Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1919 in total

  1. Kwan MK, Chiu CK, Gan CC, Chan CY
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 2016 Feb;41(4):E225-30.
    PMID: 26579957 DOI: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000001199
    A prospective, nonrandomized study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  2. Loo JT, Md Razif MA
    JUMMEC, 2005;8:56-60.
    Skin closure using simple interrupted nylon sutures was compared with closure using subcuticular nylon sutures in 80 consecutive patients undergoing semiemergency surgery, involving open reduction and internal fixation of either the forearm bones or femur. The simple interrupted technique was shown to be slower than the subcuticular technique with higher early postoperative wound complication rate. It may use an extra packet of sutures particularly if the average wound length is 19.8 cm. There is, however, no statistical difference demonstrated for the late scar complaints or subjective and objective scoring of cosmetic outcomes six months after the surgery. KEYWORDS: Simple interrupted, subcuticular, skin closure, nylon, cosmetic outcome
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  3. Sha HL, Roslani AC, Poh KS
    Colorectal Dis, 2020 10;22(10):1379-1387.
    PMID: 32337794 DOI: 10.1111/codi.15091
    AIM: The Sodergren score was developed to objectively measure the severity of haemorrhoidal symptoms. This study aimed to determine if there was a difference in the Sodergren score between patients who were offered surgery and patients who underwent successful rubber band ligation of internal haemorrhoidal disease and to assess its performance in guiding management.

    METHOD: This is a prospective, observational study. The preintervention Sodergren scores of subjects with internal haemorrhoidal disease were recorded and blinded to the surgeon in charge. Sodergren scores of subjects in the two arms were unblinded and compared at the end of the study.

    RESULTS: The results for 290 patients were available for final analysis. The median scores of those offered surgery and those who underwent successful rubber band ligation differed significantly [4 (interquartile range 3-10) vs 0 (interquartile range 0-4), P = 0.001]. In predicting treatment, the Sodergren score had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.735 (95% CI 0.675-0.795).

    CONCLUSION: There is a significant difference in scores between patients who were offered surgery and patients with successful rubber band ligation. Our study suggests that the Sodergren score has an acceptable discrimination in predicting the need for surgery in internal haemorrhoidal disease. We propose that patients with a Sodergren score of 6 or more be considered for upfront surgery. This score could potentially be used to standardize outcomes of future haemorrhoid trials.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  4. Azizan A, Justine M, Kuan CS
    Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res, 2013;2013:282315.
    PMID: 24489539 DOI: 10.1155/2013/282315
    Background. This study determines the effects of a behavioral program on exercise adherence (step counts) and level of exercise self-efficacy (ESE) in community-dwelling older persons. Methods. Sixty-three participants (age = 63.8 ± 4.5 years) were enrolled in this controlled quasi-experimental study. They were divided into 3 groups: (1) EBG performed a 6-week exercise intervention followed by a 5-week behavioral program, (2) EG performed exercise intervention similar to EBG, and (3) control group (CG) did not receive any interventions. Step counts were measured based on the scores recorded by a pedometer while ESE was measured by a self-reported ESE scale. Results. Data analysis showed significant differences due to time effect (F(1,2) = 39.884, P < 0.01, and η = .399); time and group interactions (F(2,60) = 112.683, P < 0.01, and η = .790); and between-group effect (F(2,60) = 12.524, P < 0.01, and η = .295) for step counts. As for ESE, significant differences were also found for time effect (F(2,4) = 66.628, P < 0.05, and η = .526); time and group interactions (F(2,60) = 4.562, P = 0.014, and η = .132); and between-group effect (F(2,60) = 13.632, P < 0.05, and η = .312). EBG presented with significantly higher mean changes for both step counts and ESE compared to other groups (all P < 0.05). Conclusion. This study suggests that the addition of a behavioral program is superior as compared to exercising alone on increasing exercise adherence and level of self-efficacy in older persons.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  5. Bhupinder S, Kumara TK, Syed AM
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Jun;65(2):123-6.
    PMID: 23756796
    This article describes the completed suicide patterns which occurred in the Timur Laut district of Penang Island, Malaysia. In a prospective cohort study over the three years period (2007-2009) there were 138 cases of suicide deaths. The number of suicide deaths for the year 2007, 2008 and 2009 were 45, 41 and 52 deaths, respectively. Majority of the suicide deaths were by jumping from height (47.1%), followed by hanging (34.1%) and by drowning (10.9%). The male victims outnumbered females in a 3 : 1 ratio.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  6. Abu Hanifah Y
    Med J Malaysia, 1990 Dec;45(4):293-7.
    PMID: 2152049
    The occurrence of post-operative wound infection was studied respectively over an eight month period in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. One hundred and seventy four (3.4%) surgical wounds out of 5129 operations became infected. The clean wound infection rate was 2.9%, rising to 5.4% and 12.2% for clean-contaminated and contaminated surgical wounds respectively. Of the wound infections, 80.8% occurred within the first two weeks post-operatively. Bacteriological studies revealed that the commonest bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (36.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.4%) and Klebsiella species (10.1%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  7. Asha V, Devi V, Raghavendra R, Rachel AR, Vinod P, Sharmila T
    Objectives: This investigation focused on finding the changes in learning approaches of students’ while experiencing physiology curriculum and to explore the reflection of changes if any, on their critical thinking skills.
    Methods: In this longitudinal study, information on students’ learning approaches was obtained using the revised two factor study process questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) at the commencement (pre-test) and completion (post-test) of first year MBBS course. The total score and the scores obtained in the critical thinking questions in four physiology assessments were analysed. Pre and post-tests scores in R-SPQ-2F and assessment scores were compared using independent samples t-test and one way repeated measure ANOVA respectively. Correlation of scores between assessments was done using Pearson correlation. A p value < 0.05 was taken as significant.
    Results: A significant increase in students’ deep learning approach at the completion of the physiology curriculum when compared to commencement (p < 0.001) was observed. A progressive improvement in their scores as they experienced the curriculum was also noticed. A moderate correlation among critical thinking questions scores and a strong correlation between critical thinking questions and total essay scores were also recorded.
    Conclusion: The study revealed improvement in students’ deep approach to learning in physiology which was reflected in their performance in critical thinking questions.
    Study site: Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, India
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  8. Yigitcanlar T, Butler L, Windle E, Desouza KC, Mehmood R, Corchado JM
    Sensors (Basel), 2020 May 25;20(10).
    PMID: 32466175 DOI: 10.3390/s20102988
    In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) has started to manifest itself at an unprecedented pace. With highly sophisticated capabilities, AI has the potential to dramatically change our cities and societies. Despite its growing importance, the urban and social implications of AI are still an understudied area. In order to contribute to the ongoing efforts to address this research gap, this paper introduces the notion of an artificially intelligent city as the potential successor of the popular smart city brand-where the smartness of a city has come to be strongly associated with the use of viable technological solutions, including AI. The study explores whether building artificially intelligent cities can safeguard humanity from natural disasters, pandemics, and other catastrophes. All of the statements in this viewpoint are based on a thorough review of the current status of AI literature, research, developments, trends, and applications. This paper generates insights and identifies prospective research questions by charting the evolution of AI and the potential impacts of the systematic adoption of AI in cities and societies. The generated insights inform urban policymakers, managers, and planners on how to ensure the correct uptake of AI in our cities, and the identified critical questions offer scholars directions for prospective research and development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  9. Huey CJ, Gopinath SCB, Uda MNA, Zulhaimi HI, Jaafar MN, Kasim FH, et al.
    3 Biotech, 2020 May;10(5):204.
    PMID: 32337150 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-020-02188-3
    In this overview, the authors have discussed the potential advantages of the association between mycorrhizae and plants, their mutual accelerated growth under favorable conditions and their role in nutrient supply. In addition, methods for isolating mycorrhizae are described and spore morphologies and their adaptation to various conditions are outlined. Further, the significant participation of controlled greenhouses and other supported physiological environments in propagating mycorrhizae is detailed. The reviewed information supports the lack of host- and niche-specificity by arbuscular mycorrhizae, indicating that these fungi are suitable for use in a wide range of ecological conditions and with propagules for direct reintroduction. Regarding their prospective uses, the extensive growth of endomycorrhizal fungi suggests it is suited for poor-quality and low-fertility soils.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  10. Youl Lee J, Taniguchi T, Zhang K, Ng CF, Hakim L, Umbas R, et al.
    Jpn J Clin Oncol, 2019 Jun 01;49(6):581-586.
    PMID: 31141613 DOI: 10.1093/jjco/hyz053
    The Asian Prostate Cancer (A-CaP) Study is an Asia-wide prospective registry study for surveying the treatment outcome of prostate cancer patients who have received a histopathological diagnosis. The study aims to clarify the clinical situation for prostate cancer in Asia and use the outcomes for the purposes of international comparison. Following the first meeting in Tokyo on December 2015, the second meeting in Seoul, Korea 2016, the third meeting in Chiang Mai, Thailand, on October 2017, the fourth meeting was held in Seoul, again on August 2018 with the participation of members and collaborators from 13 countries and regions. In the meeting, participating countries and regions presented the current status of data collection and the A-CaP office presented a preliminary analysis of the registered cases received from each country and region. Participants discussed ongoing challenges relating to data cleaning and data up-dating which is the next step of the A-CaP study following the data collection phase between 2016 and 2018. There was specific difference in term of the patient characteristics, and initial treatment pattern among East Asia, Southeast Asia and Turkey, and Jordan. Finally, a close relationship between prevalence of PSA test and disease stage of the patients at diagnosis in Japan and Malaysia was discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  11. Kan FK, Tan CC, Von Bahr Greenwood T, Khalid KE, Supramaniam P, Hed Myrberg I, et al.
    Clin Infect Dis, 2020 05 23;70(11):2247-2255.
    PMID: 31188423 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciz499
    BACKGROUND: Globally, ~500 000 people with severe dengue (SD) require hospitalization yearly; ~12 500 (2.5%) die. Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) is a potentially fatal hyperinflammatory condition for which HLH-directed therapy (as etoposide and dexamethasone) can be life-saving. Prompted by the high mortality in SD and the increasing awareness that patients with SD may develop sHLH, our objectives were to (1) determine the frequency of dengue-HLH in SD, (2) describe clinical features of dengue-HLH, (3) assess mortality rate in SD and dengue-HLH, and (4) identify mortality-associated risk factors in SD.

    METHODS: A 5-year retrospective single-center study in all adult patients with SD admitted to a tertiary intensive care unit in Malaysia.

    RESULTS: Thirty-nine of 180 (22%) patients with SD died. Twenty-one of 180 (12%) had HLH defined as an HLH probability ≥70% according to histo score (HScore); 9 (43%) died. Similarly, 12 of 31 (39%) fulfilling ≥4 and 7 of 9 (78%) fulfilling ≥5 HLH-2004 diagnostic criteria died. Peak values of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine correlated to fatality (odds ratios [ORs], 2.9, 3.4, 5.8, and 31.9; all P < .0001), as did peak ferritin (OR, 2.5; P = .0028), nadir platelets (OR, 1.9; P = .00068), hepatomegaly (OR, 2.9; P = .012), and increasing age (OR, 1.2; P = .0043). Multivariable logistic regression revealed peak AST (OR, 2.8; P = .0019), peak creatinine (OR, 7.3; P = .0065), and SOFA (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment) score (OR, 1.4; P = .0051) as independent risk factors of death.

    CONCLUSIONS: Be observant of dengue-HLH due to its high mortality. A prospective study is suggested on prompt HLH-directed therapy in SD patients with hyperinflammation and evolving multiorgan failure at risk of developing dengue-HLH.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  12. Ong TK, Lim GS, Singh M, Fial AV
    J Endod, 2020 Dec;46(12):1856-1866.e2.
    PMID: 32827507 DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2020.08.016
    INTRODUCTION: The purposes of this review were to appraise the level of evidence of the existing regenerative endodontic therapy (RET) publications, perform a meta-analysis on the survival and healing rates of necrotic immature permanent teeth treated with RET, and run a meta-analysis on the quantitative assessment of the root development of those teeth.

    METHODS: Electronic searches were performed in Web of Science, PubMed, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and Cochrane Library databases. Two authors independently screened the titles and abstracts for eligibility. The analyses were performed on the clinical outcomes (ie, survival, healing, and root development) of the procedure.

    RESULTS: Eleven articles were included in the qualitative and quantitative syntheses. Three studies were randomized controlled trials, 6 were prospective cohort studies, and 2 were retrospective cohort studies. The pooled survival and healing rates were 97.3% and 93.0%, respectively. The pooled rates of root lengthening, root thickening, and apical closure were 77.3%, 90.6%, and 79.1%, respectively. However, if 20% radiographic changes were used as a cutoff point, there were only 16.1% root lengthening and 39.8% root thickening.

    CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that RET yielded high survival and healing rates with a good root development rate. However, clinical meaningful root development after RET was unpredictable.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  13. Nur Izzati Mansor, Nuratiqah Azmi, Ling, King-Hwa, Rozita Rosli, Zurina Hassan, Norshariza Nordin
    Neuroscience Research Notes, 2019;2(1):16-30.
    The use of in vitromodel for screening pharmacological compounds or natural products has gained global interest. The choice of cells to be manipulated plays a vital role in coming up with the best-suitedmodel for specific diseases, including neurodegenerativediseases (ND). A good in vitro ND model should provide appropriate morphological and molecular features that mimic ND conditions where it can be used to screen potential properties of natural products in addition to unravelling the molecular mechanisms of ND. In this mini review, we intend to demonstrate two prospective stem cell lines as the potential cell source for in vitroND model and compare them to the commonly used cells. The common source of cells that have been usedas the in vitroND models is discussedbefore going into details talking about the two prospective stem cell lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  14. Rosenberger KD, Lum L, Alexander N, Junghanss T, Wills B, Jaenisch T, et al.
    Trop Med Int Health, 2016 Mar;21(3):445-53.
    PMID: 26752720 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12666
    OBJECTIVE: Clinical management of dengue relies on careful monitoring of fluid balance combined with judicious intravenous (IV) fluid therapy. However, in patients with significant vascular leakage, IV fluids may aggravate serosal fluid accumulation and result in respiratory distress.
    METHODS: Trained physicians followed suspected dengue cases prospectively at seven hospitals across Asia and Latin America, using a comprehensive case report form that included daily clinical assessment and detailed documentation of parenteral fluid therapy. Applying Cox regression, we evaluated risk factors for the development of shock or respiratory distress with fluid accumulation.
    RESULTS: Most confirmed dengue patients (1524/1734, 88%) never experienced dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Among those with DSS, 176/210 (84%) had fluid accumulation, and in the majority (83%), this was detectable clinically. Among all cases with clinically detectable fluid accumulation, 179/447 (40%) were diagnosed with shock or respiratory distress. The risk for respiratory distress with fluid accumulation increased significantly as the infused volume over the preceding 24 h increased (hazard ratio 1.18 per 10 ml/kg increase; P < 0.001). Longer duration of IV therapy, use of a fluid bolus in the preceding 24 h, female gender and poor nutrition also constituted independent risk factors.
    CONCLUSIONS: Shock and respiratory distress are relatively rare manifestations of dengue, but some evidence of fluid accumulation is seen in around 50% of cases. IV fluids play a crucial role in management, but they must be administered with caution. Clinically and/or radiologically detectable fluid accumulations have potential as intermediate severity endpoints for therapeutic intervention trials and/or pathogenesis studies.
    KEYWORDS: IV fluid therapy; clinical spectrum; dengue; espectro clínico; fluidothérapie IV; fuga vascular; fuite vasculaire; prospectif; prospective; prospectivo; spectre clinique; terapia IV de fluidos; vascular leakage
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  15. Ng KP, Kuan CS, Kaur H, Na SL, Atiya N, Velayuthan RD
    Trop Med Int Health, 2015 Nov;20(11):1447-1453.
    PMID: 26216479 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12577
    To describe a prospective laboratory-based surveillance of Candida species that were collected from different anatomical sites of patients admitted to the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, from the year 2000 to 2013.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  16. Bhavadharini B, Dehghan M, Mente A, Rangarajan S, Sheridan P, Mohan V, et al.
    PMID: 32423962 DOI: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000826
    OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to assess the association of dairy intake with prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (cross-sectionally) and with incident hypertension and incident diabetes (prospectively) in a large multinational cohort study.

    METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a prospective epidemiological study of individuals aged 35 and 70 years from 21 countries on five continents, with a median follow-up of 9.1 years. In the cross-sectional analyses, we assessed the association of dairy intake with prevalent MetS and its components among individuals with information on the five MetS components (n=112 922). For the prospective analyses, we examined the association of dairy with incident hypertension (in 57 547 individuals free of hypertension) and diabetes (in 131 481 individuals free of diabetes).

    RESULTS: In cross-sectional analysis, higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day compared with zero intake; OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.80, p-trend<0.0001) was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS after multivariable adjustment. Higher intakes of whole fat dairy consumed alone (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.78, p-trend<0.0001), or consumed jointly with low fat dairy (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.98, p-trend=0.0005), were associated with a lower MetS prevalence. Low fat dairy consumed alone was not associated with MetS (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.38, p-trend=0.13). In prospective analysis, 13 640 people with incident hypertension and 5351 people with incident diabetes were recorded. Higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day vs zero serving/day) was associated with a lower incidence of hypertension (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.97, p-trend=0.02) and diabetes (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.02, p-trend=0.01). Directionally similar associations were found for whole fat dairy versus each outcome.

    CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of whole fat (but not low fat) dairy was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS and most of its component factors, and with a lower incidence of hypertension and diabetes. Our findings should be evaluated in large randomized trials of the effects of whole fat dairy on the risks of MetS, hypertension, and diabetes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  17. Ismail UN, Azlan CA, Khairullah S, Azman RR, Omar NF, Md Shah MN, et al.
    J Magn Reson Imaging, 2021 01;53(1):190-198.
    PMID: 33237616 DOI: 10.1002/jmri.27294
    BACKGROUND: β-thalassemia is a genetic disease that causes abnormal production of red blood cells (ineffective erythropoiesis, IE). IE is a condition known to change bone marrow composition.

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of IE on the marrow fat content and fat unsaturation levels in the proximal femur using 1 H-MRS.

    STUDY TYPE: Prospective.

    SUBJECTS: Twenty-three subjects were included in this study, seven control and 16 β-thalassemia subjects.

    FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3.0T; stimulated echo acquisition Mode (STEAM); magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) sequence.

    ASSESSMENT: Multiecho MRS scans were performed in four regions of the proximal left femur of each subject, that is, diaphysis, femoral neck, femoral head, and greater trochanter. The examined regions were grouped into red (diaphysis and femoral neck) and yellow marrow regions (femoral head and greater trochanter).

    STATISTICAL TESTS: The Jonckheere-Terpstra test was used to evaluate the impact of increasing disease severity on bone marrow fat fraction (BMFF), marrow conversion index, and fat unsaturation index (UI). Pairwise comparison analysis was performed when a significant trend (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  18. Roberts JA, Joynt GM, Lee A, Choi G, Bellomo R, Kanji S, et al.
    Clin Infect Dis, 2021 04 26;72(8):1369-1378.
    PMID: 32150603 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa224
    BACKGROUND: The optimal dosing of antibiotics in critically ill patients receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) remains unclear. In this study, we describe the variability in RRT techniques and antibiotic dosing in critically ill patients receiving RRT and relate observed trough antibiotic concentrations to optimal targets.

    METHODS: We performed a prospective, observational, multinational, pharmacokinetic study in 29 intensive care units from 14 countries. We collected demographic, clinical, and RRT data. We measured trough antibiotic concentrations of meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, and vancomycin and related them to high- and low-target trough concentrations.

    RESULTS: We studied 381 patients and obtained 508 trough antibiotic concentrations. There was wide variability (4-8-fold) in antibiotic dosing regimens, RRT prescription, and estimated endogenous renal function. The overall median estimated total renal clearance (eTRCL) was 50 mL/minute (interquartile range [IQR], 35-65) and higher eTRCL was associated with lower trough concentrations for all antibiotics (P < .05). The median (IQR) trough concentration for meropenem was 12.1 mg/L (7.9-18.8), piperacillin was 78.6 mg/L (49.5-127.3), tazobactam was 9.5 mg/L (6.3-14.2), and vancomycin was 14.3 mg/L (11.6-21.8). Trough concentrations failed to meet optimal higher limits in 26%, 36%, and 72% and optimal lower limits in 4%, 4%, and 55% of patients for meropenem, piperacillin, and vancomycin, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients treated with RRT, antibiotic dosing regimens, RRT prescription, and eTRCL varied markedly and resulted in highly variable antibiotic concentrations that failed to meet therapeutic targets in many patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  19. Rao M, Rashid FA, Sabri FSAH, Jamil NN, Zain R, Hashim R, et al.
    Clin Infect Dis, 2021 05 04;72(9):e352-e356.
    PMID: 32761244 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa1156
    BACKGROUND: The ideal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARs-CoV-2) testing method would be accurate and also be patient-performed to reduce exposure to healthcare workers. The aim of this study was to compare patient-performed testing based on a morning saliva sample with the current standard testing method, healthcare worker-collected sampling via a nasopharyngeal swab (NPS).

    METHODS: This was a prospective single center study which recruited 217 asymptomatic adult male participants in a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quarantine center who had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 8-10 days prior to isolation. Paired NPS and saliva specimens were collected and processed within 5 hours of sample collection. Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting Envelope (E) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes was performed and the results were compared.

    RESULTS: Overall, 160 of the 217 (74%) participants tested positive for COVID-19 based on saliva, NPS, or both testing methods. The detection rate for SARS-CoV-2 was higher in saliva compared to NPS testing (93.1%, 149/160 vs 52.5%, 84/160, P < .001). The concordance between the 2 tests was 45.6% (virus was detected in both saliva and NPS in 73/160), whereas 47.5% were discordant (87/160 tested positive for 1 whereas negative for the other). The cycle threshold (Ct) values for E and RdRp genes were significantly lower in saliva specimens compared to NP swab specimens.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that saliva is a better alternative specimen for detection of SARS-CoV-2. Taking into consideration, the simplicity of specimen collection, shortage of PPE and the transmissibility of the virus, saliva could enable self-collection for an accurate SARS-CoV-2 surveillance testing.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  20. Abdul Aziz NA, Toh TH, Loh EC, Capelle DP, Goh KJ, Abdul Latif L, et al.
    PMID: 33726578 DOI: 10.1080/21678421.2021.1893336
    Objective: To compare two ALS staging systems, King's clinical staging and Milano-Torino (MiToS) functional staging, using prospective data from a multi-ethnic cohort of ALS patients. Methods: The stages of disease were determined prospectively based on existing definitions. The two systems were compared for timing of stages using box plots, correspondence using chi-square tests and association using Spearman's rank correlation. Results: The distribution of stages differed between the two systems. The proportions of disease stages of the King's staging system were more evenly distributed whereas in MiToS, there was greater weight seen at the later stages of disease. At the early stages, patients moved consecutively in the MiToS staging system but not in the King's staging system where patients tended to skip stages to reach later stages. Both systems had good correlation (Spearman's rho = 0.869) and the King's stage 4 most frequently corresponded to MiToS stage 2. Conclusion: We found the King's staging was helpful in determining the stages of disease burden, whereas both were helpful in determining the time to functional dependence with MiToS further refining the levels of dependence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
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