• 1 Public Health Department, Faculty of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Mazandaran, IR Iran
  • 2 Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing, Fatemezahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Mazandaran, IR Iran
  • 3 Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Mazandaran, IR Iran
  • 4 Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci, 2016 Mar;10(1):e426.
PMID: 31168307 DOI: 10.17795/ijpbs-426


Background: Post-partum depression (PPD) can produce adverse symptoms that make motherhood one of the most tumultuous events in a female's life. First-time mothers who have problems adapting themselves to the mother's role are more vulnerable to PPD.

Objectives: The current study aimed to explore the extent of social support and parental self-efficacy on PPD, this study was conducted among the first-time pregnant women.

Patients and Methods: A prospective cohort study assessed the depressive symptoms and related factors among 838 first-time not depressed pregnant women from third trimester of pregnancy to 12 weeks postpartum who attended primary health centers (Jan to July 2009). The study employed Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, social support appraisals scale, network orientation scale, marital inventory, parental expectation survey and socio-demographic questionnaires. Logistic regression was used for data analysis.

Results: The incidence of depression was 10.7% at three months post-partum. The adjusted odds ratio showed the PPD was associated with perceived social isolation (OR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.01 - 1.12), lack of marital satisfaction (OR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.86 - 0.97) and low parental self-efficacy (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.65 - 0.85).

Conclusions: A high incidence of PPD was identified among the first-time mothers which makes PPD one of the major health problems in females. The important effects of perceived social isolation, maternal parental self-efficacy, and marital satisfaction on reducing the risk of PPD should be considered.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.