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  1. Abdollahi F, Rohani S, Sazlina GS, Zarghami M, Azhar MZ, Lye MS, et al.
    Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci, 2014;8(2):11-21.
    PMID: 25053953
    OBJECTIVE:
    There are various attempts to confirm variables that could predict postpartum depression in advance. This study determined antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression in women at risk of developing this disorder.

    METHODS:
    A prospective cohort study was conducted with 2279 eligible women who attended at Mazandaran province' primary health centers from 32-42 weeks of pregnancy to eighth postpartum weeks. The women were screened for symptoms of depression using the Iranian version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. An Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of > 12 indicated possible postpartum depression. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used for data analysis.

    RESULTS:
    A total of 2083women during 32-42 weeks of gestation participated in this study and were followed up to 8-week postpartum. Four hundred and three (19.4%) mothers yielded scores above the threshold of 12. Depression and general health state in pregnancy based on Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (OR = 1.35, CI = 1.3-1.4) and General Health Questionnaire-28 (OR = 1.03, CI = 1.01-1.04), respectively were significant independent antenatal risk factors of depression symptoms at 8-week postpartum. Mothers who lived in nuclear families (OR = 1.38, CI = 1.04-1.84), whose husbands had lower educational status (OR = 0.95, CI = 0.91-0.99), and with delayed prenatal care (OR = 1.01, CI = 1.001-1.03) were more susceptible to postpartum depression.

    CONCLUSION:
    A comprehensive antenatal assessment focused on psychiatric problems, environmental and obstetric factors would benefit pregnant women in the prevention of postpartum depression.

    KEYWORDS:
    Cohort Study; Postpartum Depression; Prediction; Risk Factors
  2. Abdollahi A, Abu Talib M, Motalebi SA
    Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci, 2015 Dec;9(4):e2268.
    PMID: 26834804 DOI: 10.17795/ijpbs-2268
    BACKGROUND: Given that happiness is an important construct to enable adolescents to cope better with difficulties and stress of life, it is necessary to advance our knowledge about the possible etiology of happiness in adolescents.
    OBJECTIVES:The present study sought to investigate the relationships of emotional intelligence, depressive symptoms, and happiness in a sample of male students in Tehran, Iran.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of high school students in Tehran in 2012. The participants comprised of 188 male students (aged 16 to 19 years old) selected by multi-stage cluster sampling method. For gathering the data, the students filled out assessing emotions scale, Beck depression inventory-II, and Oxford happiness inventory. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive and analytical statistics in statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software.
    RESULTS: The findings showed that a significant positive association existed between high ability of emotional intelligence and happiness (P < 0.01). Conversely, the low ability of emotional intelligence was associated with unhappiness (P < 0.01), there was a positive association between non-depression symptoms and happiness (P < 0.05), and severe depressive symptoms were positively associated with unhappiness (P < 0.01). High ability of emotional intelligence (P < 0.01) and non-depression symptoms (P < 0.05) were the strongest predictors of happiness.
    CONCLUSIONS: These findings reinforced the importance of emotional intelligence as a facilitating factor for happiness in adolescences. In addition, the findings suggested that depression symptoms may be harmful for happiness in adolescents.

    KEYWORDS:
    Depression; Emotional Intelligence; Iranian Students; Wellbeing
  3. Mihandoost Z, Elias H
    Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci, 2011;5(2):43-52.
    PMID: 24644446
    The current research tested the differences in reading attitude and reading comprehension in the dyslexic students between the control group and the experimental group following the Barton intervention program.
  4. Abdollahi F, Lye MS, Md Zain A, Shariff Ghazali S, Zarghami M
    PMID: 24644441
    OBJECTIVE: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common health problem which affects women in the postpartum period. This is a brief note on its associated factors in women from different cultures.
    METHODS: A literature review was performed in MEDLINE and Pubmed from 1991 to 2008 and Magiran from 1991 to 2009. Additional articles and book chapters were referenced from these sources.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of postpartum depression has been reported to be from 0.5% to 60% globally, and from 3.5% to 63.3% in Asian countries, in which Malaysia and Pakistan had respectively the lowest and highest rates. One of the factors contributing to PPD in Asian societies can be that women may not have the empowerment to reject traditional rituals that are imposed on them by their caregivers. Unsatisfactory pre-existing relationships between the mothers and their caregivers resulting in mothers experiencing difficulties during their confinement period may be another factor. Thirdly, some features of these traditional rituals may be the cause of tension, stress and emotional distress. Emotional conflicts caused by insistence on practice of traditional rituals during the postpartum period may lead to mental breakdown.
    CONCLUSION: Health care professionals should be aware that the phenomenon in Asian cultures is as prevalent as European cultures. Moreover, further research needs to be conducted on the global prevalence of the experiences of childbearing women with depressive symptoms.
    KEYWORDS: Cultures; Postpartum depression; Risk factors
  5. Abdollahi F, Agajani-Delavar M, Zarghami M, Lye MS
    Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci, 2016 Mar;10(1):e426.
    PMID: 31168307 DOI: 10.17795/ijpbs-426
    Background: Post-partum depression (PPD) can produce adverse symptoms that make motherhood one of the most tumultuous events in a female's life. First-time mothers who have problems adapting themselves to the mother's role are more vulnerable to PPD.

    Objectives: The current study aimed to explore the extent of social support and parental self-efficacy on PPD, this study was conducted among the first-time pregnant women.

    Patients and Methods: A prospective cohort study assessed the depressive symptoms and related factors among 838 first-time not depressed pregnant women from third trimester of pregnancy to 12 weeks postpartum who attended primary health centers (Jan to July 2009). The study employed Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, social support appraisals scale, network orientation scale, marital inventory, parental expectation survey and socio-demographic questionnaires. Logistic regression was used for data analysis.

    Results: The incidence of depression was 10.7% at three months post-partum. The adjusted odds ratio showed the PPD was associated with perceived social isolation (OR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.01 - 1.12), lack of marital satisfaction (OR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.86 - 0.97) and low parental self-efficacy (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.65 - 0.85).

    Conclusions: A high incidence of PPD was identified among the first-time mothers which makes PPD one of the major health problems in females. The important effects of perceived social isolation, maternal parental self-efficacy, and marital satisfaction on reducing the risk of PPD should be considered.

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