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  1. Rosenthal VD, Richtmann R, Singh S, Apisarnthanarak A, Kübler A, Viet-Hung N, et al.
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 2013 Jun;34(6):597-604.
    PMID: 23651890 DOI: 10.1086/670626
     To report the results of a surveillance study on surgical site infections (SSIs) conducted by the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC).
  2. Tan LH, Kamarulzaman A, Liam CK, Lee TC
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 2002 Oct;23(10):584-90.
    PMID: 12400887
    To determine the occupational risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among healthcare workers (HCWs) and to examine the utility of tuberculin skin testing in a developing country with a high prevalence of bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination.
  3. Hughes AJ, Ariffin N, Huat TL, Abdul Molok H, Hashim S, Sarijo J, et al.
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 2005 Jan;26(1):100-4.
    PMID: 15693416
    Most reports of nosocomial infection (NI) prevalence have come from developed countries with established infection control programs. In developing countries, infection control is often not as well established due to lack of staff and resources. We examined the rate of NI in our institution.
  4. Teerawattanapong N, Panich P, Kulpokin D, Na Ranong S, Kongpakwattana K, Saksinanon A, et al.
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 2018 05;39(5):525-533.
    PMID: 29580299 DOI: 10.1017/ice.2018.58
    OBJECTIVETo summarize the clinical burden (cumulative incidence, prevalence, case fatality rate and length of stay) and economic burden (healthcare cost) of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) due to multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) among patients in intensive care units (ICUs) in Southeast Asia.DESIGNSystematic review.METHODSWe conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, EconLit, and the Cochrane Library databases from their inception through September 30, 2016. Clinical and economic burdens and study quality were assessed for each included study.RESULTSIn total, 41 studies met our inclusion criteria; together, 22,876 ICU patients from 7 Southeast Asian countries were included. The cumulative incidence of HAI caused by A. baumannii (AB) in Southeast Asia is substantially higher than has been reported in other regions, especially carbapenem-resistant AB (CRAB; 64.91%) and multidrug-resistant AB (MDR-AB) (58.51%). Evidence of a dose-response relationship between different degrees of drug resistance and excess mortality due to AB infections was observed. Adjusted odds ratios were 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-3.00) for MDR-AB, 1.72 (95% CI, 0.77-3.80) for extensively drug-resistant AB (XDR-AB), and 1.82 (95% CI, 0.55-6.00) for pandrug-resistant AB (PDR-AB). There is, however, a paucity of published data on additional length of stay and costs attributable to MDROs.CONCLUSIONSThis review highlights the challenges in addressing MDROs in Southeast Asia, where HAIs caused by MDR gram-negative bacteria are abundant and have a strong impact on society. With our findings, we hope to draw the attention of clinicians and policy makers to the problem of antibiotic resistance and to issue a call for action in the management of MDROs.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:525-533.
  5. Apisarnthanarak A, Kwa AL, Chiu CH, Kumar S, Thu LTA, Tan BH, et al.
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 2018 Oct;39(10):1237-1245.
    PMID: 30227898 DOI: 10.1017/ice.2018.188
    Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to a serious antimicrobial resistance problem in Asian hospitals. Despite resource constraints in the region, all Asian hospitals should implement antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs to optimize antibiotic treatment, improve patient outcomes, and minimize antimicrobial resistance. This document describes a consensus statement from a panel of regional experts to help multidisciplinary AMS teams design programs that suit the needs and resources of their hospitals. In general, AMS teams must decide on appropriate interventions (eg, prospective audit and/or formulary restriction) for their hospital, focusing on the most misused antibiotics and problematic multidrug-resistant organisms. This focus is likely to include carbapenem use with the goal to reduce carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria. Rather than initially trying to introduce a comprehensive, hospital-wide AMS program, it would be practical to begin by pilot testing a simple program based on 1 achievable core intervention for the hospital. AMS team members must work together to determine the most suitable AMS interventions to implement in their hospitals and how best to put them into practice. Continuous monitoring and feedback of outcomes to the AMS teams, hospital administration, and prescribers will enhance sustainability of the AMS programs.
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