Displaying all 20 publications

  1. Parhizkar S, Zulkifli SB, Dollah MA
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2014 May;17(5):384-90.
    PMID: 24967068
    This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phaleria macrocarpa aqueous extract (PM) on spermatogenesis by observing the histological changes of testes in adult male rats.
  2. Maleki MH, Sekawi Z, Soroush S, Azizi-Jalilian F, Asadollahi K, Mohammadi S, et al.
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2014 Jan;17(1):21-6.
    PMID: 24592303
    To date, the most important genes responsible for tetracycline resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii isolates have been identified as tet A and tet B. This study was carried out to determine the rate of resistance to tetracycline and related antibiotics, and mechanisms of resistance.
  3. Aala F, Yusuf UK, Nulit R, Rezaie S
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2014 Mar;17(3):150-4.
    PMID: 24847416
    Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) is one of the most common dermatophytes worldwide. This fungus invaded skin appendages of humans and animals. Recently, resistance to antifungal drugs as well as appearance of side effects due to indication of these kinds of antibiotics has been reported. Besides, using some plant extracts have been indicated in herbal medicine as an alternative treatment of these fungal infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) and pure allicin on the growth of hypha in T. rubrum using Electron miscroscopy.
  4. Hui Yin Y, Ahmad N, Makmor-Bakry M
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2013 Nov;16(11):1119-32.
    PMID: 24494063
    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic disorders affecting individuals of all ages. A greater understanding of pathogenesis in epilepsy will likely provide the basis fundamental for development of new antiepileptic therapies that aim to prevent the epileptogenesis process or modify the progression of epilepsy in addition to treatment of epilepsy symptomatically. Therefore, several investigations have embarked on advancing knowledge of the mechanism underlying epileptogenesis, understanding in mechanism of pharmacoresistance and discovering antiepileptogenic or disease-modifying therapy. Animal models play a crucial and significant role in providing additional insight into mechanism of epileptogenesis. With the help of these models, epileptogenesis process has been demonstrated to be involved in various molecular and biological pathways or processes. Hence, this article will discuss the known and postulated mechanisms of epileptogenesis and challenges in using the animal models.
  5. Zaki R, Bulgiba A, Nordin N, Azina Ismail N
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2013 Jun;16(6):803-7.
    PMID: 23997908
    Reliability measures precision or the extent to which test results can be replicated. This is the first ever systematic review to identify statistical methods used to measure reliability of equipment measuring continuous variables. This studyalso aims to highlight the inappropriate statistical method used in the reliability analysis and its implication in the medical practice.
  6. Haron DE, Chik Z, Noordin MI, Mohamed Z
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2015 Dec;18(12):1167-75.
    PMID: 26877845
    Transdermal preparations for testosterone are becoming popular because of their unique advantages such as avoidance of first-pass effect, convenience, improved bioavailability, and reduction of systemic side effects. A novel testosterone transdermal delivery system (TDDS) was developed using a palm oil base called HAMIN™ (a commercial product) and tested using in vitro and in vivo skin permeability test methods.
  7. Latiff LA, Parhizkar S, Dollah MA, Hassan ST
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2014 Dec;17(12):980-5.
    PMID: 25859301
    The aim of this open label crossover study was to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa on reproductive health and metabolic profile of perimenopausal women in Rawang, Malaysia.
  8. Adnan LH, Bakar NH, Mohamad N
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2014 Dec;17(12):926-8.
    PMID: 25859295
    Methadone is widely being used for opioid substitution therapy. However, the administration of methadone to opioid dependent individual is frequently accompanied by withdrawal syndrome and chemical dependency develops. Other than that, it is also difficult to retain patients in the treatment programme making their retention rates are decreasing over time. This article is written to higlights the potential use of prophetic medicines, Nigella sativa, as a supplement for opioid dependent receiving methadone. It focuses on the potential role of N. sativa and its major active compound, Thymoquinone (TQ) as a calcium channel blocking agent to reduce withdrawal syndrome and opioid dependency.
  9. Thent ZC, Froemming GRA, Ismail ABM, Fuad SBSA, Muid S
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2020 Sep;23(9):1155-1163.
    PMID: 32963737 DOI: 10.22038/ijbms.2020.45296.10545
    Objectives: Since bisphenol A (BPA) induces bone loss and phytoestrogens enhance the osteoblastogenesis by binding to the non-classical and classical oestrogen receptors, respectively, the present study was aimed to observe the osteoprotective effect of phytoestrogens on BPA-induced osteoblasts in hFOB 1.19 cells.

    Materials and Methods: All groups of hFOB 1.19 cells were induced with 12.5 μg/ml of BPA except the control (Ctrl) group. Meanwhile, treated groups received phytoestrogens; Daidzein (Dz), Genistein (Gt), Equol (Eq) and 17β-oestradiol (Est) in different concentrations for 24 hr duration.

    Results: We found that the protein expression of non-classical oestrogen-related receptor (ERRG) was highly expressed in BPA group, whereas classical oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and oestrogen receptor beta (ERβ) were relatively increased with phytoestrogens treatment under BPA exposure. The dense actin cytoskeletal filaments were also observed. qRT-PCR showed up-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3) and G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) expressions; significant down-regulation of ERRG and up-regulation of ERα and ERβ were observed in phytoestrogens-treated cells, which was supported by the increased expressions of oestrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and oestrogen receptor 2 (ESR2).

    Conclusion: Phytoestrogens improved the deteriorative effect of BPA via down-regulation of ERRG in hFOB 1.19 cells. This study showed that the efficacy of consumption of phytoestrogens in rendering them as potential therapeutic strategy in combating the adverse bone effects of BPA.

  10. Moshiri A, Tekyieh Maroof N, Mohammad Sharifi A
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2020 Nov;23(11):1426-1438.
    PMID: 33235700 DOI: 10.22038/ijbms.2020.46228.10707
    Objectives: We investigated the role of various biomaterials on cell viability and in healing of an experimentally induced femoral bone hole model in rats.

    Materials and Methods: Cell viability and cytotoxicity of gelatin (Gel; 50 µg/µl), chitosan (Chi; 20 µg/µl), hydroxyapatite (HA; 50 µg/µl), nanohydroxyapatite (nHA; 10 µg/µl), three-calcium phosphate (TCP; 50 µg/µl) and strontium carbonate (Sr; 10 µg/µl) were evaluated on hADSCs via MTT assay. In vivo femoral drill-bone hole model was produced in rats that were either left untreated or treated with autograft, Gel, Chi, HA, nHA, TCP and Sr, respectively. The animals were euthanized after 30 days. Their bone holes were evaluated by gross-pathology, histopathology, SEM and radiography. Also, their dry matter, bone ash and mineral density were measured.

    Results: Both the Gel and Chi showed cytotoxicity, while nHA had no role on cytotoxicity and cell-viability. All the HA, TCP and Sr significantly improved cell viability when compared to controls (P<0.05). Both the Gel and Chi had no role on osteoconduction and osteoinduction. Compared to HA, nHA showed superior role in increasing new bone formation, mineral density and ash (P<0.05). In contrast to HA and nHA, both the TCP and Sr showed superior morphological, radiographical and biochemical properties on bone healing (P<0.05). TCP and Sr showed the most effective osteoconduction and osteoinduction, respectively. In the Sr group, the most mature type of osteons formed.

    Conclusion: Various biomaterials have different in vivo efficacy during bone regeneration. TCP was found to be the best material for osteoconduction and Sr for osteoinduction.

  11. Azman KF, Zakaria R
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2019 Dec;22(12):1368-1377.
    PMID: 32133053 DOI: 10.22038/IJBMS.2019.14027
    This paper reviews the potential role of honey as a therapeutic antioxidant to reduce oxidative stress and improve cognitive ageing. All articles indexed to PubMed Central (PMC) were searched using the following key words: honey, antioxidant, memory and ageing. Honey is a natural insect-derived product with therapeutic, medicinal and nutritional values. Antioxidant properties of honey quench biologically-circulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and counter oxidative stress while restoring the cellular antioxidant defense system. Antioxidant properties of honey may complement its nootropic effects to reduce cognitive ageing.
  12. Subermaniam K, Teoh SL, Yow YY, Tang YQ, Lim LW, Wong KH
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2021 Aug;24(8):997-1013.
    PMID: 34804417 DOI: 10.22038/ijbms.2021.54800.12291
    Depression is a complex heterogeneous brain disorder characterized by a range of symptoms, resulting in psychomotor and cognitive disabilities and suicidal thoughts. Its prevalence has reached an alarming level affecting millions of people globally. Despite advances in current pharmacological treatments, the heterogenicity of clinical response and incidences of adverse effects have shifted research focus to identification of new natural substances with minimal or no adverse effects as therapeutic alternatives. Marine algae-derived extracts and their constituents are considered potential sources of secondary metabolites with diverse beneficial effects. Marine algae with enormous health benefits are emerging as a natural source for discovering new alternative antidepressants. Its medicinal properties exhibited shielding efficacy against neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction, which are indicated to underlie the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders. Marine algae have been found to ameliorate depressive-like symptoms and behaviors in preclinical and clinical studies by restoring monoaminergic neurotransmission, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, neuroplasticity, and continuous neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus via modulating brain-derived neurotrophic factors and antineuroinflammatory activity. Although antidepressant effects of marine algae have not been validated in comparison with currently available synthetic antidepressants, they have been reported to have effects on the pathophysiology of depression, thus suggesting their potential as novel antidepressants. In this review, we analyzed the currently available research on the potential benefits of marine algae on depression, including their effects on the pathophysiology of depression, potential clinical relevance of their antidepressant effects in preclinical and clinical studies, and the underlying mechanisms of these effects.
  13. Thu HE, Mohamed IN, Hussain Z, Shuid AN
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2017 Aug;20(8):894-904.
    PMID: 29085581 DOI: 10.22038/IJBMS.2017.9111
    OBJECTIVES: The present study was aimed to evaluate the time-mannered and dose-dependent effects of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) on the proliferation and differentiation of bone forming cells using MC3T3-E1 cells.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell proliferation was analyzed using MTS and phase contrast microscopic assays. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed through a series of in vitro experiments including crystal violet staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and Van Gieson (VG) staining. Taken together, the efficiency of bone mineralization was examined by using alizarin red s (ARS) staining, Von Kossa staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis.

    RESULTS: The resulting data revealed that 5α-DHT exhibits promising potential particularly at a dose of 0.1 ng/ml, in promoting the growth of MC3T3-E1 cells compared to the control group (CN). Moreover, a significantly higher ALP activity was evident in the experimental group treated with 5α-DHT compared to the CN group at various time intervals. MC3T3-E1 cells treated with 5α-DHT also expressed a remarkably higher collagen deposition and mineralization (calcium and phosphate contents) compared to the CN group at various time intervals.

    CONCLUSION: Conclusively, we suggest that 5α-DHT exhibits outstanding potential of promoting proliferation and differentiation in osteoblasts which could be the in vitro basis for the efficacy of 5α-DHT in the treatment of androgen-deficient male osteoporosis.

  14. Kuan TLT, Amini F, Seghayat MS
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2017 Jul;20(7):729-738.
    PMID: 28852436 DOI: 10.22038/IJBMS.2017.9000
    Multiple sclerosis is a debilitating disease of the central nervous system. It affects people of all ages but is more prevalent among 20-40 year olds. Patients with MS can be presented with potentially any neurological symptom depending on the location of the lesion. A quarter of patients with MS suffer from bilateral lower limb spasticity among other symptoms. These devastating effects can be detrimental to the patient's quality of life. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been used as a treatment for MS over the past 2 decades but their safety and efficacy has are undetermined. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and toxicity of autologous HSCs transplantation in MS. A literature search was done from 1997 to 2016 using different keywords. A total of 9 articles, which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, were included in this review. The type of conditioning regimen and technique of stem cell mobilization are summarized and compared in this study. All studies reported high-dose immunosuppressive therapy with autologous HSCs transplantation being an effective treatment option for severe cases of multiple sclerosis. Fever, sepsis, and immunosuppression side effects were the most observed adverse effects that were reported in the selected studies. HSCs is a feasible treatment for patients with MS; nevertheless the safety is still a concern due to chemo toxicity.
  15. Zakaria S, Mat-Husain SZ, Ying-Hwey K, Xin-Kai K, Mohd-Badawi A, Abd-Ghani NA, et al.
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2017 Dec;20(12):1360-1367.
    PMID: 29238472 DOI: 10.22038/IJBMS.2017.9610
    Objectives: Alcohol consumption induces oxidative stress on bone, which in turn increases the risk of osteoporosis. This study determined the effects of vitamin E on bone strength and bone mineral content in alcohol-induced osteoporotic rats.

    Materials and Methods: Three months old Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: (I) control group; (II) alcohol (3g/kg) + normal saline; (III) alcohol (3g/kg) + olive oil; (IV) alcohol (3g/kg) + alpha-tocopherol (60mg/kg) and (V) alcohol (3g/kg) + palm vitamin E (60mg/kg). The treatment lasted for three months. Following sacrifice, the right tibia was subjected to bone biomechanical test while the lumbar (fourth and fifth lumbar) and left tibia bones were harvested for bone mineral measurement.

    Results: Alcohol caused reduction in bone biomechanical parameters (maximum force, ultimate stress, yield stress and Young's modulus) and bone minerals (bone calcium and magnesium) compared to control group (P<0.05). Palm vitamin E was able to improve bone biomechanical parameters by increasing the maximum force, ultimate stress and Young's modulus (P<0.05) while alpha-tocopherol was not able to. Both alpha-tocopherol and palm vitamin E were able to significantly increase tibia calcium and magnesium content while only alpha-tocopherol caused significant increase in lumbar calcium content (P<0.05).

    Conclusion: Both palm vitamin E and alpha-tocopherol improved bone mineral content which was reduced by alcohol. However, only palm vitamin E was able to improve bone strength in alcohol treated rats.

  16. Mosaheb MUFZ, Khan NA, Siddiqui R
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2018 Sep;21(9):873-877.
    PMID: 30524685 DOI: 10.22038/IJBMS.2018.30442.7339
    OBJECTIVES: To present a brief overview of various natural sources of antimicrobials with the aim of highlighting invertebrates living in polluted environments as additional sources of antimicrobials.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PubMed search using antibacterials, antimicrobials, invertebrates, and natural products as keywords was carried out. In addition, we consulted conference proceedings, original unpublished research undertaken in our laboratories, and discussions in specific forums.

    RESULTS: Representative of a stupefying 95% of the fauna, invertebrates are fascinating organisms which have evolved strategies to survive germ-infested environments, yet they have largely been ignored. Since invertebrates such as cockroaches inhabit hazardous environments which are rampant with pathogens, they must have developed defense mechanisms to circumvent infections. This is corroborated by the presence of antimicrobial molecules in the nervous systems and hemolymph of cockroaches. Antimicrobial compounds have also been unraveled from the nervous, adipose, and salivary glandular tissues of locusts. Interestingly, the venoms of arthropods including ants, scorpions, and spiders harbor toxins, but also possess multiple antimicrobials.

    CONCLUSION: These findings have rekindled the hopes for newer and enhanced therapeutic agents derived from a plentiful and diverse resource to combat fatal infectious diseases. Such antimicrobials from unusual sources can potentially be translated into clinical practice, however intensive research is needed over the next several years to realize these expectations.

  17. Subermaniam K, Lew SY, Yow YY, Lim SH, Yu WS, Lim LW, et al.
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2023;26(6):669-679.
    PMID: 37275754 DOI: 10.22038/IJBMS.2023.67835.14842
    OBJECTIVES: Neuroinflammation and microglial activation are pathological features in central nervous system disorders. Excess levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in exacerbation of neuronal damage during chronic activation of microglial cells. Padina australis, a brown macroalga, has been demonstrated to have various pharmacological properties such as anti-neuroinflammatory activity. However, the underlying mechanism mediating the anti-neuroinflammatory potential of P. australis remains poorly understood. We explored the use of Malaysian P. australis in attenuating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated neuroinflammation in BV2 microglial cells.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fresh specimens of P. australis were freeze-dried and subjected to ethanol extraction. The ethanol extract (PAEE) was evaluated for its protective effects against 1 µg/ml LPS-stimulated neuroinflammation in BV2 microglial cells.

    RESULTS: LPS reduced the viability of BV2 microglia cells and increased the levels of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, the neuroinflammatory response was reversed by 0.5-2.0 mg/ml PAEE in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) of PAEE subfractions revealed five compounds; methyl α-eleostearate, ethyl α-eleostearate, niacinamide, stearamide, and linoleic acid.

    CONCLUSION: The protective effects of PAEE against LPS-stimulated neuroinflammation in BV2 microglial cells were found to be mediated by the suppression of excess levels of intracellular ROS and pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, denoting the protective role of P. australis in combating continuous neuroinflammation. Our findings support the use of P. australis as a possible therapeutic for neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Hanafi NI, Mohamed M, Sirajudeen KNMS, Hafizoh Saidan N, Siew Hua G, Pahirulzaman KAK, et al.
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2023;26(11):1360-1369.
    PMID: 37885997 DOI: 10.22038/IJBMS.2023.71521.15547
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of fenugreek on CoCl2-induced hypoxia in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary cardiomyocytes were isolated from Sprague Dawley rats aged 0-2 days and incubated with various concentrations of fenugreek (10-320 µg/ml) and CoCl2-induced hypoxia for different durations (24, 48, and 72 hr). Cell viability, calcium signaling, beating rate, and gene expression were evaluated.

    RESULTS: Fenugreek treatments did not cause any toxicity in cardiomyocytes. At a concentration of 160 µg/ml for 24 hr, fenugreek protected the heart against CoCl2-induced hypoxia, as evidenced by reduced expression of caspases (-3, -6, -8, and -9) and other functional genes markers, such as HIF-1α, Bcl-2, IP3R, ERK5, and GLP-1r. Calcium signaling and beating rate were also improved in fenugreek-treated cardiomyocytes. In contrast, CoCl2 treatment resulted in up-regulation of the hypoxia gene HIF-1α and apoptotic caspases gene (-3, -9, -8, -12), and down-regulation of Bcl-2 activity.

    CONCLUSION: Fenugreek treatment at a concentration of 160 µg/ml was not toxic to neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and protected against CoCl2-induced hypoxia. Furthermore, fenugreek improved calcium signaling and beating rate and altered gene expression. Fenugreek may be a potential therapeutic agent for promoting cardioprotection against hypoxia-induced injuries.

  19. Mohd Adnan LH, Abu Bakar NH, Simbak N, Mohamad N, Ismail R, Ahmad NZ, et al.
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2020 Jul;23(7):849-852.
    PMID: 32774804 DOI: 10.22038/ijbms.2020.41678.9841
    Opioids, amphetamines, and other types of substances have been widely abused around the world. Opioid dependence and tolerance are two distinct phenomena that have been associated with substance abuse issues. The management of its adverse consequences is becoming more challenging. More and more people are treated in Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) program yet the issues are still unresolved. Researchers are continuing to study the best formulation in treating opioid dependent people starting with modern and alternative drug therapies. Since 2008 , thymoquinone (TQ) has been extensively studied by researchers around the world and has emerged to be a new potential drug candidate in managing substance abuse issues. Thus, the aim of this article is to review the effects that TQ may have on opioid dependent subjects and other abused substances such as amphetamine may have been studied. All of the articles from 2008 until 2019 involving the effects of TQ on substance abuse from Google Scholar®, Scopus®, and Pubmed® databases have been searched and reviewed. The keywords used were thymoquinone, opioid dependence, amphetamine, and Nigella sativa. The research results also have been discussed in this article. Based on the research conducted, TQ was effective in reducing the adverse health consequences associated with substance abuse such as withdrawal symptoms, tolerance, and cell damages. It is concluded that TQ could be a potential drug that can be complemented with the currently available drugs in substance abuse therapies.
  20. Nissanka MC, Weerasekera MM, Dilhari A, Dissanayaka R, Rathnayake S, Wijesinghe GK
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2023;26(9):979-986.
    PMID: 37605731 DOI: 10.22038/IJBMS.2023.67965.14877
    Hygrophila schulli which is known as "Neermulli'' in the vernacular is an herbaceous plant native to Sri Lanka. Ancient medicinal literature suggests the use of H. schulli whole plant or its parts for the treatment of different communicable and non-communicable diseases including diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis. Active constituents and secondary metabolites including alkaloids, tannins, steroids, proteins, flavonoids, and glycosides are identified to possess antimicrobial, antitumor, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, nephroprotective, antidiabetic, anticataract, anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, hematopoietic, diuretic, antiurolithiatic, antipyretic, neuroprotection, and anti-endotoxin activities. In this review, we reviewed clinical studies, patents, and analytical studies from the earliest found examples from 1886 to the end of 2021. We critically analyzed and attempt to summarize the information based on bioactivities and chemical composition of H. schulli plant extracts which will be of future use for researchers in this field.
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