Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. The majority of breast cancers show overexpression of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs). The development of drugs to target these hormone receptors, such as tamoxifen, has brought about significant improvement in survival for women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancers. Since information about ER and PR is vital for patient management, quality assurance is important to ensure accurate testing. In recent guidelines, the recommended definition of ER and PR positivity is 1% or more of cells that stain positive. Semiquantitative assessment of ER and PR is important for prognosis and, hence, management. Even with the development of genomic tests, hormone receptor status remains the most significant predictive and prognostic biomarker.
The incidence of breast cancer is rising in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) due to 'westernization' of risk factors for developing breast cancer. However, survival remains low because of barriers in early detection and optimal access to treatment, which are the two main determinants of breast cancer outcome. A multidisciplinary approach to treatment gives the best results. An accurate diagnosis is dependent on a reliable pathology service, which will provide an adequate pathology report with prognostic and predictor information to allow optimal oncological treatment. Stratification of clinical practice guidelines based on resource level will ensure that women will have access to treatment even in a low-resource setting. Advocacy and civil society play a role in galvanizing the political will required to meet the challenge of providing opportunities for breast cancer control in LMICs. Collaboration between high-income countries and LMICs could be a strategy in facing these challenges.
Psychotherapies were offered to alleviate psychological and physical symptoms; however, most psychological interventions were only delivered after cancer treatment. Newly diagnosed cancer patients experienced psychological distress while waiting for treatments. This review paper focused on randomized control trial studies, aimed to investigate the effectiveness of psychological intervention among newly diagnosed cancer patients. Eight randomized control trial papers were found in recent 10 year period through electronic database. A moderate to large effect size was detected on the outcomes, ranging from 0.43 to 0.89. This indicated that psychological-based prehabilitation with standard care yielded better outcomes than standard care alone. Psychological-based prehabilitation provides evidence in its effectiveness to reduce psychological distress, functional impairment, recurrence of cancer, numbers of immune reactivity and sleeping quality; however, inconsistent with longer survival result among cancer patients. In conclusion, psychological-based prehabilitation before cancer treatment is necessary for better treatment outcome, and future research is needed to investigate more directly the outcome.
Since its discovery, cisplatin has become the key drug in chemotherapy for cancers. Nevertheless, chemoresistance in cancers has become an impediment in using cisplatin for cancer treatment. The resistance toward cisplatin is multifaceted as it involves multiple cellular pathways. Ever since the knowledge of long noncoding RNAs as modulators of various molecular pathways came to light, the interest in the biological function of lncRNAs as biomarkers has increased dramatically. Numerous studies have reported the link between the dysregulation of lncRNAs and drug resistance in cancers. More importantly, several lncRNAs were found to be vital in regulating cisplatin resistance. Therefore, this review summarizes the recent efforts in linking between cisplatin resistance and different types of lncRNAs.
Aim: The present study investigated the relationship between psychological problems, illness acceptance and cancer-related complaints among Malaysian cancer patients. Patients & methods: One hundred and six cancer patients were recruited and were requested to complete validated self-reported questionnaires that measured their psychological distresses, sleep quality, pain, fatigue and illness acceptance. Results: There was a significant relationship between cancer-related symptoms, illness acceptance and psychological distresses commonly experienced by local cancer patients (p < 0.05). Illness acceptance was shown to be a mediator of cancer-related complaints and psychological distresses. Conclusion: Malaysian cancer patients with more cancer-related complaints reported a higher level of psychological distresses and poorer illness acceptance. Increased level of illness acceptance was suggested in managing cancer patients with psychological distresses and cancer-related complaints.
Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of neratinib as extended adjuvant therapy in patients from Asia based on exploratory analyses of the Phase III ExteNET trial. Patients & methods: A total of 2840 women with early stage HER2-positive breast cancer were randomly assigned to neratinib 240 mg/day or placebo for 1 year after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy. Results: A total of 341 patients were from Asia (neratinib, n = 165; placebo, n = 176). 2-year invasive disease-free survival rates were 92.8 and 90.8% with neratinib and placebo, respectively (HR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.31-1.55), and 5-year rates were 91.9 and 87.2%, respectively (HR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.27-1.13). Diarrhea was the most common adverse event with neratinib. Conclusion: Extended adjuvant therapy with neratinib reduces disease recurrences in Asian women with HER2-positive breast cancer. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00878709.
Aim: Micro and macro vascular invasion (VI) are known as independent predictors of tumor recurrence and poor survival after surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we aimed to re-analyze The Cancer Genome Atlas of liver hepatocellular carcinoma datasets to identify the VI-expression signatures. Materials & methods: We filtered The Cancer Genome Atlas liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) datasets into three groups: no VI (NVI = 198); micro VI (MIVI = 89) and macro VI (MAVI = 16). We performed differential gene expression, methylation and microRNA analyses. Results & conclusion: We identified 12 differentially expressed genes and 55 differentially methylated genes in MAVI compared with no VI. The GPD1L gene appeared in all of the comparative analyses. Higher GPD1L expression was associated with VI and poor outcomes in the HCC patients.