Several criteria have been used to stratify acute kidney injury (AKI) in dengue infection and have resulted in variations in its incidence as well as clinic-laboratory characteristics. The current study was aimed to compare three commonly used criteria of AKI among patients with dengue.
In view of the alarming increase in the incidence of diabetes mellitus in Malaysia, we conducted a study to assess the awareness of complications of diabetes among the diabetics attending the peripheral clinics in Melaka. The study period was from January 2007 to December 2007. 351 patients were included in the study. 79.8% were aware of the complications of diabetes mellitus and 87.2% were aware that diabetes can affect the eyes. However, only 50% of the patients underwent an ophthalmological evaluation. Although awareness was good, the motivation to undergo the assessment was poor.
The incidence of dengue in Malaysia has increased from 15.2 per 100,000 in 1973 to 361.0 per 100,000 population by the year 2014. The same trend was seen in case fatality rates that went up from 0.16% to 0.62% between 2000 to 2013.1,2 More than 60% of the cases were from the Klang Valley region. In Pahang the dengue incidence rates from 2004 to 2014 showed a similar increase from 40.9 to 193.8 per 100,000 population and an increase in case fatality rates from 0.07% to 0.3% too was observed between 2000-2014. Fortunately these figures were below the national average.3
A surgeon’s experience plays an important role in breast conserving surgery (BCS). The common conception is that, the more junior is the operating surgeon, the surgical margin will be wider or closer to the tumour edge. Thus the aim of this study is to look into the adequacy of surgical margin performed by different level of surgeons’ experience in patients whom underwent wide local excision (WLE) and hook-wire localization (HWL) in our surgical unit. The surgical experience of the operating surgeon and their surgical margins will be analyzed. This is a retrospective study from January 2000 to December 2012. Eighty-eight patients with early breast cancer underwent WLE and HWL by 3 different groups of surgeons (breast surgeons, junior surgeons and surgical registrars) were included. The surgical margins were analyzed for involved-margin, closed-margin or excessed-margin.The incidence of involved-margin, closed-margin and excessed-margin is the lowest among breast surgeons compared to other groups. However, the results were not statistically significant. The incidence of involved surgical margin is significantly higher within junior surgeons for HWL compared to the breast surgeons. The incidence of involved, closed or excessed surgical margin were lowest when performed by breast surgeon but not significantly different between the three groups. However, for HWL the breast surgeons significantly better compared to the other groups.
Healthy lifestyle issues have been very much in the news in both the lay press and the medical journals. The incidence of chronic non-communicable diseases is increasing worldwide and it is no different in Malaysia. Preventing and decreasing the incidence is related to lifestyle issues.(Copied from article).
The aim of this descriotive study is to determine the incidence of injuries among recreational badminton players. We evaluated 86 recreational badminton players in the city of Malacca; 35 were excluded for fitting the exclusion criteria. The average recreational badminton player was 36.13 years old and had been playing badminton for the past 17.84 years at a frequency of 2.11 times per week. 39.21% of the recreational badminton players complained of recent injuries in relation to playing badminton. Our data showed that the most common injury sustained by recreational badminton players was pain and stiffness at the shoulder joint. None of the injuries sustained by the players in our data were serious enough to warrant any form of surgical intervention. We conclude that badminton is a sport of relatively low risk and that the majority of related injuries were chronic overuse injuries.
Pneumococcal pneumonia is the commonest type of bacterial pneumonia worldwide. In Malaysia, the reported incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia is low. This may be due to poor sensitivity of conventional methods. The use of BinaxNOW, a urinary antigen test for Streptococcus pneumoniae can aid in the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia.
Retinal detachment is one of the common complications of pathological myopia due to presence of retinal break.
However, retinal break commonly occurs in the peripheral retina. This case report illustrates the rare incidence of
retinal break adjacent to the optic disc, highlights the possible causes of poor visual outcome following surgical
repair as well as the possible measures to treat the complications.
Tornwaldt's (Thornwaldt's) or nasopharyngeal cyst is an uncommon developmental
benign cyst located in the midline postero-superior wall of nasopharynx. Incidence reported in
general population is 0.06%. It occurred in the potential space due to outpouching of ectoderm into
the pharyngobasilar fascia at the site where notochord attached to pharyngeal ectoderm. (Copied from article).
Since 1994 to 2009, ascribed by the good coverage of immunization, the incidence of pertussis has been less than 1 in 100,000 populations . Nevertheless, the incidence and prevalence increased tremendously for the past 2 years, i.e. 2014 and 2015.(Copied from article)
Current review article focuses on Dengue, which is one of the most fatal infectious illnesses and is considered to be a worldwide threat. The paper covers essential topics including an overview on neglected tropical diseases with specific emphasis on Dengue fever, mosquito's cycle of life and mechanism of infection, adaptive response, and different stages in Dengue immunopathogenesis. The current work is also dedicated to the thorough study of Dengue outbreak across the globe with narrowed study to tropical and subtropical regions. Moreover, this review article demonstrates the correlation between the climate factors and Dengue incidence. Furthermore, we present an overview on the detection strategies of Dengue including the latest developments in commercial and non-commercial platforms. Several attempts in developing effective vaccine to protect individuals from Dengue infection and the stage of clinical trails are gathered in the present work as well. Future directions including bio-control are also discussed in this review article. In an overall view, effective management of Dengue is a multidisciplinary task that requires international involvement from different backgrounds and expertise to address this global concern. This review article briefly portrays some of these connecting areas across the disciplines while many other perspectives remain uncovered.
The history and epidemiology of human leptospirosis in Malaysia from 1925 to 2012 are described. Previous studies have demonstrated that leptospirosis is an endemic disease in Malaysia occurring in both urban and rural locations. The number of cases has risen dramatically since the Ministry of Health Malaysia highlighted leptospirosis as a notifiable disease in 2010, with reported cases increasing from 248 cases in 2004 to 3604 in 2012. The incidence of infection among the population suggests that occupation, sex, age, ethnic background, water recreational activities, and sporting events are risk factors. A robust surveillance system is now in place to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the incidence and prevalence of infection and to identify risk areas and disease behavior. Despite extensive studies over the past decade, there is a still a need to describe local serovars in host carriers and the human population, with the view to develop an effective vaccine against leptospirosis.
There is increasing consumption of exotic food in Malaysia. Animals such as insects, worms and wild life animals also form part of the staple food of the local population. This practice may lead to more incidence of food allergy and anaphylaxis. We report a non-indigenous man who developed food anaphylaxis after consuming fried sago worms and consequently Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We postulate that certain food allergy and anaphylaxis could be another causative trigger for Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.
Hamartomatous polyps of the tonsil are very rare. They have been described using various terms such as a lymphangiomatous polyp, lymphangiectatic fibrous polyp, lipomatous polyp or pedunculated tonsil, thus the actual incidence is difficult to be quantified. We present a case of hamartomatous polyp of the palatine tonsil in a 30-year-old female presented with recurent tonsillitis. Histopathological examination of the resected tonsils showed features of chronic tonsilitis with incidental finding of hamartomatous polyp characterized by a polypoidal tissue covered by stratified squamous epithelium and composed of thin-walled blood vessels, lymphatic channels, fibrofatty tissues, seromucinous glands and striated muscle fibres. An unusual incidental histopathological finding of a rare condition has been discussed along with the review of literature.
Dengue fever is a common pyrexial-viral infection in the Asian region and the incidence is increasing yearly. There are various ocular manifestations of dengue fever such as maculopathy, retinal hemorrhages, retinal lesions and vasculitis. Reduction in visual acuity and other visual disturbances such as metamorphopsia is the most common presentation of dengue-associated maculopathy. We report an interesting case of a young lady with bilateral maculopathy secondary to dengue fever who was managed conservatively with dramatic visual improvements. This case highlights the possibility of bilateral and simultaneous ocular involvements in patients infected with dengue fever. Both ophthalmologists and physicians need to be aware of ocular complications following dengue fever and advice patients regarding the symptoms.
A study was conducted in Kelantan, Mabysia, in the year 2001 , to assess the typhoid reporting coverage and timeliness, and to estimate the annual incidence. Cases were persons given the diagnosis of typhoid clinically, and conhrmed cases are those with positive laboratory results. In all, 174/252 (69%) cases (95% CI = 63%-75%) were reported, ofwhich 89/131 (83%) within 7 days of diagnosis. The estimated annual typhoid incidence in Kelantan is 37/ 1 00,000.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum is a very rare malignancy. In the literature, the incidence has been reported as 0.25 to 0.1 per 10000 colorectal carcinomas. Due to its rarity, the treatment and behavior of this tumor have only been discussed in case reports. As a result, several theories regarding their pathogenesis have been proposed. We will describe our experience in managing this rare malignancy in a 69-year-old man who presented with altered bowel habit. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. Issues regarding additional treatment have been presented in the literature. The rarity of this tumour also raises issues regarding criteria for diagnosis which we will try to highlight and discuss.
The state of Selangor, Malaysia, is facing a significant rise in the number of malaria cases with the incidence varying from 20 to 90 per 100,000 persons in a population. A study was carried out to describe the distribution of malaria cases in relation to the growing number of foreign workers in Selangor. Data were reviewed using the return forms "PBV (M) 101", a summary of malaria cases in Selangor for 2006 and Annual Reports of Vector-Borne Disease Control Unit, Selangor State Department for 2001- 2005. The malaria cases in Selangor varied between 172 cases in 2001 and 90 cases in 2006. Most of the cases were contributed by foreign workers, who were predominantly male of economically active age group and came from malaria endemic countries. Most of these cases were concentrated in the urban districts. Malaria is still endemic in Selangor. Malarial infection has the potential of contributing to an urban outbreak of malaria.