The Lembah Bujang archeological complex near Sungai Petani, Kedah consists of various structures constructed at different times and spread over a wide area. This paper reports on the thermoluminescence (TL) dating of one of these structures. The structure was found to be 350 ± 90 yrs old. This is very young as compared with other structures that are from the 4th to the 16th centuries. This structure is suspected to be remnant of a Muslim Mosque whereas the other structures were Hindu and Buddist temples.
The Court held that, in determining whether to authorize a Muslim man to take a second wife under Rule 11 of the Malaysia Muslim Marriage and Divorce Rules 1968, an objective test, rather than a subjective test, should be used. It ruled that, whether "a husband is competent to support more than one wife and will be able, if he marries more than one wife, to treat them with equity in accordance with the Muslim law" should be established by objective evidence, not merely by a husband's statement that he can support both wives and will treat them equitably. The Court allowed the appeal of the wife of the respondent against a decision of the Registrar of Muslim Marriages to allow the respondent to take a second wife.
Bujang Valley is a well-known historical complex found in the north-west of peninsular Malaysia; more than 50 ancient monuments and hundreds of artefacts have been discovered throughout the area. The discovery of these suggests Bujang Valley to have been an important South East Asian trading centre over the period from the 10th to 14th centuries. Present work concerns thermoluminescence (TL) dating analysis of shards collected from a historic monument located at Pengkalan Bujang in Bujang Valley. All the shards were prepared using the fine grain technique and the additive dose method was applied in determining the paleodose of each shard. The annual dose rate was obtained by measuring the concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides (U, Th and K) in the samples and their surroundings. The TL ages of the shards were found to range between 330±21 years and 920±69 years, indicative of the last firing of the bricks and tiles from which the shards originated, some dating back to the period during which the historical complex remained active.
During the early postwar years up to 1957, the three main races in Malaya - Malays, Chinese, and Indians - experienced some differences in their levels of fertility. The lowest fertility was recorded among the Malays, with Chinese and Indian fertility about 5 percent and 10 percent higher, respectively. The comparatively low fertility of the Malays was owing to the exceptionally high rate of divorce, which meant unstable marriages and shorter periods of exposure to the risk of childbearing.A fairly well-defined pattern of state differences in fertility levels is found to exist in Malaya. Briefly, fertility was on the high side in the northern states of Johore, Malacca, and Negri Sembilan, and on the low side in the northern states of Penanq, Kelantan, Perlis, Kedah, and Trengganu, with the central states of Perak, Selangor, and Pahang in the intermediate position.The usual rural-urban fertility differentials are seen to prevail in Malaya as a whole and in the smaller units at state levels. Finally, the three main races registered higher fertility in rural areas, and the greatest gap between rural and urban rates prevailed among the Chinese.
Recent rootkit-attack mitigation work neglected to address the integrity of the mitigation tool itself. Both detection and prevention arms of current rootkit-attack mitigation solutions can be given credit for the advancement of multiple methodologies for rootkit defense but if the defense system itself is compromised, how is the defense system to be trusted? Another deficiency not addressed is how platform integrity can be preserved without availability of current RIDS or RIPS solutions, which operate only upon the loading of the kernel i.e. without availability of a trusted boot environment. To address these deficiencies, we present our architecture for solving rootkit persistence – Rootkit Guard (RG). RG is a marriage between TrustedGRUB (providing trusted boot), IMA (Integrity Measurement Architecture) (serves as RIDS) and SELinux (serves as RIPS). TPM hardware is utilised to provide total integrity of our platform via storage of the aggregate of the clean snapshot of our platform OS kernel into TPM hardware registers (i.e. the PCR) – of which no software attacks have been demonstrated to date. RG solves rootkit persistence by leveraging on one vital but simple strategy: the mounting of rootkit defense via prevention of the execution of configuration binaries or build initialisation scripts. We adopted the technique of rootkit persistence prevention via thwarting the initialisation of a rootkit’s installation procedure; if the rootkit is successfully installed, proper deployment via thwarting of the rootkit’s
configuration is prevented. We had subjected the RG to 8 real world Linux 2.6 rootkits and the RG was successful in solving rootkit persistence in all 8 evaluated rootkits. In terms of performance, the RG introduced a maximum of 11% overhead and an average of 4% overhead, hence permitting deployment in production environments.
Objective: This case report aims to highlight the importance of parental contribution to the school refusal problem. Methods: We report a case of a 9- year old boy who presented with school refusal behaviour. Results: There was no psychiatry diagnosis made in this patient. Parental issues such as ineffective and inconsistent parenting, and parental marital disharmony contribute significantly to the school refusal behaviour. Conclusion: Parents in particular are important team players in the management of school refusal. Parental issues need to be explored and managed accordingly to ensure good outcome. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 15 (1): January - June 2014: 83-85.
One of the hardest challenges in marriage are how to face negative thoughts that arised from difficult
situations such as feeling inferior, abandoned, mistrust, and excessive jealousy. From the Cognitive-
Behavioral perspective, these feelings are being exacerbated by unhealthy individual thought patterns
originating from society and family upbringing. This article discusses the unhealthy thought patterns
that are common in marriage, and strategies in changing these thought patterns by using healthy
templates of Islamic thought patterns.
Hereditary haemolytic anaemias, in particular, thalassaemia and the haemoglobinopathies, have been found to be a significant cause of hereditary haemolytic disease in West Malaysia. Theoretically 1 in 2500 marriages are between heterozygotes for beta-thalassaemia and 1 in 10,000 children can be expected to have thalassaemia major. An approach to the prevention of this disease would be public education and identification of carriers: to develop some approach to the identification and genetic counselling of beta-thalassaemia trait.
There are a lot of factors and conditions to be considered by tour and travel companies when designing quality product due to the fact that the product being sold is intangible and their ultimate goal is to sustain customers' loyalty. Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) has been observed to be compatible to this 'intangible' factor thus giving better result when compared to other methods. By using FLC, all communications are clear and have precise meaning.
The role of husband-wife communication in the practice of family planning was studied among the rural Malay couples in Mukim Rusila, Terengganu. It was a cross-sectional study in which a cluster sampling was used to select the study sample. A total of 193 (100.0%) wives and 74 (38.3%) husbands responded to a face-to-face interview. Visual Analogue Scale was used to measure the level of husband-wife communication. Husband-wife communication score was lower on family planning compared to other matters. There was a significant fair agreement on the scores between the husbands and the wives (p > 0.05) on family planning. There was a significant association between husband-wife communication on family planning and the current practice of family planning (p = 0.002). The 'likelihood' that couples who had had good husband-wife communication to practice family planning was about 2.8 times higher compared to those couples with poor husband-wife communication (95% C.I.: 1.4, 5.3). Further research need to be carried out, as the study was limited by certain constraints.
"Based on surveys conducted among different ethnic groups in rural and urban settings in Peninsular Malaysia in 1981-82, this paper analyses changes in patterns of marriage and household formation among Malays, Chinese, and Indians. Aspects covered include social mixing before marriage, choice of spouse, comparison of spouses' characteristics, and place of residence after marriage. There are important cultural differences between the main Malaysian ethnic groups in matters related to marriage, but in many important respects, attitudes and practice are tending to converge...."
This study examines the trends and determinants of child marriage among women aged 20-49 in Bangladesh. Data were extracted from the last six nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys conducted during 1993-2011. Simple cross-tabulation and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were adopted. According to the survey conducted in 2011, more than 75% of marriages can be categorized as child marriages. This is a decline of 10 percentage points in the prevalence of child marriage compared with the survey conducted in 1993-1994. Despite some improvements in education and other socioeconomic indicators, Bangladeshi society still faces the relentless practice of early marriage. The mean age at first marriage has increased by only 1.4 years over the last one and half decades, from 14.3 years in 1993-1994 to 15.7 years in 2011. Although the situation on risk of child marriage has improved over time, the pace is sluggish. Both the year-of-birth and year-of-marriage cohorts of women suggest that the likelihood of marrying as a child has decreased significantly in recent years. The risk of child marriage was significantly higher when husbands had no formal education or little education, and when the wives were unemployed or unskilled workers. Muslim women living in rural areas have a greater risk of child marriage. Women's education level was the single most significant negative determinant of child marriage. Thus, the variables identified as important determinants of child marriage are: education of women and their husbands, and women's occupation, place of residence and religion. Programmes to help and motivate girls to stay in school will not only reduce early marriage but will also support overall societal development. The rigid enforcement of the legal minimum age at first marriage could be critical in decreasing child marriage.
Matched MeSH terms: Marriage/ethnology*; Marriage/trends; Marriage/statistics & numerical data