Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 484 in total

  1. Sakthiswary R, Chuah HY, Chiang KS, Liew YS, Muhammad Aizat NA
    Lupus, 2021 Oct;30(12):1946-1954.
    PMID: 34565208 DOI: 10.1177/09612033211045057
    OBJECTIVE: In the recent months, there have been several case reports and case series on COVID-19 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE). We conducted a pooled analysis and systematic review to summarise the findings of these articles. Besides, we aimed to determine the predictors of severe COVID-19 infection in SLE by comparing the mild to moderate cases with the severe to critical ones.

    METHOD: All case reports and case series pertaining to COVID-19 in SLE were retrieved from Pubmed, Wiley Online Library, Springer Link, Science Direct and Web of Science databases using 'lupus', 'systemic lupus erythematosus', 'coronavirus', 'SARS-CoV-2', 'SLE' and "Covid-19" as keywords. The following data were extracted from the selected articles: country, age of the patient and the characteristics of SLE such as disease duration, organ or system involved, baseline medications and the severity of the COVID-19 infection. Data extracted from the articles were utilised to perform the pooled analysis.

    RESULTS: A total of 24 articles with 48 patients met the eligibility criteria. The median age at diagnosis of COVID-19 infection was 41 years (IQR: 11-66 years). The median SLE disease duration prior to the diagnosis of COVID-19 was 9 years (IQR: 0-30 years). A total of 22 (45.83%) patients had severe to critical COVID-19. This pooled data did not demonstrate any difference in the baseline medications between the 2 groups. Patients with lupus nephritis were significantly more prone to develop severe to critical disease (p = 0 .036) with an odds ratio of 5.40 (95% confidence interval of 1.120-26.045).

    CONCLUSION: We found that lupus nephritis was the only predictor of severe to critical COVID-19 in SLE.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  2. Toh S, Yew DCM, Choong JJ, Chong TL, Harky A
    J Card Surg, 2020 Dec;35(12):3432-3439.
    PMID: 33001480 DOI: 10.1111/jocs.15070
    OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare clinical outcomes in patients with acute type A aortic dissection that undergone surgical repair during in-hours (IH) versus out-of-hours (OOH).

    METHODS: An electronic literature search was done till March 2020 to include studies with comparative cohorts of IH versus OOH. Primary outcomes were 30-day mortality, stroke, and reoperation for bleeding; secondary outcomes were acute kidney injury, total hospital stay, and intensive care unit stay.

    RESULTS: Six articles with a total of 3744 patients met the inclusion criteria. Mean age was similar, 60 ± 12 versus 60 ± 13 in IH versus OOH (p = .25). Aortic root and total arch replacement were similar in both cohorts, 22% in IH versus 25% in OOH (risk ratio [RR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI: 0.78, 1.55]; p = .58) and 29% in IH versus 32% in OOH (RR, 0.96; 95% CI [0.89, 1.04], p = .37) respectively. Reoperation for bleeding and stroke rate were similar, with 18% in IH versus 23% in OOH (RR, 0.89; 95% CI [0.73, 1.08]; p = .24), and 12% in IH versus 13% in OOH (RR, 0.83; 95% CI [0.66, 1.03]; p = .09) respectively. Thirty-day mortality was significantly lower in IH (RR, 0.81; 95% CI [0.72, 0.90]; p = .0001).

    CONCLUSION: There was higher 30-day mortality rate during OOH surgery, yet this difference diminished following sensitivity analysis. There were no significant differences in major postoperative outcomes. Therefore, operating on such cases should be decided on clinical priority without delay.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  3. Norlen Mohamed, Noradrenalina Isah, Fadhli Yussof
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(1):48-54.
    Accepted 11 August 2011.
    Introduction Despite of its importance for preventing fatal and severe injuries in an event of a crash, limited studies were conducted to find out the status of seatbelt use among rear passengers in Malaysia. This study was conducted to the determine seatbelt use among rear passengers in Malaysia in conjunction with the introduction of the rear seatbelt law that took effect on 1st January 2009.
    Methods Two methods were used; the roadside observations and surveys. A total of 4180 rear passengers were observed during the road side observation and 793 rear passengers were interviewed in the survey.
    Results About 41.8 % (95 % CI: 38.3, 45.4) of rear passengers interviewed reported that they “Always/Often’ wore safety belts, while roadside observation recorded slightly lower rate (36.2 % [95 % CI: 34.8, 37.7]). Based on the roadside observation method, male rear passengers were more likely to use rear seatbelts as compared to female rear passengers (with Odd Ratio: 1.17 (95 % CI: 1.03, 1.33)). Both methods consistently reported that rear passengers of Multipurpose Vehicle (MPV)/Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) (survey method “always wear”: 39.3 %, Odd Ratio: 2.02 [95 % CI: 1.13, 3.61], roadside observation method: 51.9 %, Odd Ratio: 2.23 [95 % CI: 1.89, 2.62]) were two times more likely to wear seatbelts as compared to rear passengers of a car.
    Conclusions The two research methods indicate rear passengers in Malaysia were consistently having low seatbelt usage rate. As the rear seatbelt advocacy and enforcement programme are new in Malaysia, efforts to advocate rear seatbelt use should be strengthened. The changes in rear seatbelt usage rate need to be tracked regularly and as an alternative to roadside observation method, interview survey method could be used to measure the seatbelt usage rate and to identify the reason for not using safety belt among rear passengers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  4. Nowrin SA, Jaafar S, Ab Rahman N, Basri R, Alam MK, Shahid F
    Korean J Orthod, 2018 Nov;48(6):395-404.
    PMID: 30450332 DOI: 10.4041/kjod.2018.48.6.395
    Objective: To date, only a few studies have investigated the relationships between genetic polymorphisms and external apical root resorption (EARR). Hence, the aim of this systematic review was to explore the relationship between different gene polymorphisms and their association with EARR.

    Methods: A complete literature search was conducted by two independent reviewers. The PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus databases were searched. In addition, the bibliographies of all textbooks and relevant articles were searched manually. A meta-analysis was performed using data entered into the electronic databases until February 28, 2017.

    Results: On the basis of the search, we identified 17 and 7 publications for the systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. Odds ratio (OR) was used to evaluate the association of the interleukin 1B (+3954) polymorphism and the risk of EARR. The overall OR from the studies was used to estimate the risk of EARR. However, no association was found and no publication bias was apparent for the risk of EARR in patients receiving orthodontic treatment.

    Conclusions: More research on the relationship between gene polymorphism and EARR is necessary to determine better specificity of possible interactions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  5. Islahudin F, Lee FY, Tengku Abd Kadir TNI, Abdullah MZ, Makmor-Bakry M
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2021 10;17(10):1831-1840.
    PMID: 33589374 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2021.02.002
    BACKGROUND: An adherence model is required to optimise medication management among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, as current assessment methods overestimate the true adherence of CKD patients with complex regimens. An approach to assess adherence to individual medications is required to assist pharmacists in addressing non-adherence.

    OBJECTIVE: To develop an adherence prediction model for CKD patients.

    METHODS: This multi-centre, cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 tertiary hospitals in Malaysia using simple random sampling of CKD patients with ≥1 medication (sample size = 1012). A questionnaire-based collection of patient characteristics, adherence (defined as ≥80% consumption of each medication for the past one month), and knowledge of each medication (dose, frequency, indication, and administration) was performed. Continuous data were converted to categorical data, based on the median values, and then stratified and analysed. An adherence prediction model was developed through multiple logistic regression in the development group (n = 677) and validated on the remaining one-third of the sample (n = 335). Beta-coefficient values were then used to determine adherence scores (ranging from 0 to 7) based on the predictors identified, with lower scores indicating poorer medication adherence.

    RESULTS: Most of the 1012 patients had poor medication adherence (n = 715, 70.6%) and half had good medication knowledge (n = 506, 50%). Multiple logistic regression analysis determined 4 significant predictors of adherence: ≤7 medications (constructed score = 2, p ratio [OR]: 2.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.112-2.744; p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  6. He L, Soh KL, Huang F, Khaza'ai H, Geok SK, Vorasiha P, et al.
    J Affect Disord, 2023 Jan 15;321:304-319.
    PMID: 36374719 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2022.10.026
    BACKGROUND: No meta-analysis has analyzed the effect of physical activity level, period of physical activity intervention, and duration of intervention, on perinatal depression. This study was to evaluate the impact of physical activity intensity, dose, period, and duration on perinatal depression.

    METHODS: The literature was searched via the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases. Weighted mean difference (WMD) or the risk ratio (RR) was used as the effect indicator, and the effect size was represented by the 95 % confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analysis based on the perinatal stage, physical activity intensity, physical activity equivalent, and intervention duration was performed.

    RESULTS: Totally, 35 studies including 5084 women were included. Physical activity could reduce the incidence and severity of depression in perinatal women. Among depressed women with prenatal depression, low-intensity physical activity, with metabolic equivalents (METs)-min/week being <450, was associated with lower levels of depression. In the general population, the risk of postpartum depression was lower in the physical activity group when the duration of intervention was ≥12 weeks, being II, III stage, and ≥450 METs-min/week. Both low and moderate-intensity physical activity were beneficial to an improved depression severity among depressed women with postpartum depression, and moderate exercise intervention could decrease the risk of postpartum depression in general pregnant women.

    LIMITATIONS: Different types of physical activities may affect the effectiveness of interventions.

    CONCLUSION: Our study indicated physical activity specifically targeted at pregnant women could reduce depression risk and severity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  7. Lujan-Barroso L, Zhang W, Olson SH, Gao YT, Yu H, Baghurst PA, et al.
    Pancreas, 2016 11;45(10):1401-1410.
    PMID: 27088489
    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the relation between menstrual and reproductive factors, exogenous hormones, and risk of pancreatic cancer (PC).

    METHODS: Eleven case-control studies within the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-control Consortium took part in the present study, including in total 2838 case and 4748 control women. Pooled estimates of odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a 2-step logistic regression model and adjusting for relevant covariates.

    RESULTS: An inverse OR was observed in women who reported having had hysterectomy (ORyesvs.no, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-0.91), remaining significant in postmenopausal women and never-smoking women, adjusted for potential PC confounders. A mutually adjusted model with the joint effect for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and hysterectomy showed significant inverse associations with PC in women who reported having had hysterectomy with HRT use (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48-0.84).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our large pooled analysis suggests that women who have had a hysterectomy may have reduced risk of PC. However, we cannot rule out that the reduced risk could be due to factors or indications for having had a hysterectomy. Further investigation of risk according to HRT use and reason for hysterectomy may be necessary.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  8. Selvarajah, V.S., Samudram, S., Chua, L.T., Yuhana, D. Siti, Lim, B.K., S. Wan Yusuf, et al.
    To determine the degree of resolution in pleural effusions treated with anti-tuberculosis treatment alone without thoracentesis, 62 eligible adult cases [mean age (SD), 46 (17) yrs; 77% male] of tuberculosis pleural effusions treated in two urban-based university teaching hospitals were retrospectively reviewed for changes in effusion size at 2, 6 and 12 months after initiation of treatment. The proportions of patients in whom resolution were complete, partial and unchanged were 64.5%, 27.4% and 8.1%. Effusions with size smaller than three tenth of hemithorax were at three-fold increased likelihood of complete resolution, compared with those with larger effusions [Odds ratio (95% CI): 3.295 (1.033 to 10.514); p=0.04]. Consideration for thoracentesis is therefore still important in certain patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  9. Wan Mansor, W.H., Hamizah, M.S., Wan Sulaili, W.S., Jeriah, I., Che Nok @ Nawi, I., Noraini, I., et al.
    On March 17, 2003 the Kelantan Health Department was notihed about a possible typhoid outbreak following a wedding party. An investigation was carried out to identiy the source and recommend control measures. Active case detection, yield investigation and case»control study were conducted. Cases were symptomatic attendees with a stool or blood culture positive for Salmonella
    typhii. Each control had a negative culture and denied symptoms. Of the more than 1 OOO guests, 477 experienced fever; 152 met the case definition. The party hostess was found to be an Salmonelb typhii carrier. Syrup prepared with untreated well water was identified as the most likely source for this outbreak, with an odds ratio 14.0 (95% C1: 2.9, 104.1). This was a common source
    outbreak of typhoid. We recommend that all food handlers at large parties be screened for typhoid and other foodborne diseases and samples of higherisk foods should be kept for few days after each event in case they are needed for testing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  10. Naing C, Aung K, Lai PK, Mak JW
    BMC Cancer, 2017 01 05;17(1):24.
    PMID: 28056862 DOI: 10.1186/s12885-016-2997-3
    BACKGROUND: Human chromosomes are capped and stabilized by telomeres. Telomere length regulates a 'cellular mitotic clock' that defines the number of cell divisions and hence, cellular life span. This study aimed to synthesize the evidence on the association between peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) telomere length and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC).

    METHODS: We searched relevant studies in electronic databases. When two or more observational studies reported the same outcome measures, we performed pooled analysis. All the analyses were performed on PBL using PCR. The odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the strength of association.

    RESULTS: Seven studies (with 8 datasets) were included in this meta-analysis; 3 prospective studies, 3 retrospective studies and 1 study with a separate prospective and retrospective designs. The pooled analysis of 4 prospective studies (summary OR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.77-1.34, I (2):30%) and 4 retrospective studies (summary OR 1.65, 95% CI: 0.96-2.83, I (2):96%) showed no relationship between PBL telomere length and the CRC risk. A subgroup analysis of 2 prospective studies exclusively on females also showed no association between PBL telomere length and the CRC risk (summary OR, 1.17, 95% CI:0.72-1.91, I (2):57%).

    CONCLUSION: The current analysis is insufficient to provide evidence on the relationship between PBL telomere length and the risk of CRC. Findings suggest that there may be a complex relationship between PBL telomere length and the CRC risk or discrepancy between genetics, age of patients and clinical studies. Future well powered, large prospective studies on the relationship between telomere length and the risk of CRC, and the investigations of the biologic mechanisms are recommended.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  11. Mohd Salleh NA, Richardson L, Kerr T, Shoveller J, Montaner J, Kamarulzaman A, et al.
    J Addict Med, 2018 3 10;12(4):308-314.
    PMID: 29521670 DOI: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000403
    OBJECTIVES: Among people living with HIV (PLWH), high levels of adherence to prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) is required to achieve optimal treatment outcomes. However, little is known about the effects of daily pill burden on adherence amongst PLWH who use drugs. We sought to investigate the association between daily pill burden and adherence to ART among members of this key population in Vancouver, Canada.

    METHODS: We used data from the AIDS Care Cohort to Evaluate Exposure to Survival Services study, a long-running community-recruited cohort of PLWH who use illicit drugs linked to comprehensive HIV clinical records. The longitudinal relationship between daily pill burden and the odds of ≥95% adherence to ART among ART-exposed individuals was analyzed using multivariable generalized linear mixed-effects modeling, adjusting for sociodemographic, behavioural, and structural factors linked to adherence.

    RESULTS: Between December 2005 and May 2014, the study enrolled 770 ART-exposed participants, including 257 (34%) women, with a median age of 43 years. At baseline, 437 (56.7%) participants achieved ≥95% adherence in the previous 180 days. Among all interview periods, the median adherence was 100% (interquartile range 71%-100%). In a multivariable model, a greater number of pills per day was negatively associated with ≥95% adherence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.87 per pill, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-0.91). Further analysis showed that once-a-day ART regimens were positively associated with optimal adherence (AOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.07-1.80).

    CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, simpler dosing demands (ie, fewer pills and once-a-day single tablet regimens) promoted optimal adherence among PLWH who use drugs. Our findings highlight the need for simpler dosing to be encouraged explicitly for PWUD with multiple adherence barriers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  12. Ng KT, Teoh WY
    Prehosp Disaster Med, 2019 Oct;34(5):532-539.
    PMID: 31455452 DOI: 10.1017/S1049023X19004758
    INTRODUCTION: Epinephrine has been recommended for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) resuscitation for nearly one century, but its efficacy and safety remain unclear in the literature. The primary aim of this review was to determine whether epinephrine increases the return of spontaneous circulation in OHCA patients.

    METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted using the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL, from their inception until October 2018. All the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Observational studies, case reports, case series, and non-systematic reviews were excluded.

    RESULTS: Two trials including 8,548 patients were eligible for inclusion in the data synthesis. In patients who received epinephrine during OHCA, the incidence of return of spontaneous circulation was increased, with an odds ratio (95%CI) of 4.25 (3.79-4.75), P ratio (95%CI) of 2.31 (2.11-2.53), P ratio (95%CI) being 1.43 (1.10-1.87), P = .008, moderate-quality of evidence. No significant effect was noted on the favorable neurologic state of patient at hospital discharge, with an odds ratio (95%CI) of 1.21 (0.90-1.64), P = .21, moderate-quality of evidence.

    CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that the prehospital use of epinephrine increases return of spontaneous circulation, transport of patients to hospital, and survival to hospital discharge for OHCA. However, no significant effects on favorable neurologic function at hospital discharge were demonstrated. The general quality of evidence ranged from moderate to high.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  13. Eshkoor SA, Tengku Aizan Hamid, Chan YM
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1357-1361.
    The improvement of health care support has greatly extended the average life expectancy over the last 50 years, which
    has increased the rate of cognitive decline consequently. The avoidance of risk factors such as toxins, stress and somatic
    diseases can be protective against the reduction of cognitive function in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the
    effects of socio-demographic factors, constipation and renal failure on cognitive status among 2322 samples who were
    the non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of
    such factors on cognitive decline in subjects. Approximately, 77.54% of samples experienced cognitive impairment. The
    results showed that advanced age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.03), Malay ethnic (OR = 2.15), constipation (OR = 3.31) and renal
    failure (OR= 4.42), significantly increased the risk of cognitive impairment in subjects (p<0.05). In addition, education
    (OR = 0.38) significantly reduced the risk. However, we concluded that age, Malay ethnic, constipation and renal failure
    increased the risk of cognitive impairment in subjects but education reduced the risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  14. Law ZK, England TJ, Mistri AK, Woodhouse LJ, Cala L, Dineen R, et al.
    Eur Stroke J, 2020 Jun;5(2):123-129.
    PMID: 32637645 DOI: 10.1177/2396987320901391
    Introduction: Seizures are common after intracerebral haemorrhage. Tranexamic acid increases the risk of seizures in non-intracerebral haemorrhage population but its effect on post-intracerebral haemorrhage seizures is unknown. We explored the risk factors and outcomes of seizures after intracerebral haemorrhage and if tranexamic acid increased the risk of seizures in the Tranexamic acid for IntraCerebral Haemorrhage-2 trial.

    Patients and methods: Seizures were reported prospectively up to day 90. Cox regression analyses were used to determine the predictors of seizures within 90 days and early seizures (≤7 days). We explored the effect of early seizures on day 90 outcomes.

    Results: Of 2325 patients recruited, 193 (8.3%) had seizures including 163 (84.5%) early seizures and 30 (15.5%) late seizures (>7 days). Younger age (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.98 per year increase, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-0.99; p = 0.008), lobar haematoma (aHR 5.84, 95%CI 3.58-9.52; p ratio (aOR) 1.79, 95%CI 1.12-2.86, p = 0.015) and increased risk of death (aOR 3.26, 95%CI 1.98-5.39; p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  15. Nindrea RD, Aryandono T, Lazuardi L, Dwiprahasto I
    Iran J Public Health, 2019 Feb;48(2):198-205.
    PMID: 31205873
    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer type in women not only in world but also in Malays ethnicity between Malaysia and Indonesia. Breast cancer has varying incidence in every country, but genetic factor by family history influence the incidence of breast cancer. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine family history of breast cancer and breast cancer risk between Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia.

    Methods: This meta-analysis was conducted on published research articles on family history of breast cancer and breast cancer risk between Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia published between Jan 1999 and Jul 2018 in the online article databases of PubMed, ProQuest and EBSCO. Pooled odds ratios (OR) were calculated with fixed and random-effect models. Publication bias was visually evaluated by using funnel plots and statistically assessed through Egger's and Begg's tests. Data were processed using Review Manager 5.3 (RevMan 5.3) and Stata version 14.2 (Stata Corporation).

    Results: We reviewed 1123 articles. There are 10 studies with number of samples 4511 conducted a systematic review and continued with Meta-analysis of relevant data. The results showed significant association between family history of breast cancer with breast cancer risk in Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia (OR = 3.34 [95% CI 2.68-4.15, P<0.00001]). There was not significant publication bias for studies included in family history of breast cancer and breast cancer risk in Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia.

    Conclusion: This analysis confirmed the association of family history of breast cancer and breast cancer risk between Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  16. Lim OW, Yong CC
    Malays J Med Sci, 2019 Sep;26(5):98-112.
    PMID: 31728122 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2019.26.5.9
    Background: The prevalence of known hypertension has resulted from the progression of undiagnosed hypertension. This study is targeted to examine and compare the risk factors based on the estimated odds ratios of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors on different outcome levels of hypertension.
    Methods: A nationwide representative secondary data from the Fourth National Health of Morbidity Survey (NHMS IV) which consists of 24,632 non-institutionalised Malaysian population conducted by the Ministry of Health in 2011 has been used. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval has been estimated using multinomial logistic regression.
    Results: Obese and overweight respondents exhibit increased likelihood of having undiagnosed and known hypertension. Physically inactive, ex-smokers and unclassified drinkers are found having higher likelihood to have known hypertension. However, current drinkers are found to have higher likelihood of having undiagnosed hypertension. Elderly, retirees, home makers and lower educated respondents are shown higher odds to have undiagnosed hypertension. Likewise, the likelihood of having known hypertension has been found to increase among the elderly and other Bumiputra.
    Conclusion: Through this research, significant predictors which consist of obese and overweight respondents, current drinkers, older respondents (above 65 years old) and primary educated respondents are having higher likelihood to have undiagnosed hypertension.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2011)
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  17. Chung QE, Abdulrahman SA, Khan MKJ, Sathik HBJ, Rashid A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Sep;25(5):88-102.
    PMID: 30914866 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.5.9
    Background: This study aimed to explore the prevalence of physical activity among medical and health sciences students at Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences (CUCMS) and to determine the relationship of their physical activity level with their academic achievement and self-determination level.

    Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 244 Medical and Health Sciences undergraduate students at CUCMS from January to April 2017 using self-administered short-form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF) and the third version of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-3). Multiple regression models were fitted using SPSS version 20 to examine the relationships between study variables.

    Results: Half of the male students (51.7%) were in the health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) group, as compared to only 24.7% of females. The odds of having a good grade point average was twice as high among HEPA active students (odds ratio [OR] = 1.89, 95% CI [1.09, 3.27], P = 0.023) than among non-HEPA active students. Further, the odds of being HEPA active was higher for males (OR = 3.16, 95% CI [1.61, 6.14], P < 0.01) than for females and higher for overweight students than for normal weight students (OR = 2.58, 95% CI [1.24, 5.57], P = 0.017). The odds of being HEPA active was 1.79 times higher for each unit increase in the integrated regulation score (OR = 1.79, 95% CI [1.14, 2.91], P = 0.020).

    Conclusion: The prevalence of physical inactivity was higher among females than males. This study also confirmed a significant association between physical activity level and academic achievement. HEPA active students performed better academically than those who were non-HEPA active.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  18. Kow CS, Hasan SS
    J Asthma, 2021 Feb 08.
    PMID: 33461348 DOI: 10.1080/02770903.2021.1878531
    Objective: With emerging of observational evidence, we aimed to perform a meta-analysis to summarize the overall effect of the chronic use of inhaled corticosteroids on the clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods:Systematic literature search in electronic databases was performed to identify observational studies that investigated the preadmission use of inhaled corticosteroids on the risk of a fatal or severe course of illness in patients with COVID-19 and reported adjusted measures of association. Adjusted odds ratios or relative risks and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals from each study were pooled to produce pooled odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Results: The meta-analysis revealed no significant difference in the risk for the development of a fatal course of COVID-19 with preadmission use of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with COVID-19 relative to non-use of inhaled corticosteroids (pooled odds ratio=1.28; 95% confidence interval 0.73-2.26). Similarly, the meta-analysis observed no significant difference in the risk for the development of a severe course of COVID-19 with preadmission use of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with COVID-19 relative to non-use of inhaled corticosteroids (pooled odds ratio=1.45; 95% confidence interval 0.96-2.20).Conclusions: Our findings assured the safety of continued use of inhaled corticosteroids during the COVID-19 pandemic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  19. Kioh SH, Mat S, Kamaruzzaman SB, Ibrahim F, Mokhtar MS, Hairi NN, et al.
    J Aging Phys Act, 2019 Nov 21.
    PMID: 31756717 DOI: 10.1123/japa.2019-0011
    The current evidence on the relationship between a higher body mass index (BMI) and falls in older adults is conflicting. This study, therefore, evaluated the relationship between BMI and falls and explored underlying mechanisms for this relationship. Data from 1,340 individuals from the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research study, obtained through home-based computer-assisted interviews and followed by hospital-based health checks, were utilized. A history of the presence of falls in the previous 12 months was obtained. The presence of at least one fall in the past 12 months was associated with a higher BMI (odds ratio = 1.03, 95% confidence interval [1.01, 1.06]). The relationship between a higher BMI and falls was, however, attenuated by a lower percentage of lean body mass, which accounted for 69% of the total effect of BMI on the risk of falls. Future studies should now investigate this aforementioned relationship prospectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  20. Pulikkotil SJ, Nath S, Ramachandran V
    Community Dent Health, 2020 Feb 27;37(1):26-31.
    PMID: 32031346 DOI: 10.1922/CDH_4632Pulikkotil06
    OBJECTIVES: Identify the determinants of periodontitis in a rural Indian population aged 35-44 years.

    BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Case-control clinical and questionnaire study in a cluster sample of 50 villages.

    METHODS: A total of 3000 persons were screened for the presence of periodontitis using the CDC case definition in full mouth examination. Equal numbers of cases (604 persons with periodontitis) and controls (604 without periodontitis) were recruited and interviewed with a piloted questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analysis estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) respectively with 95% confidence limits.

    RESULTS: Six factors were determined by multivariate analysis to predict periodontitis: education less than or equal to twelve years of schooling (aOR=2.51, 95% CI=1.18-5.34), alcohol consumption (aOR= 1.7, 95% CI=1.16-2.49), consuming a non-vegetarian diet (aOR=1.38, 95% CI=1.08-1.76), not drinking milk (aOR=1.7, 95% CI= 1.29-2.24), not using a toothbrush for cleaning of teeth (aOR=2.98, 95% CI =1.71-5.21) and not cleaning teeth at least once a day (aOR=2.13, 95% CI=1.58-2.87).

    CONCLUSION: Risk factors for periodontitis in a rural Indian population were identified. Further studies should validate these findings and appropriate recommendations should be developed to decrease the prevalence and burden of periodontitis in this population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
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