Skin closure using simple interrupted nylon sutures was compared with closure using subcuticular nylon sutures in 80 consecutive patients undergoing semiemergency surgery, involving open reduction and internal fixation of either the forearm bones or femur. The simple interrupted technique was shown to be slower than the subcuticular technique with higher early postoperative wound complication rate. It may use an extra packet of sutures particularly if the average wound length is 19.8 cm. There is, however, no statistical difference demonstrated for the late scar complaints or subjective and objective scoring of cosmetic outcomes six months after the surgery. KEYWORDS: Simple interrupted, subcuticular, skin closure, nylon, cosmetic outcome
Background. This study determines the effects of a behavioral program on exercise adherence (step counts) and level of exercise self-efficacy (ESE) in community-dwelling older persons. Methods. Sixty-three participants (age = 63.8 ± 4.5 years) were enrolled in this controlled quasi-experimental study. They were divided into 3 groups: (1) EBG performed a 6-week exercise intervention followed by a 5-week behavioral program, (2) EG performed exercise intervention similar to EBG, and (3) control group (CG) did not receive any interventions. Step counts were measured based on the scores recorded by a pedometer while ESE was measured by a self-reported ESE scale. Results. Data analysis showed significant differences due to time effect (F(1,2) = 39.884, P < 0.01, and η = .399); time and group interactions (F(2,60) = 112.683, P < 0.01, and η = .790); and between-group effect (F(2,60) = 12.524, P < 0.01, and η = .295) for step counts. As for ESE, significant differences were also found for time effect (F(2,4) = 66.628, P < 0.05, and η = .526); time and group interactions (F(2,60) = 4.562, P = 0.014, and η = .132); and between-group effect (F(2,60) = 13.632, P < 0.05, and η = .312). EBG presented with significantly higher mean changes for both step counts and ESE compared to other groups (all P < 0.05). Conclusion. This study suggests that the addition of a behavioral program is superior as compared to exercising alone on increasing exercise adherence and level of self-efficacy in older persons.
OBJECTIVE: Clinical management of dengue relies on careful monitoring of fluid balance combined with judicious intravenous (IV) fluid therapy. However, in patients with significant vascular leakage, IV fluids may aggravate serosal fluid accumulation and result in respiratory distress.
METHODS: Trained physicians followed suspected dengue cases prospectively at seven hospitals across Asia and Latin America, using a comprehensive case report form that included daily clinical assessment and detailed documentation of parenteral fluid therapy. Applying Cox regression, we evaluated risk factors for the development of shock or respiratory distress with fluid accumulation.
RESULTS: Most confirmed dengue patients (1524/1734, 88%) never experienced dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Among those with DSS, 176/210 (84%) had fluid accumulation, and in the majority (83%), this was detectable clinically. Among all cases with clinically detectable fluid accumulation, 179/447 (40%) were diagnosed with shock or respiratory distress. The risk for respiratory distress with fluid accumulation increased significantly as the infused volume over the preceding 24 h increased (hazard ratio 1.18 per 10 ml/kg increase; P < 0.001). Longer duration of IV therapy, use of a fluid bolus in the preceding 24 h, female gender and poor nutrition also constituted independent risk factors.
CONCLUSIONS: Shock and respiratory distress are relatively rare manifestations of dengue, but some evidence of fluid accumulation is seen in around 50% of cases. IV fluids play a crucial role in management, but they must be administered with caution. Clinically and/or radiologically detectable fluid accumulations have potential as intermediate severity endpoints for therapeutic intervention trials and/or pathogenesis studies.
KEYWORDS: IV fluid therapy; clinical spectrum; dengue; espectro clínico; fluidothérapie IV; fuga vascular; fuite vasculaire; prospectif; prospective; prospectivo; spectre clinique; terapia IV de fluidos; vascular leakage
To describe a prospective laboratory-based surveillance of Candida species that were collected from different anatomical sites of patients admitted to the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, from the year 2000 to 2013.
This article describes the completed suicide patterns which occurred in the Timur Laut district of Penang Island, Malaysia. In a prospective cohort study over the three years period (2007-2009) there were 138 cases of suicide deaths. The number of suicide deaths for the year 2007, 2008 and 2009 were 45, 41 and 52 deaths, respectively. Majority of the suicide deaths were by jumping from height (47.1%), followed by hanging (34.1%) and by drowning (10.9%). The male victims outnumbered females in a 3 : 1 ratio.
Objectives: This investigation focused on finding the changes in learning approaches of students’ while experiencing physiology curriculum and to explore the reflection of changes if any, on their critical thinking skills.
Methods: In this longitudinal study, information on students’ learning approaches was obtained using the revised two factor study process questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) at the commencement (pre-test) and completion (post-test) of first year MBBS course. The total score and the scores obtained in the critical thinking questions in four physiology assessments were analysed. Pre and post-tests scores in R-SPQ-2F and assessment scores were compared using independent samples t-test and one way repeated measure ANOVA respectively. Correlation of scores between assessments was done using Pearson correlation. A p value < 0.05 was taken as significant.
Results: A significant increase in students’ deep learning approach at the completion of the physiology curriculum when compared to commencement (p < 0.001) was observed. A progressive improvement in their scores as they experienced the curriculum was also noticed. A moderate correlation among critical thinking questions scores and a strong correlation between critical thinking questions and total essay scores were also recorded.
Conclusion: The study revealed improvement in students’ deep approach to learning in physiology which was reflected in their performance in critical thinking questions.
Study site: Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, India
The occurrence of post-operative wound infection was studied respectively over an eight month period in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. One hundred and seventy four (3.4%) surgical wounds out of 5129 operations became infected. The clean wound infection rate was 2.9%, rising to 5.4% and 12.2% for clean-contaminated and contaminated surgical wounds respectively. Of the wound infections, 80.8% occurred within the first two weeks post-operatively. Bacteriological studies revealed that the commonest bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (36.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.4%) and Klebsiella species (10.1%).
The Asian Prostate Cancer (A-CaP) Study is an Asia-wide prospective registry study for surveying the treatment outcome of prostate cancer patients who have received a histopathological diagnosis. The study aims to clarify the clinical situation for prostate cancer in Asia and use the outcomes for the purposes of international comparison. Following the first meeting in Tokyo on December 2015, the second meeting in Seoul, Korea 2016, the third meeting in Chiang Mai, Thailand, on October 2017, the fourth meeting was held in Seoul, again on August 2018 with the participation of members and collaborators from 13 countries and regions. In the meeting, participating countries and regions presented the current status of data collection and the A-CaP office presented a preliminary analysis of the registered cases received from each country and region. Participants discussed ongoing challenges relating to data cleaning and data up-dating which is the next step of the A-CaP study following the data collection phase between 2016 and 2018. There was specific difference in term of the patient characteristics, and initial treatment pattern among East Asia, Southeast Asia and Turkey, and Jordan. Finally, a close relationship between prevalence of PSA test and disease stage of the patients at diagnosis in Japan and Malaysia was discussed.
We performed a prospective study of all hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of Gout in Sarawak General hospital from 1st July 2011 to 1st July 2012. There were a total of 126 patients in our study of which 112 (88.9%) were males. The majority of our patients were from the indigenous populations (71.7%). They have a mean age of 60.0 ± 14.2 years. Most of our patients were overweight (68%) with comorbities of hypertension (78.6%), Chronic Kidney Failure (48.4%), Type II diabetes Mellitus (30.2%), dyslipidemia (27.8%) and Ischaemic heart disease (11.9%). Polyarticular gouty arthritis was the main presenting pattern during hospitalization (88.1%). The mean length of stay for our patients was 9.8 ± 6.0 days which was significantly longer than the mean length of stay for other patients without gout (p<0.05). Only 17 patients had gout on admission and the majority developed gout during hospitalizations. Our patients were admitted respectively for medical problems (45.4%), surgical problems (28.6%) and orthopaedic problems (9.2%). Colchicine (73.8%) and steroid (40.5%) were the main stays of treatment for our patients. Our hospitalized gout patients were complicated patients with multiple comorbidities.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the QTc interval between low and high dose methadone groups and evaluate the pattern of QTc variation.
METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study conducted from December 2010 till August 2011 at Malaysian University of Science's Hospital. Forty six subjects, grouped in high dose (>80mg) and low dose (<80mg) oral methadone, were followed-up at 4-weekly for QTc measurements. Relevant demographic and biochemical profiles were taken at intervals with concurrent QTc measurements.
RESULTS: No significant QTc differences between methadone dosage groups were found at Week 0 (434ms vs 444ms, p = 0.166) and week 8 (446.5ms vs 459ms, p = 0.076), but not at week 4(435ms vs 450ms, p = 0.029). However, there were significant associations between the groups with QTc prolongation at week 0 and 4 (OR 4.29(95% CI 1.01, 18.72) p=0.044 and OR 5.18 (95% CI 1.34, 20.06) p =0.013, respectively) but not at week 8 (OR 2.44 (95% CI 0.74, 8.01) p=0.139). On multivariate analysis, dose group was the sole significant factor for QTc prolongation for week 0 and 4 (p values 0.047 and 0.017, respectively), but not at week 8.
CONCLUSION: High-dose methadone group is more likely to develop prolonged QTc than low-dose group. However, such effects were inconsistent and occurred even during chronic methadone therapy, mandating judicious QTc and serum methadone monitoring.
KEYWORDS: High Dose; Low Dose; Methadone; QTc
Research is an essential activity required for the advancement of science and improvement of human existence. To carry out a research, a proposal is mandatory. However, in spite of the widespread demand for research proposals, experience has shown that a number of them are so poorly written that they rejected by assessors. This article aims at assisting researchers develop acceptable research proposals by reviewing the different components of a research proposal.
A review of relevant literature on research proposal writing sourced from manual library and internet search was used for this review
A research proposal is a formal and detailed statement of intent to carry out a research. It presents and justifies a plan of action and shows how the investigator thinks. A research protocol on the other hand is a plan written to seek approval for research from a supervisor or an organization. It is developed as a guide for a study and helps to keep the researcher focused on the topic and scope of the research. A research proposal has the following components: The Title page; The Abstract/Executive Summary; The Introduction/Statement of the Problem; Literature Review; Information on the applicant's centre; The Objectives/Research Questions/Hypotheses; The Study Design; Methods; Plans for Analysis; Data Analysis; Plans for Data Interpretation; Plans to report. Thus, although proposals and protocols are sometimes used interchangeably, a proposal precedes a protocol.
To reduce the time wastage and frustration faced by intending researchers and their assessors it is essential that good proposals be written at all times.
OBJECTIVE: Various techniques and instruments have been developed to provide safe and secure closure of laparoscopic wounds. Herein we describe a simple method to close laparoscopic supraumbilical wounds with the aid of a laparoscopic port.
METHOD: This was a retrospective review of prospective data, which were from 151 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease from December 2009 to December 2010 in Sultanah Bahiyah Hospital. A senior consultant hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) surgeon and two HPB trainee surgeons performed the operations. Postoperatively, all patients were followed up at 4 weeks.
RESULTS: All patients successfully underwent closure of the supraumbilical wound with the assistance of a 5mm laparoscopic port. None of the patients had incisional hernia on follow up.
CONCLUSION: Port assisted closure of supraumbilical laparoscopic wounds is a feasible and safe technique.
Study site: Sultanah Bahiyah Hospital, Kedah
INTRODUCTION: T-piece resuscitator (TPR) has many advantages compared to self-inflating bag (SIB). Early Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) during newborn resuscitation (NR) with TPR at delivery can reduce intubation rate.
METHODS: We speculated that the intubation rate at delivery room was high because SIB had always been used during NR and this can be improved with TPR. Intubation rate of newborn <24 hours of life was deemed high if >50%. An audit was carried out in June 2010 to verify this problem using a check sheet.
RESULTS: 25 neonates without major congenital anomalies who required NR with SIB at delivery were included. Intubation rate of babies <24 hours of life when SIB was used was 68%. Post-intervention audit (August to November 2010) on 25 newborns showed that the intubation rate within 24 hours dropped to 8% when TPR was used. Proportion of intubated babies reduced from 48.3% (2008-2009) to 35.1% (2011-2012), odds ratio 0.58 (95% CI 0.49-0.68). Proportion of neonates on CPAP increased from 63.5% (2008-2009) to 81.0% (2011-2012), odds ratio 2.44 (95% CI 2.03-2.93). Mean ventilation days fell to below 4 days after 2010. Since then, all delivery standbys were accompanied by TPR and it was used for all NR regardless of settings. There was decline in intubation rate secondary to early provision of CPAP with TPR during NR. Mean ventilation days, mortality and length of NICU stay were reduced.
CONCLUSION: This practice should be adopted by all hospitals in the country to achieve Millennium Development Goal 4 (2/3 decline of under 5 mortality rate) by 2015.
Study site: Hospital Tuanku Jaafar, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
Combined spinal-epidural (CSE) has become an increasingly popular alternative to traditional labour epidural due to its rapid onset and reliable analgesia provided. This was a prospective, convenient sampling study to determine the effects of CSE analgesia on labour outcome.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multidisciplinary, interventional, ergonomic education program designed to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal problems by reducing schoolbag weight and correcting poor sitting posture.
METHODS: Data were collected twice before and twice following intervention using the Standardized Nordic Body Map Questionnaire, a rapid upper limb assessment for posture evaluation, and schoolbag weight measurement in children aged 8 and 11 years attending two schools within the central region of Malaysia.
RESULTS: Students who received the ergonomic intervention reported significant improvements in their sitting posture in a classroom environment and reduction of schoolbag weight as compared with the controls.
CONCLUSION: A single-session, early intervention, group ergonomics education program for children aged 8 and 11 years is appropriate and effective, and should be considered as a strategy to reduce musculoskeletal pain among schoolchildren in this age group.
KEYWORDS: assessment; awareness; education; ergonomic; intervention; musculoskeletal pain; school children
Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a potentially fatal disorder resulting from uncontrolled hyperinflammatory response. There had been increase in cases of one of the secondary form of HLH, i.e., infectionassociated haemophagocytic syndrome (IAHS) in severe dengue in recent years. However, the condition remains under diagnosed due to lack of awareness compounded by the lack of validated diagnostic criteria. Severe hepatitis with prolonged cytopenias, severe hyperferritinemia, hypofibrinogenemia and persistent fever were evident in all four cases reported. All the subjects survived with supportive care and adjuvant steroid therapy. Prospective controlled studies are needed to develop diagnostic criteria and management protocol for IAHS in severe dengue.
The present study investigates the prospective of substituting inorganic medium with organic food waste compost medium as a nutrient supplement for the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris FSP-E. Various percentages of compost mixtures were replaced in the inorganic medium to compare the algal growth and biochemical composition. The use of 25% compost mixture combination was found to yield higher biomass concentration (11.1%) and better lipid (10.1%) and protein (2.0%) content compared with microalgae cultivation in fully inorganic medium. These results exhibited the potential of combining the inorganic medium with organic food waste compost medium as an effective way to reduce the cultivation cost of microalgae and to increase the biochemical content in the cultivated microalgae.
Purpose: Soft contact lens wear is most frequently associated with morphologic changes in corneal endothelial cells, but the data are scarce in Asians. This study aimed to evaluate changes in corneal endothelial cell morphology after 6 months of wearing soft hydrogel contact lenses (SH) in young myopic adults living in Kuala Lumpur.
Patients and methods: Forty-eight subjects were included in the study, 24 were fitted with SH contact lenses (A) and the rest were prescribed with glasses (B). Refraction was conducted subjectively and standard contact lens fitting protocol was followed. Corneal endothelial cell morphology (endothelial cell density, ECD; coefficient of variation, COV; cells' hexagonality, HEX; and central corneal thickness, CCT) was evaluated using specular microscope. Data were collected at baseline and after 6 months of lens wear.
Results: Mean age of all subjects was 21.23±1.30 years. All results are shown at baseline and 6 months, respectively. Mean refraction for A was -2.16±0.97 diopter sphere (DS) and -2.05±1.03 DS (P=0.49); for B was -2.72±1.51 DS and -2.73±1.51 DS (P=0.58). Mean ECD (cell/mm2) for A: 3104.19±237.30 and 3107.23±237.51 (P=0.07); for B: 3011.56±227.95 and 2983.83±244.55 (P=0.33). COV (%) for A: 46.52±8.63 and 48.53±10.65 (P=0.06); for B: 46.93±9.31 and 46.14±10.65 (P=0.88). HEX (%) for A: 46.21±10.12 and 45.15±10.01 (P=0.08); for B: 46.21±10.12 and 45.15±10.01 (P=0.12). CCT (µm) for A: 520.33±0.04 and 525.70±0.05 (P=0.41); for B: 532.00±0.04 µm and 530.00±0.05 µm (P=0.40).
Conclusion: This study found no significant change in corneal endothelial cell morphology after 6 months of wearing SH contact lenses. This is probably due to better oxygen permeability of the contact lens material, good compliance, and short wearing period.
This was a prospective randomised study comparing carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations between low-flow anaesthesia (fresh gas flow 1.0 L/min) and minimal-flow anaesthesia (0.5 L/min) using desflurane. Sixty (ASA 1 or 2) adult patients undergoing elective surgery under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated to receive either low-flow (Group 1) or minimal flow anaesthesia (Group 2). Venous blood samples for carboxyhaemoglobin levels were taken at baseline and at 10 mins intervals for 40 mins. Both groups showed significant increase in carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations within the first 10 mins when fresh gas flow of 4.0 L/min was used. Reduction in carboxyhemoglobin levels was seen after 20 mins of minimal or low flow anaesthesia. However, there was no significant difference in the magnitude of reduction of carboxyhemoglobin concentrations between the groups. The fractional inspired of oxygen (FiO2) showed no significant changes in either group. In conclusion, desflurane usage in anaesthesia with either low-flow or minimal-flow was not associated with increased carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations.
A prospective study of 92 children with poisoning admitted to University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur is reported. Majority of the affected children were below 3 years of age and belonged to low income families. Household items, especially kerosene, and medications were most often implicated. All children recovered completely. Preventive strategies are discussed.