METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The scoping review was performed using Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework. The systematic search was conducted using Scopus, Pubmed, EBSCOHost and Google Scholar in April 2020, updated in March 2021. Only literature published between January 2010 until February 2021 was searched.
RESULTS: A total of 25 articles were included, of which 23 were randomised controlled trials , and 2 were quasi-experimental studies. Some of studies found improvements in depression (76% out of all studies). On this basis, nutrition or physical activity intervention probably improves postpartum depression. Moreover, the integration of nutrition and physical activity appears to improve depression in the more thorough follow-up of participants . Active involvement of the participant in the interventions was contributory to effectiveness.
CONCLUSIONS: Nutrition and physical activity interventions with appropriate strategy and delivery are promising options for the management of postpartum maternal mental health. More definitive investigation of non-pharmacological interventions to ameliorate depression among postpartum women is warranted.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of postpartum dyspareunia.
SEARCH STRATEGY: Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Embase databases were searched to July 2019 using keywords including 'perineal pain,' 'dyspareunia,' and 'sexual pain'.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Observational studies on the prevalence of postpartum dyspareunia were included.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently reviewed articles and extracted data. Study heterogeneity was evaluated by I2 index; publication bias by Egger and Begg tests.
MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-two studies enrolling 11 457 women were included. Based on meta-analysis, the overall estimated prevalence of dyspareunia was 35% (95% confidence interval [CI], 29%-41%). The prevalence was 42% (95% CI, 26%-60%) at 2 months, 43% (95% CI, 36%-50%) at 2-6 months, and 22% (95% CI, 15%-29%) at 6-12 months postpartum. Begg test showed no significant bias in data related to the prevalence of postpartum dyspareunia (p = 0.466).
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of postpartum dyspareunia was 35% and decreased with increasing postpartum duration. Given the high prevalence and its impact on a woman's quality of life, special attention should be paid to this common complaint during the postpartum period.
METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted at baseline (after delivery), 2, 4 and 6 months postpartum. From 638 eligible mothers initially recruited, 420 completed until 6 months. Dependent variable was weight retention, defined as difference between weight at 6 months postpartum and pre-pregnancy weight, and weight retention ≥5kg was considered excessive. Independent variables included socio-demographic, history of pregnancy and delivery, lifestyle, practices and traditional postpartum practices.
RESULTS: Average age was 29.61±4.71years, majority (83.3%) were Malays, 58.8% (low education), 70.0% (employed), 65.2% (middle income family), 33.8% (primiparous) and 66.7% (normal/instrumental delivery). Average gestational weight gain was 12.90±5.18kg. Mean postpartum weight retention was 3.12±4.76kg, 33.8% retaining ≥5kg. Bivariable analysis showed low income, primiparity, gestational weight gain ≥12kg, less active physically, higher energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat intake in diet, never using hot stone compression and not continuing breastfeeding were significantly associated with higher 6 months postpartum weight retention. From multivariable linear regression analysis, less active physically, higher energy intake in diet, gestational weight gain ≥12kg, not continuing breastfeeding 6 months postpartum and never using hot stone compression could explain 55.1% variation in 6 months postpartum weight retention.
CONCLUSION: Women need to control gestational weight gain, remain physically active, reduce energy intake, breastfeed for at least 6 months and use hot stone compression to prevent high postpartum weight retention.
METHODS: We structured the model of this research to take into consideration the Malaysian culture in particular. A total of 387 postpartum women have completed the questionnaire. The symptoms of postpartum depression were examined using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and they act as a dependent variable in this research model.
RESULTS: Four hundred fifty mothers were invited to participate in this research. 86% of the total distributed questionnaire received feedback. The majority of 79.6% of respondents were having depression symptoms. The highest coefficients of factor loading analysis obtained in every latent variable indicator were income (β = 0.77), screen time (β = 0.83), chips (β = 0.85), and anxiety (β = 0.88). Lifestyle, unhealthy food, and BMI variables were directly affected by the dependent variable. Based on the output, respondents with a high level of depression symptoms tended to consume more unhealthy food and had a high level of body mass indexes (BMI). The highest significant impact on depression level among postpartum women was unhealthy food consumption. Based on our model, the findings indicated that 76% of the variances stemmed from a variety of factors: socio-demographics, lifestyle, healthy food, unhealthy food, and BMI. The strength of the exogenous and endogenous variables in this research framework is strong.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of postpartum women with depression symptoms in this study is considerably high. It is, therefore, imperative that postpartum women seek medical help to prevent postpartum depressive symptoms from worsening.
AIMS OF STUDY: To demonstrate Marantodes pumilum leaves aqueous extract (MPE) has an effect on uterine contraction after delivery and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved.
METHODS: Day-1 post-delivery female rats were given MPE (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) orally for seven consecutive days. A day after the last treatment (day-8), rats were sacrificed and uteri were harvested and subjected for ex-vivo contraction study using organ bath followed by protein expression and distribution study by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry techniques, respectively. The proteins of interest include calmodulin-CaM, myosin light chain kinase-MLCK, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), G-protein α and β (Gα and Gβ), inositol-triphosphate 3-kinase (IP3K), oxytocin receptor-OTR, prostaglandin (PGF)2α receptor-PGFR, muscarinic receptor-MAChR and estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms α and β. Levels of estradiol and progesterone in serum were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA).
RESULTS: Ex-vivo contraction study revealed the force of uterine contraction increased with increasing doses of MPE. In addition, expression of CaM, MLCK, SERCA, Gα, Gβ, IP3K, OTR, PGF2α, MAChR, Erα and ERβ in the uterus increased with increasing doses of MPE. Serum analysis indicate that estradiol levels decreased while progesterone levels remained low at day-8 post-partum in rats receiving 250 and 500 mg/kg/day MPE.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the claims that MPE help to firm the uterus and pave the way for its use as a uterotonic agent after delivery.
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