SUMMARY: However, epidemiology data may be misleading due to several contentious diagnostic issues. The diagnostic conundrums are due to inherent complexity of the GEJ as a functional and pathological unit. Challenging diagnostic issues in Asia include the following: nonstandardized landmark of the GEJ, misclassification of Barrett esophagus, targeted versus nontargeted tissue sampling, histopathology disagreement and challenges in screening or surveillance of dysplastic BE and early GEJ cancer. The recent Asian-Pacific survey led by the Asian Barrett Consortium (ABC) has provided useful insights into these contentious issues. A key learning point from these diagnostic limitations is that the awareness of the disease and adherence to existing recommendations or guidelines are poor in the region. Key Messages: Standardization in diagnostic methodology is vital for accurate epidemiology data, and this can only come from better awareness and adherence through educational and international efforts. Last, surveillance strategy may need a paradigm shift from a purely diagnostic approach to a combined targeted surveillance and treatment approach using novel endoscopic techniques.