Purpose. The aim of this paper is to review the published studies on the characteristics of impairments in the postural control and gait performance in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Methods. A review was performed by obtaining publication of all papers reporting on the postural control and gait performance in DPN from Google Scholar, Ovid, SAGE, Springerlink, Science Direct (SD), EBSCO Discovery Service, and Web of Science databases. The keywords used for searching were "postural control," "balance," "gait performance," "diabetes mellitus," and "diabetic peripheral neuropathy." Results. Total of 4,337 studies were hit in the search. 1,524 studies were screened on their titles and citations. Then, 79 studies were screened on their abstract. Only 38 studies were eligible to be selected: 17 studies on postural control and 21 studies on the gait performance. Most previous researches were found to have strong evidence of postural control impairments and noticeable gait deficits in DPN. Deterioration of somatosensory, visual, and vestibular systems with the pathologic condition of diabetes on cognitive impairment causes further instability of postural and gait performance in DPN. Conclusions. Postural instability and gait imbalance in DPN may contribute to high risk of fall incidence, especially in the geriatric population. Thus, further works are crucial to highlight this fact in the hospital based and community adults.
Several criteria have been used to stratify acute kidney injury (AKI) in dengue infection and have resulted in variations in its incidence as well as clinic-laboratory characteristics. The current study was aimed to compare three commonly used criteria of AKI among patients with dengue.
Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence.
In view of the alarming increase in the incidence of diabetes mellitus in Malaysia, we conducted a study to assess the awareness of complications of diabetes among the diabetics attending the peripheral clinics in Melaka. The study period was from January 2007 to December 2007. 351 patients were included in the study. 79.8% were aware of the complications of diabetes mellitus and 87.2% were aware that diabetes can affect the eyes. However, only 50% of the patients underwent an ophthalmological evaluation. Although awareness was good, the motivation to undergo the assessment was poor.
Great saphenous vein (GSV) is the longest vein in the body originating from the dorsum of the foot at medial malleolus to the level of groin skin crease. It is one among the clinically significant superficial veins of the lower limb. Double or duplication of GSV is considered to be one of its rarest variant forms, which might be often mistaken with the accessory saphenous vein. The overall incidence of duplicated GSV is reported to be 1%. We report herein, a unilateral duplication of GSV with its morphological and clinical perspectives. The major clinical complication that is often encountered from its duplication is recurrent incompetence of the GSV, which predisposes varicosity. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of venous anatomy is important for clinicians and sonographers.
A surgeon’s experience plays an important role in breast conserving surgery (BCS). The common conception is that, the more junior is the operating surgeon, the surgical margin will be wider or closer to the tumour edge. Thus the aim of this study is to look into the adequacy of surgical margin performed by different level of surgeons’ experience in patients whom underwent wide local excision (WLE) and hook-wire localization (HWL) in our surgical unit. The surgical experience of the operating surgeon and their surgical margins will be analyzed. This is a retrospective study from January 2000 to December 2012. Eighty-eight patients with early breast cancer underwent WLE and HWL by 3 different groups of surgeons (breast surgeons, junior surgeons and surgical registrars) were included. The surgical margins were analyzed for involved-margin, closed-margin or excessed-margin.The incidence of involved-margin, closed-margin and excessed-margin is the lowest among breast surgeons compared to other groups. However, the results were not statistically significant. The incidence of involved surgical margin is significantly higher within junior surgeons for HWL compared to the breast surgeons. The incidence of involved, closed or excessed surgical margin were lowest when performed by breast surgeon but not significantly different between the three groups. However, for HWL the breast surgeons significantly better compared to the other groups.
The incidence of dengue in Malaysia has increased from 15.2 per 100,000 in 1973 to 361.0 per 100,000 population by the year 2014. The same trend was seen in case fatality rates that went up from 0.16% to 0.62% between 2000 to 2013.1,2 More than 60% of the cases were from the Klang Valley region. In Pahang the dengue incidence rates from 2004 to 2014 showed a similar increase from 40.9 to 193.8 per 100,000 population and an increase in case fatality rates from 0.07% to 0.3% too was observed between 2000-2014. Fortunately these figures were below the national average.3
Healthy lifestyle issues have been very much in the news in both the lay press and the medical journals. The incidence of chronic non-communicable diseases is increasing worldwide and it is no different in Malaysia. Preventing and decreasing the incidence is related to lifestyle issues.(Copied from article).
Tornwaldt's (Thornwaldt's) or nasopharyngeal cyst is an uncommon developmental
benign cyst located in the midline postero-superior wall of nasopharynx. Incidence reported in
general population is 0.06%. It occurred in the potential space due to outpouching of ectoderm into
the pharyngobasilar fascia at the site where notochord attached to pharyngeal ectoderm. (Copied from article).
Since 1994 to 2009, ascribed by the good coverage of immunization, the incidence of pertussis has been less than 1 in 100,000 populations . Nevertheless, the incidence and prevalence increased tremendously for the past 2 years, i.e. 2014 and 2015.(Copied from article)
Pneumococcal pneumonia is the commonest type of bacterial pneumonia worldwide. In Malaysia, the reported incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia is low. This may be due to poor sensitivity of conventional methods. The use of BinaxNOW, a urinary antigen test for Streptococcus pneumoniae can aid in the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia.
Current review article focuses on Dengue, which is one of the most fatal infectious illnesses and is considered to be a worldwide threat. The paper covers essential topics including an overview on neglected tropical diseases with specific emphasis on Dengue fever, mosquito's cycle of life and mechanism of infection, adaptive response, and different stages in Dengue immunopathogenesis. The current work is also dedicated to the thorough study of Dengue outbreak across the globe with narrowed study to tropical and subtropical regions. Moreover, this review article demonstrates the correlation between the climate factors and Dengue incidence. Furthermore, we present an overview on the detection strategies of Dengue including the latest developments in commercial and non-commercial platforms. Several attempts in developing effective vaccine to protect individuals from Dengue infection and the stage of clinical trails are gathered in the present work as well. Future directions including bio-control are also discussed in this review article. In an overall view, effective management of Dengue is a multidisciplinary task that requires international involvement from different backgrounds and expertise to address this global concern. This review article briefly portrays some of these connecting areas across the disciplines while many other perspectives remain uncovered.
Retinal detachment is one of the common complications of pathological myopia due to presence of retinal break.
However, retinal break commonly occurs in the peripheral retina. This case report illustrates the rare incidence of
retinal break adjacent to the optic disc, highlights the possible causes of poor visual outcome following surgical
repair as well as the possible measures to treat the complications.