication. In this paper, modeling and optimization of Bi2O3 and TiO2 was carried out by response surface methodology to achieve maximized electrical properties. The fabrication was planned by central composite design using two variables and one response. To obtain actual responses, the design was performed in laboratory by the conventional methods of ceramics fabrication. The actual responses were fitted into a valid second order algebraic polynomial equation. Then the quadratic model was suggested by response surface methodology. The model was validated by analysis of variance which provided several evidences such as high F-value (153.6), very low P-value (<0.0001), adjusted R-squared (0.985) and predicted R-squared (0.947). Moreover, the lack of fit was not significant which means the model was significant.
  12. Lee SP, Ramli A
    Chem Cent J, 2013;7(1):149.
    PMID: 24011181 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-7-149
    Catalytic deoxygenation is a prominent process for production of renewable fuels from vegetable oil. In this work, deoxygenation of technical grade methyl oleate to diesel fuel aliphatic hydrocarbons (C15 - C18) is evaluated with several parameters including temperature, hydrogen pressure and reaction time in a stirred batch reactor over Pd/SBA-15 catalysts.
  13. Arip MN, Heng LY, Ahmad M, Hasbullah SA
    Chem Cent J, 2013;7:122.
    PMID: 23867006 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-7-122
    A novel optical sensor for the rapid and direct determination of permethrin preservatives in treated wood was designed. The optical sensor was fabricated from the immobilisation of 2,6-dichloro-p-benzoquinone-4-chloroimide (Gibbs reagent) in nafion/sol-gel hybrid film and the mode of detection was based on absorption spectrophotometry. Physical entrapment was employed as a method of immobilisation.
  14. Salih N, Salimon J, Yousif E, Abdullah BM
    Chem Cent J, 2013;7(1):128.
    PMID: 23885790 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-7-128
    Plant oils have been investigated as a potential source of environmentally favorable biolubricants because of their biodegradability, renewability and excellent lubrication performance. Low oxidation and thermal stability, poor low-temperature properties and a narrow range of available viscosities, however, limit their potential application as industrial lubricants. The inherent problems of plant oils can be improved by attaching functional groups at the sites of unsaturation through chemical modifications. In this article, we will demonstrate how functionalization helps overcome these disadvantages.
  15. Abdul Latip AF, Hussein MZ, Stanslas J, Wong CC, Adnan R
    Chem Cent J, 2013;7:119.
    PMID: 23849189 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-7-119
    Layered hydroxides salts (LHS), a layered inorganic compound is gaining attention in a wide range of applications, particularly due to its unique anion exchange properties. In this work, layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (LZH), a family member of LHS was intercalated with anionic ciprofloxacin (CFX), a broad spectrum antibiotic via ion exchange in a mixture solution of water:ethanol.
  16. M Zawawi SM, Yahya R, Hassan A, Mahmud HN, Daud MN
    Chem Cent J, 2013;7(1):80.
    PMID: 23634962 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-7-80
    Metal tungstates have attracted much attention due to their interesting structural and photoluminescence properties. Depending on the size of the bivalent cation present, the metal tungstates will adopt structures with different phases. In this work, three different phases of metal tungstates MWO4 (M= Ba, Ni and Bi) were synthesized via the sucrose templated method.
  17. Auyoong YL, Yap PL, Huang X, Abd Hamid SB
    Chem Cent J, 2013;7:67.
    PMID: 23575312 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-7-67
    For decades, copper sulphide has been renowned as the superior optical and semiconductor materials. Its potential applications can be ranged from solar cells, lithium-ion batteries, sensors, and catalyst systems. The synthesis methodologies of copper sulphide with different controlled morphology have been widely explored in the literature. Nevertheless, the understanding on the formation chemistry of CuS is still limited. The ultimate approach undertaking in this article is to investigate the formation of CuS hexagonal plates via the optimization of reaction parameters in hydrothermal reaction between copper (II) nitrate and sodium thiosulphate without appending any assistant agent.
  18. Saadati N, Abdullah MP, Zakaria Z, Sany SB, Rezayi M, Hassonizadeh H
    Chem Cent J, 2013;7(1):63.
    PMID: 23561579 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-7-63
    Reliable values for method validity of organochlorine pesticides determination were investigated, in water by solid phase extraction and in sediment by Soxhlet extraction, followed by gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector. Organochlorine pesticides are categorized as Persistent Organic Pollutants. Hence, critical decisions to control exposure to these chemicals in the environment are based on their levels in different media; it is important to find valid qualitative and quantitative results for these components. In analytical chemistry, internal quality procedures are applied to produce valid logical results.
  19. Abdollahi Y, Zakaria A, Abbasiyannejad M, Masoumi HR, Moghaddam MG, Matori KA, et al.
    Chem Cent J, 2013;7(1):96.
    PMID: 23731706 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-7-96
    The complexity of reactions and kinetic is the current problem of photodegradation processes. Recently, artificial neural networks have been widely used to solve the problems because of their reliable, robust, and salient characteristics in capturing the non-linear relationships between variables in complex systems. In this study, an artificial neural network was applied for modeling p-cresol photodegradation. To optimize the network, the independent variables including irradiation time, pH, photocatalyst amount and concentration of p-cresol were used as the input parameters, while the photodegradation% was selected as output. The photodegradation% was obtained from the performance of the experimental design of the variables under UV irradiation. The network was trained by Quick propagation (QP) and the other three algorithms as a model. To determine the number of hidden layer nodes in the model, the root mean squared error of testing set was minimized. After minimizing the error, the topologies of the algorithms were compared by coefficient of determination and absolute average deviation.
  20. Ahmad M, Yamin BM, Mat Lazim A
    Chem Cent J, 2013;7:85.
    PMID: 23680098 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-7-85
    α-Mangostin was extracted with methanol from the rind of mangosteen fruit and purified by using silica gel column chromatography technique. The compound is characterised using infrared, (13)C and (1)H NMR as well as UV-vis spectroscopy. The α-mangostin dispersion in colloidal systems was studied by incorporating it with an ionic microgel, poly (N-Isopropylacrylamide)-co-2VP at different pH.
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