Collagen Triple Helix Repeat Containing 1 (CTHRC1) is a protein often found to be over-expressed in various types of human cancers. However, correlation between CTHRC1 expression level with clinico-pathological characteristics and prognosis in oral cancer remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to determine mRNA and protein expression of CTHRC1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to evaluate the clinical and prognostic impact of CTHRC1 in OSCC.
Bisphenol-A (BPA), dichrolodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and vinclozolin were found able to induce abnormal uterine contraction. The mechanisms involved remains unclear. We hypothesized that the effect of these compounds were mediated via the uterotonin pathways. Therefore, in this study, effects of BPA, vinclozolin and DDT-only and in combination with uterotonins (PGF-2α, acetylcholine and oxytocin) on the force and pattern of uterine contraction were observed.
Rosacea is a characteristic cutaneous disorder with a diverse clinical manifestations ranging from facial vascular hyper-reactivity to sebaceous gland hyperplasia. Many theories on pathophysiology of rosacea were proposed over the past decade, however the pathogenicity is poorly understood.
Restoring the pH of cervicovaginal fluid is important for the cervicovaginal health after menopause. Genistein, which is a widely consumed dietary health supplement to overcome the post-menopausal complications could help to restore the cervicovaginal fluid pH. We hypothesized that genistien effect involves changes in expression of NHE-1, 2 and 4 proteins and mRNAs in the cervix. This study investigated effect of genistein on NHE-1, 2 and 4 protein and mRNA expression in the cervix in order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying possible effect of this compound on cervicovaginal fluid pH after menopause.
Human saliva plays a pivotal role in digesting food and maintaining oral hygiene. The presence of electrolytes, mucus, glycoproteins, enzymes, antibacterial compounds, and gingival crevicular fluid in saliva ensures the optimum condition of oral cavity and general health condition. Saliva collection has been proven non-invasive, convenient, and inexpensive compared to conventional venipuncture procedure. These distinctive advantages provide a promising potential of saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Through comprehensive analysis, an array of salivary proteins and peptides may be beneficial as biomarkers in oral and systemic diseases. In this review, we discuss the utility of human salivary proteomes and tabulate the recent salivary biomarkers found in subjects with acute myocardial infarction as well as respective methods employed. In a clinical setting, since acute myocardial infarction contributes to large cases of mortality worldwide, an early intervention using these biomarkers will provide an effective solution to reduce global heart attack incidence particularly among its high-risk group of type-2 diabetes mellitus patients. The utility of salivary biomarkers will make the prediction of this cardiac event possible due to its reliability hence improve the quality of life of the patients. Current challenges in saliva collection are also addressed to improve the quality of saliva samples and produce robust biomarkers for future use in clinical applications.
The incidence of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi A) is increasing in many parts of the world. Although there is no major outbreak of paratyphoid fever in recent years, S. Paratyphi A infection still remains a public health problem in many tropical countries. Therefore, surveillance studies play an important role in monitoring infections and the emergence of multidrug resistance, especially in endemic countries such as India, Nepal, Pakistan and China. In China, enteric fever was caused predominantly by S. Paratyphi A rather than by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). Sometimes, S. Paratyphi A infection can evolve into a carrier state which increases the risk of transmission for travellers. Hence, paratyphoid fever is usually classified as a "travel-associated" disease. To date, diagnosis of paratyphoid fever based on the clinical presentation is not satisfactory as it resembles other febrile illnesses, and could not be distinguished from S. Typhi infection. With the availability of Whole Genome Sequencing technology, the genomes of S. Paratyphi A could be studied in-depth and more specific targets for detection will be revealed. Hence, detection of S. Paratyphi A with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method appears to be a more reliable approach compared to the Widal test. On the other hand, due to increasing incidence of S. Paratyphi A infections worldwide, the need to produce a paratyphoid vaccine is essential and urgent. Hence various vaccine projects that involve clinical trials have been carried out. Overall, this review provides the insights of S. Paratyphi A, including the bacteriology, epidemiology, management and antibiotic susceptibility, diagnoses and vaccine development.
Immunotherapy has raised the attention of many scientists because it hold promise to be an attractive therapeutic strategy to treat a number of disorders. In this study, the immunomodulatory effects of low titers of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) AF2240 on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were analyzed. We evaluated cytokine secretion and PBMC activation by cell proliferation assay, immunophenotyping and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The proliferation of the human PBMC was measured to be 28.5% and 36.5% upon treatment with 8 hemaglutinin unit (HAU) and 2 HAU of NDV respectively. Interestingly, the percentage of cells with activating markers CD16 and CD56 were increased significantly. Furthermore, the intracellular perforin and granzyme levels were also increased upon virus infection. Human PBMC treated with NDV titer 8 HAU was found to stimulate the highest level of cytokine production including interferon-γ, interleukin-2 and interleukin-12. The release of these proteins contributes to the antitumor effect of PBMC against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Based on the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay, activated human PBMC showed high cytolytic efficiency towards human breast tumor cells. In summary, NDV was able to stimulate PBMC proliferation, cytokine secretion and cytolytic activity.
The effect of C. borivilianum root on blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbAIc), insulin and lipid profile levels in diabetes mellitus are not fully understood. This study therefore investigated the effect of C. borivilianum root on the above parameters and oxidative stress of the pancreas in diabetes.
METHODS: C. borivilianum root aqueous extract (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) was administered to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced male diabetic rats for 28 days. Body weight, blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, lipid profile levels and glucose homeostasis indices were determined. Histopathological changes and oxidative stress parameters i.e. lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant enzymes activity levels of the pancreas were investigated.
RESULTS: C. borivilianum root extract treatment to diabetic rats maintained near normal body weight, blood glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile and insulin levels with higher HOMA-β cell functioning index, number of Islets/pancreas, number of β-cells/Islets however with lower HOMA-insulin resistance (IR) index as compared to non-treated diabetic rats. Negative correlations between serum insulin and blood glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were observed. C. borivilianum root extract administration prevented the increase in lipid peroxidation and the decrease in activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) with mild histopathological changes in the pancreas of diabetic rats.
CONCLUSIONS: C. borivilianum root maintains near normal levels of these metabolites and prevented oxidative stress-induced damage to the pancreas in diabetes.
KEYWORDS: Chlorophytum borivilianum; diabetes; glucose; lipid profile; oxidative stress.; pancreas
On in vitro expansion for therapeutic purposes, the regenerative potentials of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) decline and rapidly enter pre-mature senescence probably involving oxidative stress. To develop strategies to prevent or slow down the decline of regenerative potentials in MSC culture, it is important to first address damages caused by oxidative stress-induced premature senescence (OSIPS). However, most existing OSIPS study models involve either long-term culture to achieve growth arrest or immediate growth arrest post oxidative agent treatment and are unsuitable for post-induction studies.
Four osteosarcoma cell lines, Saos-2, MG-63, G-292 and U-2 OS, were reprogrammed to pluripotent state using Yamanaka factors retroviral transduction method. Embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like clusters started to appear between 15 to 20 days post transduction. Morphology of the colonies resembled that of ESC colonies with defined border and tightly-packed cells. The reprogrammed sarcomas expressed alkaline phosphatase and pluripotency markers, OCT4, SSEA4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81, as in ESC up to Passage 15. All reprogrammed sarcomas could form embryoid body-like spheres when cultured in suspension in a low attachment dish for up to 10 days. Further testing on the directed differentiation capacity of the reprogrammed sarcomas showed all four reprogrammed sarcoma lines could differentiate into adipocytes while reprogrammed Saos-2-REP, MG-63-REP and G-292-REP could differentiate into osteocytes. Among the 4 osteosarcoma cell lines, U-2 OS reported the highest transduction efficiency but recorded the lowest reprogramming stability under long term culture. Thus, there may be intrinsic differences governing the variable responses of osteosarcoma cell lines towards reprogramming and long term culture effect of the reprogrammed cells. This is a first report to associate intrinsic factors in different osteosarcoma cell lines with variable reprogramming responses and effects on the reprogrammed cells after prolonged culture.
A miRNA precursor generally gives rise to one major miRNA species derived from the 5' arm, and are called miRNA-5p. However, more recent studies have shown co-expression of miRNA-5p and -3p, albeit in different concentrations, in cancer cells targeting different sets of transcripts. Co-expression and regulation of the -5p and -3p miRNA species in stem cells, particularly in the reprogramming process, have not been studied.
Platelet rich plasma clot- releasate (PRCR) shows significant influence on tissue regeneration in clinical trials. Although, the mechanism of PRCR effect on fibroblast differentiation has been studied on 2D culture system, a detailed investigation is needed to establish the role of PRCR in cell seeded in 3D scaffolds. Therefore, a study was conducted to evaluate the influence of PRCR in fibroblasts (DFB) differentiation and extracellular matrix formation on both 3D and 2D culture systems. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay and DFB differentiation was evaluated by determining the expression levels of nucleostamin and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), using indirect immunostaining and Western blotting. The expression levels of extracellular matrix genes (collagen-I, collagen-III, fibronectin and laminin) and focal adhesion formation gene (integrin beta-1) were measured using Real-time PCR. The PRCR at 10% showed significant effect on cells viability compared with 5% and 20% in both culture environments. The decrease in the expression levels of nucleostamin and the increase in α-SMA signify the DFB differentiation to myofibroblast-like cells that was prominently greater in 3D compared to 2D culture. In 3D culture systems, the total collage production, expression levels of the extracellular matrix gene and the focal adhesion gene were increased significantly compared to 2D culture. In conclusion, 3D culture environments enhances the proliferative and differentiation effects of PRCR on DFB, thereby potentially increases the efficacy of DFB for future tissue engineering clinical application.
Alteration in lipid profile is a common observation in patients with thyroid dysfunction, but the current knowledge on the relationship between lipids and thyroid hormone levels in euthyroid state is insufficient. The current study aimed to determine the association between thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with lipid profile in a euthyroid male population.
The incidence of non-contact knee injury was found higher in female than in male and is related to the phases of the menstrual cycle. This raised the possibility that female sex-steroids are involved in the mechanism underlying this injury via affecting the expression of the receptors for relaxin, a peptide hormone known to modulate ligament laxity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effect of sex-steroids on relaxin receptor isoforms (RXFP1 & RXFP2) expression in the ligaments and tendons of the knee.
Recent studies revealed a possible reciprocal relationship between the skeletal system and obesity and lipid metabolism, mediated by osteocalcin, an osteoblast-specific protein. This study aimed to validate the relationship between serum osteocalcin and indices of obesity and lipid parameters in a group of Malaysian men.
A family of PI3Ks is the lipid kinases, which enhance intracellular pools of phosphatidyl inositol 3,4,5-tri-phosphate (PIP3) through phosphorylating its precursor. Amplifications and deletions of genes, as well as somatic missense of the PIK3CA gene have been described in many human cancer varieties, including of the brain, colon, liver, lung and stomach. Immunohistochemistry and Real-time quantitative PCR tests were used to determine the PIK3CA gene amplification (gene copy number) and to detect protein expression, respectively. The results obtained were analysed and the ratio of PIK3CA to β-actin gene copy number was calculated. Positive gene amplification of PIK3CA was appointed as a copy number of ≥4. Also, PI3K p110α protein expression was scored from 0 to 3+ and the scores of 2+ and 3+ were considered as positive for PI3K p110α protein expression. We studied 50 breast carcinoma samples for PI3K p110α protein expression and PIK3CA gene copy numbers. In general, 36 out of 50 (72%) breast carcinoma samples showed a significant increase in PIK3CA gene amplification. 12 out of 50 (24%) showed positive staining, and 38 out of 50 (76%) showed negative staining for PI3K p110α expression. We have identified no significant relationship between PIK3CA amplification, race (p= 0.630) and histological type (p=0. 731) in breast carcinoma, but correlation of PIK3CA amplification and age showed a significant relationship (p=0. 003) between them. No significant relationship has been identified in correlation of PI3K p110α protein expression compared to age (p=0. 284), race (p=0. 546) and histological type (p=0. 285). Amplification of PIK3CA was frequent in breast carcinoma and occurs in stages of breast carcinoma. Our result shows that there is a relationship between gene amplification and age in breast carcinoma. We suggest that PIK3CA is significant in breast tumorigenesis serve as a prevalent mechanism contributes to the oncogenic activation pathway of PIK3CA in breast cancer.
The Lignosus is a genus of fungi that have useful medicinal properties. In Southeast Asia, three species of Lignosus (locally known collectively as Tiger milk mushrooms) have been reported including L. tigris, L. rhinocerotis, and L. cameronensis. All three have been used as important medicinal mushrooms by the natives of Peninsular Malaysia. In this work, the nutritional composition and antioxidant activities of the wild type and a cultivated strain of L. tigris sclerotial extracts were investigated. The sclerotia are rich in carbohydrates with moderate amount of protein and low fat content. Free radical scavenging activities of L. tigris sclerotial extracts correlate with their phenolic content, which ranges from 6.25 to 45.42 mg GAE/g extract. The FRAP values ranged from 0.002 to 0.041 mmol/min/g extract, while the DPPH(•), ABTS(•+), and superoxide anion (SOA) scavenging activities ranged from 0.18 to 2.53, 0.01 to 0.36, and -4.53 to 10.05 mmol Trolox equivalents/g extract, respectively. L. tigris cultivar shows good prospect to be developed into functional food due to its good nutritional value and potent SOA scavenging activity.
King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase (OH-LAAO), a heat stable enzyme, has been shown to exhibit very potent anti-proliferative activity against human breast and lung tumorigenic cells but not in their non-tumorigenic counterparts. We further examine its in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity in a human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) model. OH-LAAO demonstrated potent cytotoxicity against PC-3 cells with IC50 of 0.05 µg/mL after 72 h incubation in vitro. It induced apoptosis as evidenced with an increase in caspase-3/7 cleavages and an increase in annexin V-stained cells. To examine its in vivo anti-tumor activity, we treated PC-3 tumor xenograft implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient NU/NU (nude) mice with 1 µg/g OH-LAAO given intraperitoneally (i.p.). After 8 weeks of treatment, OH-LAAO treated PC-3 tumors were markedly inhibited, when compared to the control group (P <0.05). TUNEL staining analysis on the tumor sections showed a significantly increase of apoptotic cells in the LAAO-treated animals. Histological examinations of the vital organs in these two groups showed no significant differences with normal tissues, indicating no obvious tissue damage. The treatment also did not cause any significant changes on the body weight of the mice during the duration of the study. These observations suggest that OH-LAAO cytotoxic effects may be specific to tumor xenografts and less to normal organs. Given its potent anti-tumor activities shown in vitro as well as in vivo, the king cobra venom LAAO can potentially be developed to treat prostate cancer and other solid tumors.
Alteration in the endothelium leading to increased vascular permeability contributes to plasma leakage seen in dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). An earlier study showed that senescent endothelial cells (ECs) altered the ECs permeability. Here we investigated the susceptibility of senescing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to dengue virus infection and determined if dengue virus infection induces HUVECs senescence. Our results suggest that DENV type-2 (DENV-2) foci forming unit (FFU) and extracellular virus RNA copy number were reduced by at least 35% and 85% in infection of the intermediate young and early senescent HUVECs, respectively, in comparison to infection of young HUVECs. No to low infectivity was recovered from infection of late senescent HUVECs. DENV infection also increases the percentage of HUVECs expressing senescence-associated (SA)-β-gal, cells arrested at the G2/M phase or 4N DNA content stage and cells with enlarged morphology, indicative of senescing cells. Alteration of HUVECs morphology was recorded using impedance-based real-time cell analysis system following DENV-2 infection. These results suggest that senescing HUVECs do not support DENV infection and DENV infection induces HUVECs senescence. The finding highlights the possible role of induction of senescence in DENV infection of the endothelial cells.