Materials and Methods: All groups of hFOB 1.19 cells were induced with 12.5 μg/ml of BPA except the control (Ctrl) group. Meanwhile, treated groups received phytoestrogens; Daidzein (Dz), Genistein (Gt), Equol (Eq) and 17β-oestradiol (Est) in different concentrations for 24 hr duration.
Results: We found that the protein expression of non-classical oestrogen-related receptor (ERRG) was highly expressed in BPA group, whereas classical oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and oestrogen receptor beta (ERβ) were relatively increased with phytoestrogens treatment under BPA exposure. The dense actin cytoskeletal filaments were also observed. qRT-PCR showed up-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3) and G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) expressions; significant down-regulation of ERRG and up-regulation of ERα and ERβ were observed in phytoestrogens-treated cells, which was supported by the increased expressions of oestrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and oestrogen receptor 2 (ESR2).
Conclusion: Phytoestrogens improved the deteriorative effect of BPA via down-regulation of ERRG in hFOB 1.19 cells. This study showed that the efficacy of consumption of phytoestrogens in rendering them as potential therapeutic strategy in combating the adverse bone effects of BPA.
Materials and Methods: Cell viability and cytotoxicity of gelatin (Gel; 50 µg/µl), chitosan (Chi; 20 µg/µl), hydroxyapatite (HA; 50 µg/µl), nanohydroxyapatite (nHA; 10 µg/µl), three-calcium phosphate (TCP; 50 µg/µl) and strontium carbonate (Sr; 10 µg/µl) were evaluated on hADSCs via MTT assay. In vivo femoral drill-bone hole model was produced in rats that were either left untreated or treated with autograft, Gel, Chi, HA, nHA, TCP and Sr, respectively. The animals were euthanized after 30 days. Their bone holes were evaluated by gross-pathology, histopathology, SEM and radiography. Also, their dry matter, bone ash and mineral density were measured.
Results: Both the Gel and Chi showed cytotoxicity, while nHA had no role on cytotoxicity and cell-viability. All the HA, TCP and Sr significantly improved cell viability when compared to controls (P<0.05). Both the Gel and Chi had no role on osteoconduction and osteoinduction. Compared to HA, nHA showed superior role in increasing new bone formation, mineral density and ash (P<0.05). In contrast to HA and nHA, both the TCP and Sr showed superior morphological, radiographical and biochemical properties on bone healing (P<0.05). TCP and Sr showed the most effective osteoconduction and osteoinduction, respectively. In the Sr group, the most mature type of osteons formed.
Conclusion: Various biomaterials have different in vivo efficacy during bone regeneration. TCP was found to be the best material for osteoconduction and Sr for osteoinduction.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell proliferation was analyzed using MTS and phase contrast microscopic assays. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed through a series of in vitro experiments including crystal violet staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and Van Gieson (VG) staining. Taken together, the efficiency of bone mineralization was examined by using alizarin red s (ARS) staining, Von Kossa staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis.
RESULTS: The resulting data revealed that 5α-DHT exhibits promising potential particularly at a dose of 0.1 ng/ml, in promoting the growth of MC3T3-E1 cells compared to the control group (CN). Moreover, a significantly higher ALP activity was evident in the experimental group treated with 5α-DHT compared to the CN group at various time intervals. MC3T3-E1 cells treated with 5α-DHT also expressed a remarkably higher collagen deposition and mineralization (calcium and phosphate contents) compared to the CN group at various time intervals.
CONCLUSION: Conclusively, we suggest that 5α-DHT exhibits outstanding potential of promoting proliferation and differentiation in osteoblasts which could be the in vitro basis for the efficacy of 5α-DHT in the treatment of androgen-deficient male osteoporosis.
Materials and Methods: Three months old Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: (I) control group; (II) alcohol (3g/kg) + normal saline; (III) alcohol (3g/kg) + olive oil; (IV) alcohol (3g/kg) + alpha-tocopherol (60mg/kg) and (V) alcohol (3g/kg) + palm vitamin E (60mg/kg). The treatment lasted for three months. Following sacrifice, the right tibia was subjected to bone biomechanical test while the lumbar (fourth and fifth lumbar) and left tibia bones were harvested for bone mineral measurement.
Results: Alcohol caused reduction in bone biomechanical parameters (maximum force, ultimate stress, yield stress and Young's modulus) and bone minerals (bone calcium and magnesium) compared to control group (P<0.05). Palm vitamin E was able to improve bone biomechanical parameters by increasing the maximum force, ultimate stress and Young's modulus (P<0.05) while alpha-tocopherol was not able to. Both alpha-tocopherol and palm vitamin E were able to significantly increase tibia calcium and magnesium content while only alpha-tocopherol caused significant increase in lumbar calcium content (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Both palm vitamin E and alpha-tocopherol improved bone mineral content which was reduced by alcohol. However, only palm vitamin E was able to improve bone strength in alcohol treated rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PubMed search using antibacterials, antimicrobials, invertebrates, and natural products as keywords was carried out. In addition, we consulted conference proceedings, original unpublished research undertaken in our laboratories, and discussions in specific forums.
RESULTS: Representative of a stupefying 95% of the fauna, invertebrates are fascinating organisms which have evolved strategies to survive germ-infested environments, yet they have largely been ignored. Since invertebrates such as cockroaches inhabit hazardous environments which are rampant with pathogens, they must have developed defense mechanisms to circumvent infections. This is corroborated by the presence of antimicrobial molecules in the nervous systems and hemolymph of cockroaches. Antimicrobial compounds have also been unraveled from the nervous, adipose, and salivary glandular tissues of locusts. Interestingly, the venoms of arthropods including ants, scorpions, and spiders harbor toxins, but also possess multiple antimicrobials.
CONCLUSION: These findings have rekindled the hopes for newer and enhanced therapeutic agents derived from a plentiful and diverse resource to combat fatal infectious diseases. Such antimicrobials from unusual sources can potentially be translated into clinical practice, however intensive research is needed over the next several years to realize these expectations.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fresh specimens of P. australis were freeze-dried and subjected to ethanol extraction. The ethanol extract (PAEE) was evaluated for its protective effects against 1 µg/ml LPS-stimulated neuroinflammation in BV2 microglial cells.
RESULTS: LPS reduced the viability of BV2 microglia cells and increased the levels of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, the neuroinflammatory response was reversed by 0.5-2.0 mg/ml PAEE in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) of PAEE subfractions revealed five compounds; methyl α-eleostearate, ethyl α-eleostearate, niacinamide, stearamide, and linoleic acid.
CONCLUSION: The protective effects of PAEE against LPS-stimulated neuroinflammation in BV2 microglial cells were found to be mediated by the suppression of excess levels of intracellular ROS and pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, denoting the protective role of P. australis in combating continuous neuroinflammation. Our findings support the use of P. australis as a possible therapeutic for neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary cardiomyocytes were isolated from Sprague Dawley rats aged 0-2 days and incubated with various concentrations of fenugreek (10-320 µg/ml) and CoCl2-induced hypoxia for different durations (24, 48, and 72 hr). Cell viability, calcium signaling, beating rate, and gene expression were evaluated.
RESULTS: Fenugreek treatments did not cause any toxicity in cardiomyocytes. At a concentration of 160 µg/ml for 24 hr, fenugreek protected the heart against CoCl2-induced hypoxia, as evidenced by reduced expression of caspases (-3, -6, -8, and -9) and other functional genes markers, such as HIF-1α, Bcl-2, IP3R, ERK5, and GLP-1r. Calcium signaling and beating rate were also improved in fenugreek-treated cardiomyocytes. In contrast, CoCl2 treatment resulted in up-regulation of the hypoxia gene HIF-1α and apoptotic caspases gene (-3, -9, -8, -12), and down-regulation of Bcl-2 activity.
CONCLUSION: Fenugreek treatment at a concentration of 160 µg/ml was not toxic to neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and protected against CoCl2-induced hypoxia. Furthermore, fenugreek improved calcium signaling and beating rate and altered gene expression. Fenugreek may be a potential therapeutic agent for promoting cardioprotection against hypoxia-induced injuries.