A 90-day feeding trial was conducted on the growth performance, feeding efficacy, body indices, various hematological and plasma biochemical parameters, and histopathological examination of the gonads from male and female Nile tilapia fingerlings when fed different crude plant extracts from Cinnamomum camphora, Euphorbia hirta, Azadirachta indica, or Carica papaya at 2 g kg(-1) compared to a control diet. This was followed by a 14-day challenge to Streptococcus agalactiae. All treatments were triplicated, and each treatment consisted of 30 fish. Results showed that C. papaya extracts were the most effective at delaying gonadal maturation to both male and female tilapia, as well as significantly increasing (P < 0.05) growth performance compared to the control treatment. Similarly, dietary C. camphora and E. hirta extracts also significantly improved growth, while no significant growth effect was detected between the A. indica and control treatments (P > 0.05). Further, crude body lipid was lower in the C. camphora, E. hirta and C. papaya treatments, but was only significantly lower for the E. hirta treatment compared to the control. Meanwhile, none of the hematological or biochemical parameters were significantly affected, although plasma ALT was significantly lower for tilapia fed A. indica compared to the control. After the 14-day bacterial challenge, tilapia fed C. camphora supplementation had significantly higher survival, compared to the control, but was not significantly higher than the other supplemented diets. Results indicate that dietary C. papaya extract can significantly promote growth and delay gonadal maturation to both male and female tilapia, while C. camphora was the most effective prophylactic to S. agalactiae and may be a cost-effective and eco-friendly alternative to antibiotics.
Vitamin E, a potent antioxidant consisting of four isomers each (α, β, γ, δ) of tocopherol (T) and tocotrienol (T3), is found naturally in plant oils at different concentrations. In this study, four semi-purified isonitrogenous and isolipidic (10 %) diets containing canola oil, cold-pressed soybean oil, wheat germ oil, or palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD) as the sole vitamin E source were fed to triplicate groups of red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fingerlings (14.82 ± 0.05 g) for 45 days. Vitamin E concentrations and composition were measured in the muscle, liver, skin, and adipose tissue. Deposition of α-T (53.4-93.1 % of total vitamin E) predominated over deposition of other isomers, except in the liver of fish fed the SBO diet, where α-T and γ-T deposition was in the ratio 40:60. T3 deposition (2.6-29.4 %) was only detected in tissues of fish fed the PFAD diet; adipose tissue was the major storage depot. Fish fed the SBO diet contained significantly more (P
A new proteomics technology has been implemented to study the protein repertoires of developing oocytes of giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus). Knowledge of the chemical composition and physiochemical properties of vitellogenin (Vtg) is necessary to interpret the functional and biological properties attributed during ovulation. Vtg, as a biomarker indicator in sex determination, has been analyzed to determine the sex and maturational status of fish in the absence of the gonad tissue. A male giant grouper was induced by 2 mg/kg of 17ß-estradiol (E2), and blood was sampled at days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 10. SDS-PAGE 1D electrophoresis was used to analyze Vtg protein, and Vtg identification was done with 4800 Plus MALDI TOF/TOF™ mass spectrophotometer (Applied Biosystems/MDS SCIEX, USA). Meanwhile, MS/MS de novo sequencing identified the proteins by matching sequences of tryptic peptides to the known sequences of other species. Vtg was confirmed by MASCOT at 95% significant level, and molecular mass was 187 kDa. Protein resolved on SDS-PAGE as a double band of approximately the same mass as determined with MALDI-TOF. The N-terminal sequences and identification of Vtg were also determined. The potential of using MS methods to understand the structure and function of Vtg is discussed.
Plasma sex steroid hormonal profile and gonad histology were correlated to study the annual reproductive cycle of Hemibagrus nemurus. Hormones were measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Gonad tissues were observed by using light microscopy. The highest testosterone (T) value for male was observed in November and that of female was in October. 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels were highest in June and November, respectively. Hormonal profiles of T, 11-KT and E2 showed several peaks which indicated a non-seasonal pattern. There were significant differences (p
Tor tor is an important game and food fish of India with a distribution throughout Asia from the trans-Himalayan region to the Mekong River basin to Malaysia, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia. A new cell line named TTCF was developed from the caudal fin of T. tor for the first time. The cell line was optimally maintained at 28°C in Leibovitz-15 (L-15) medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The propagation of TTCF cells showed a high plating efficiency of 63.00%. The cytogenetic analysis revealed a diploid count of 100 chromosomes at passage 15, 30, 45 and 60 passages. The viability of the TTCF cell line was found to be 72% after 6 months of cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen (-196°C). The origin of the cell lines was confirmed by the amplification of 578- and 655-bp sequences of 16S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) respectively. TTCF cells were successfully transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter plasmids. Further, immunocytochemistry studies confirm its fibroblastic morphology of cells. Genotoxicity assessment of H₂O₂ in TTCF cell line revealed the utility of TTCF cell line as in vitro model for aquatic toxicological studies.
Lates calcarifer, commonly known as the Asian sea bass or barramundi, is an interesting species that has great aquaculture potential in Asia including Malaysia and also Australia. We have investigated essential fatty acid metabolism in this species, focusing on the endogenous highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) synthesis pathway using both biochemical and molecular biological approaches. Fatty acyl desaturase (Fad) and elongase (Elovl) cDNAs were cloned and functional characterization identified them as ∆6 Fad and Elovl5 elongase enzymes, respectively. The ∆6 Fad was equally active toward 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6, and Elovl5 exhibited elongation activity for C18-20 and C20-22 elongation and a trace of C22-24 activity. The tissue profile of gene expression for ∆6 fad and elovl5 genes, showed brain to have the highest expression of both genes compared to all other tissues. The results of tissue fatty acid analysis showed that the brain contained more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) than flesh, liver and intestine. The HUFA synthesis activity in isolated hepatocytes and enterocytes using [1-(14)C]18:3n-3 as substrate was very low with the only desaturated product detected being 18:4n-3. These findings indicate that L. calcarifer display an essential fatty acid pattern similar to other marine fish in that they appear unable to synthesize HUFA from C18 substrates. High expression of ∆6 fad and elovl5 genes in brain may indicate a role for these enzymes in maintaining high DHA levels in neural tissues through conversion of 20:5n-3.
Copper is one of the major heavy metal pollutants found in the aquatic environment. Therefore, it is important for determining the genes that play a key role in copper metabolism in aquatic organisms. This study, thus, aimed to identify a new copper-inducible gene in swordtail fish, Xiphophorus helleri. Using ACP-based RT-PCR coupled with RLM-RACE, we cloned Wap65, a mammalian homologue of hemopexin gene. The gene exhibits high identity at amino acid levels with the Wap65 gene of other fish species (42-68%) and mammalian hemopexin gene (35-37%). In addition, ten cysteine and two histidine residues are conserved in the swordtail fish Wap65 gene. These cysteine residues are vital for structural integrity, and histidine residues provide high binding affinity towards heme. As revealed by RT-PCR, the gene was upregulated in swordtail fish that were exposed to copper in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Therefore, the identification of Wap65, a mammalian homologue of hemopexin, as a new copper-inducible gene will provide greater insight into the role of this gene in copper metabolism.
We have developed a novel single cell real-time quantitative PCR technique, which incorporates harvesting marker-identified single cells using laser-capture. Here, for the first time in a vertebrate species, using this innovative single cell gene profiling technique, we report the presence of G-protein coupled receptors in individual gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and endocrine cells of the pituitary of the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The differential expression of multiple combinations of three GnRH receptor types (R1, R2 and R3) in individual gonadotropic and nongonadotropic cells demonstrates cellular and functional heterogeneity. The differential use of GnRH receptors in corticotropes, melanotropes and thyrotropes during gonadal maturation and reproductive behaviors suggests new roles for these hormones. Further, we provide evidence of the structure of a novel nonmammalian G-protein coupled receptor (GPR54) for kisspeptins, encoded by Kiss-1 gene, which is highly conserved during evolution and expressed in GnRH1, GnRH2 and GnRH3 neurons. We hypothesize GPR54 stimulates GnRH secretion and is crucial for pubertal maturation. We speculate, the use of this method will allow the identification and quantification of known and unknown genes in single cells, which would greatly facilitate our understanding of the complex interactions that govern the physiology of individual cells in vertebrates species.
Increasing demand for eco-friendly botanical piscicides and pesticides as replacements for harmful synthetic chemicals has led to investigation of new sources of plant materials. Stem bark of Terminalia arjuna, which has been used as a popular folk medicine since ancient time, was examined for its piscicidal activity. This study aims to determine toxicity of ethanol extract of T. arjuna bark on fresh water stinging catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis), along with evaluation of changes in hematological parameters of the fishes exposed to a lethal concentration. The percent mortality of fishes varied significantly in response to concentrations of the extract and exposure times (between exposure time F = 36.57, p < 0.001; between concentrations F = 39.93, p < 0.001). The lethal concentrations (LC50) of ethanol extract were found to be 12.7, 8.94, 5.63 and 4.71 mg/l for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. During acute toxicity test, blood samples of treatment fishes showed significant decreases in the red blood cells count, hematocrit content, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and plasma protein level when compared to those of the control group, while there were significant increases in the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, white blood cells count and plasma glucose concentration. These results suggest that T. arjuna bark extract could be considered as a potent piscicide due to its toxic effect on fish, particularly fish hematology.
Despite the potential of vegetable oils as aquafeed ingredients, a major drawback associated with their utilization is the inferior level of beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Echium oil (EO), which is rich in stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3), could potentially improve the deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA as the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA is enhanced through bypassing the rate-limiting ∆6 desaturation step. We report for the first time an attempt to investigate whether the presence of a desaturase (Fads2) capable of ∆4 desaturation activities and an elongase (Elovl5) will leverage the provision of dietary SDA to produce a higher rate of LC-PUFA bioconversion. Experimental diets were designed containing fish oil (FO), EO or linseed oil (LO) (100FO, 100EO, 100LO), and diets which comprised equal mixtures of the designated oils (50EOFO and 50EOLO) were evaluated in a 12-week feeding trial involving striped snakeheads (Channa striata). There was no significant difference in growth and feed conversion efficiency. The hepatic fatty acid composition and higher expression of fads2 and elovl5 genes in fish fed EO-based diets indicate the utilization of dietary SDA for LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Collectively, this resulted in a higher deposition of muscle eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) compared to LO-based diets. Dietary EO improved the ratio of n-3 LC-PUFA to n-6 LC-PUFA in fish muscle, which is desirable for human populations with excessive consumption of n-6 PUFA. This study validates the contribution of SDA in improving the content of n-3 LC-PUFA and the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) in a freshwater carnivorous species.
This study was conducted to investigate the growth performance, biomarkers of oxidative stress, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as the haematological response of African catfish after being fed with fish feed containing different levels of cricket meal. The juvenile fish were assigned to three different treatments with isonitrogenous (35 %) and isoenergetic (19 kJ g(-1)) diets containing 100 % cricket meal (100 % CM), 75 % cricket meal (75 % CM), and 100 % fishmeal (100 % FM) as control groups for 7 weeks. The results indicated that a diet containing 100 % CM and 75 % CM improved growth performance in terms of body weight gain and specific growth rate, when compared to 100 % FM. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) did not differ significantly between all diets, but reduced FCR and increased PER were observed with a higher inclusion of cricket meal. A haematological examination of fish demonstrated no significant difference of red blood cells in all diets and white blood cells showed a significantly higher value in fishmeal-fed fish. On the other hand, haemoglobin and haematocrit significantly increased with increasing amounts of cricket meal in the diet. Antioxidant activity of CAT was higher in the 100 % CM group compared to fish fed other diets, whereas GST and SOD showed increasing trends with a higher incorporation of cricket, although insignificant differences were observed between all diets. These results suggest that cricket meal could be an alternative to fishmeal as a protein source in the African catfish diet.
Dietary organic acids are increasingly being investigated as a potential means of improving growth and nutrient utilization in aquatic animals. A 9-week study was performed to compare equal amounts (2%) of different organic acids (sodium butyrate, acetate, propionate, or formate) on the growth, muscle proximate composition, fatty acid composition, cholesterol and lipid peroxidation, differential cell counts, plasma biochemistry, intestinal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) level, and liver histopathology to red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) (initial mean weight of 2.87 g). A second experiment was performed to determine their effects on lipid peroxidation and trimethylamine (TMA) when added at 1% to tilapia meat and left out for 24 h. The results of the first experiment showed no treatment effect to growth, feeding efficiencies, or muscle fatty acid composition, but all dietary organic acids significantly decreased intestinal SCFA. Dietary butyrate and propionate significantly decreased muscle lipid peroxidation compared to the control group, but the dietary formate treatment had the lowest lipid peroxidation compared to all treatments. Muscle crude protein and lipid in tilapia fed the formate diet were significantly lower and higher, respectively, and showed evidence of stress based on the differential cell counts, significantly higher plasma glucose and liver glycogen, as well as inflammatory responses in the liver. Although a potential benefit of dietary organic acids was a reduction to lipid peroxidation, this could be accomplished post-harvest by direct additions to the meat. In addition, inclusions of butyrate and propionate to tilapia meat significantly decreased TMA, which might be a more cost-effective option to improve the shelf life of tilapia products.
Jatropha seed cake (JSC) is an excellent source of protein but does contain some antinutritional factors (ANF) that can act as toxins and thus negatively affect the growth and health status of fish. While this can limit the use of JSC, detoxified Jatropha protein isolate (DJPI) may be a better option. An 8-week study was performed to evaluate dietary DJPI to common carp Cyprinus carpio. Five iso-nitrogenous diets (crude protein of 38%) were formulated that consisted of a C ontrol (fish meal (FM) based protein), J 50 or J 75 (50 and 75% of FM protein replaced by DJPI), and S 50 or S 75 (50 and 75% of FM protein replaced by soy protein isolate, SPI) and fed to triplicate groups of 75 carp fingerlings (75; av. wt. ± SD; 11.4 ± 0.25 g). The growth, feeding efficiencies, digestibility, plasma biochemistry, and intestinal enzymes were measured. Results showed that growth performance of fish fed the S 75- or DJPI-based diets were not significantly different from those fed the C ontrol diet, while carp fed the S 50 had significantly better growth than the J 75 diet. Fish fed the J 75 diet had significantly lower protein and lipid digestibility as well as significantly lower intestinal amylase and protease activities than all other groups. However, all plant protein-based diets led to significantly higher crude protein, crude lipid, and gross energy in the body of common carp compared to the control treatment. Plasma cholesterol and creatinine significantly decreased in the plant protein fed groups, although plasma triglyceride as well as the red blood cells count, hematocrit, albumin, globulin, total plasma protein, and lysozyme activity were higher in plant protein fed groups compared to FM fed group. White blood cells, hemoglobulin concentration, alkaline phosphatase and alanine transaminase activities, and glucose level in blood did not differ significantly among treatments. The results suggest that the DJPI is non-toxic to carp and can be used to replace FM in the diets of common carp up to 75%, but further research to potentially reduce some inherent ANF within this protein source, such as non-starch polysaccharides, may improve nutrient utilization.
The mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) naturally inhabits freshwater (FW; 1-3‰) and seawater (SW; 28-33‰) ponds in constructed wetland. To explore the physiological status and molecular mechanisms for salinity adaptation of the mosquitofish, cytoprotective responses and osmoregulation were examined. In the field study, activation of protein quality control (PQC) mechanism through upregulation of the abundance of heat shock protein (HSP) 90 and 70 and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins was found in the mosquitofish gills from SW pond compared to the individuals of FW pond. The levels of aggregated proteins in mosquitofish gills had no significant difference between FW and SW ponds. Furthermore, the osmoregulatory responses revealed that the body fluid osmolality and muscle water contents of the mosquitofish from two ponds were maintained within a physiological range while branchial Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) expression was higher in the individuals from SW than FW ponds. Subsequently, to further clarify whether the cellular stress responses and osmoregulation were mainly induced by hypertonicity, a laboratory salinity acclimation experiment was conducted. The results from the laboratory experiment were similar to the field study. Branchial PQC as well as NKA responses were induced by SW acclimation compared to FW-acclimated individuals. Taken together, induction of gill PQC and NKA responses implied that SW represents an osmotic stress for mosquitofish. Activation of PQC was suggested to provide an osmoprotection to prevent the accumulation of aggregated proteins. Moreover, an increase in branchial NKA responses for osmoregulatory adjustment was required for the physiological homeostasis of body fluid osmolality and muscle water content.
A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of palm oil blended with oxidized and non-oxidized fish oil on growth performances, hematology, and non-specific immune response in juvenile Japanese sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicas. Japanese sea bass (1.73 ± 0.01 g) were fed seven experimental diets containing 100 g/kg of dietary lipid in forms of palm oil (10P), fish oil (10F), fish oil blended with palm oil at different ratios, 6:4 (6F4P) and 4:6 (4F6P), oxidized fish oil (10OF), and oxidized fish oil blended with palm oil at different ratios, 6:4 (6OF4P) and 4:6 (4OF6P). After the feeding trial, the following results were illustrated. No significant effects were observed in survival, feed conversion ratio, condition factor, and hematocrit after feeding with experimental diets for 60 days. The relatively higher specific growth rate and hematology were observed in 6F4P. Furthermore, both palm oil and oxidized fish oil acted as a negatively on serum lysozyme activity (P < 0.05). This study suggested that a ration of 6F4P is recommended as an innocuous ratio for Japanese sea bass. Furthermore, according to the present investigation, palm oil seems to have the ability to improve the protein efficiency when added to oxidized fish diets as well as a positive trend to the growth performance (P > 0.05).
To assess the effect of dietary ascorbate on lipid metabolism, 1-year black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) were reared on a casein-based purified diet and an ascorbate fortified diet (1,100 mg of L: -ascorbyl-2- monophosphate-Mg/kg diet). The fortified ascorbate was effectively incorporated into the fish body and elevated muscle carnitine content. Fortifications of dietary ascorbate depressed activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase as lipogenic enzymes in the hepatopancreas and intraperitoneal fat body. Starvation after feeding experiment activated carnitine palmitoyltransferase as a lipolysis enzyme in the hepatopancreas in both control and vitamin C(VC) groups, while the lipolysis activity was significantly higher in VC group. These results confirmed that dietary ascorbate depressed lipogenesis and activated lipolysis, i.e., influenced the lipid metabolism of black sea bream.
A study was conducted to isolate, partial characterize Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) vitellogenin (vtg). Two-year-old juvenile L. calcarifer (n = 10) were given three intraperitoneal injections of 17-β estradiol (E2) at a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight to induce vitellogenesis. Blood was collected 3 days after the last injection, and plasma was purified through gel filtration chromatography. A broad single symmetrical peak consisting of vtg molecule was produced. Protein concentration was 0.059 mg/ml as determined by Bradfrod assay using bovine serum albumin as a standard. The protein appeared as one circulating form in Native PAGE considering the dimeric form of putative vtg with molecular weight of 545 kDa. In SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions, two major bands appeared at 232.86 and 118.80 kDa and minor bands at 100.60, 85.80 and 39.92 kDa, respectively. The purified vtg was used to generate a polyclonal antibody, and the specificity of antibody was assessed by Western blot analysis. Two major bands were immunoreacted, but no cross-reactivity was observed with plasma from non-induced males. The protein was characterized as phosphoglycolipoprotein as it positively stained for the presence of lipid, phosphorus and carbohydrate using Sudan Black B, methyl green and periodic acid/Schiff reagent solution, respectively. The amino acid composition was analyzed by high sensitivity amino acid analysis that showed high percentage of non-polar amino acids (~48 %). The results suggest the potential utilization of vtg as a basis tool to further study about reproductive physiology of this important economical species.
Fish are a major source of beneficial n-3 LC-PUFA in human diet, and there is considerable interest to elucidate the mechanism and regulatory aspects of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in farmed species. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis involves the activities of two groups of enzymes, the fatty acyl desaturase (Fads) and elongase of very long-chain fatty acid (Elovl). The promoters of elovl5 elongase, which catalyses the rate-limiting reaction of elongating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), have been previously described and characterized from several marine and diadromous teleost species. We report here the cloning and characterization of elovl5 promoter from two freshwater fish species, the carnivorous snakehead fish (Channa striata) and zebrafish. Results show the presence of sterol-responsive elements (SRE) in the core regulatory region of both promoters, suggesting the importance of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (Srebp) in the regulation of elovl5 for both species. Mutagenesis luciferase and electrophoretic mobility shift assays further validate the role of SRE for basal transcriptional activation. In addition, several Sp1-binding sites located in close proximity with SRE were present in the snakehead promoter, with one having a potential synergy with SRE in the regulation of elovl5 expression. The core zebrafish elovl5 promoter fragment also directed in vivo expression in the yolk syncytial layer of developing zebrafish embryos.
This study was designed to optimize the culture conditions of juvenile Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål, 1775) under laboratory conditions. To this effect, the rate of oxygen consumption was monitored as an index of stress under different temperature, salinity, pH, photoperiod, and urea concentrations. The result obtained after 12 h of exposure suggests the preference of the juvenile E. fuscoguttatus to a temperature range of 15-25 °C and salinity of 30 ppt. Based on this study, temperature was found to be the most lethal as 100% mortality was observed after 6 h in fish exposure to temperatures above the optimal (≥ 30 °C). However, the oxygen consumption rate was similar under the different pH, photoperiod, and urea concentration tested. It was concluded that water temperature was most critical in terms of respiration physiology of the juvenile E. fuscoguttatus given the range and levels of environmental factors tested in this study.
Oxyeleotris marmorata is an ambush predator. It is known for slow growth rate and high market demand. Farming of O. marmorata still remains a challenge. In order to establish a proper feeding practice to stimulate growth, knowledge of its metabolic processes and cost should be examined. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the diel osmorespiration rhythms of O. marmorata in response to feeding challenge by using an osmorespirometry assay. The results have shown that oxygen consumption rate of the fed fish was approximately 3 times higher than that of the unfed fish in early evening to support specific dynamic action. Digestion and ingestion processes were likely to be completed within 18-20 h in parallel with the ammonia excretion noticeable in early morning. Under resting metabolism, metabolic oxygen consumption was influenced by diel phase, but no effect was noted in ammonia excretion. As a nocturnal species, O. marmorata exhibited standard aerobic metabolic mode under dark phase followed by light phase, with high oxygen consumption rate found in either fed or unfed fish. It can be confirmed that both the diel phase and feeding have a significant interactive impact on oxygen consumption rate, whereas ammonia metabolism is impacted by feeding state. High metabolic rate of O. marmorata supports the nocturnal foraging activity in this fish. This finding suggested that feeding of O. marmorata should be performed during nighttime and water renewal should be conducted during daytime.