Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 477 in total

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  1. Sakthiswary R, Chuah HY, Chiang KS, Liew YS, Muhammad Aizat NA
    Lupus, 2021 Oct;30(12):1946-1954.
    PMID: 34565208 DOI: 10.1177/09612033211045057
    OBJECTIVE: In the recent months, there have been several case reports and case series on COVID-19 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE). We conducted a pooled analysis and systematic review to summarise the findings of these articles. Besides, we aimed to determine the predictors of severe COVID-19 infection in SLE by comparing the mild to moderate cases with the severe to critical ones.

    METHOD: All case reports and case series pertaining to COVID-19 in SLE were retrieved from Pubmed, Wiley Online Library, Springer Link, Science Direct and Web of Science databases using 'lupus', 'systemic lupus erythematosus', 'coronavirus', 'SARS-CoV-2', 'SLE' and "Covid-19" as keywords. The following data were extracted from the selected articles: country, age of the patient and the characteristics of SLE such as disease duration, organ or system involved, baseline medications and the severity of the COVID-19 infection. Data extracted from the articles were utilised to perform the pooled analysis.

    RESULTS: A total of 24 articles with 48 patients met the eligibility criteria. The median age at diagnosis of COVID-19 infection was 41 years (IQR: 11-66 years). The median SLE disease duration prior to the diagnosis of COVID-19 was 9 years (IQR: 0-30 years). A total of 22 (45.83%) patients had severe to critical COVID-19. This pooled data did not demonstrate any difference in the baseline medications between the 2 groups. Patients with lupus nephritis were significantly more prone to develop severe to critical disease (p = 0 .036) with an odds ratio of 5.40 (95% confidence interval of 1.120-26.045).

    CONCLUSION: We found that lupus nephritis was the only predictor of severe to critical COVID-19 in SLE.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  2. Kow CS, Ramachandram DS, Hasan SS
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol, 2022 Feb 01;79(2):199-205.
    PMID: 35485583 DOI: 10.1097/FJC.0000000000001144
    Owing to the reported safety concerns, we aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of preadmission/prediagnosis use of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) on the clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. A systematic literature search with no language restriction was conducted in electronic databases in July 2021 to identify eligible studies. The outcomes of interest were all-cause mortality and severe illness. A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled summary measure for outcomes of interest with the preadmission/prediagnosis use of CCBs relative to nonuse CCBs, at 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The meta-analyses revealed no significant difference in the odds of all-cause mortality [pooled odds ratio (OR) = 0.82; 95% CI 0.68-1.00; n = 58,355] and in the odds of severe illness (pooled OR = 0.83; 95% CI 0.61-1.15; n = 46,091) respectively, with preadmission/prediagnosis use of CCBs relative to nonuse of CCBs. Nevertheless, subgroup analysis of studies originated from East Asia reported a significant reduction in the odds of all-cause mortality (pooled OR = 0.50; 95% CI 0.37-0.68) and the odds of severe illness (pooled OR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.33-0.78). There may not be safety concerns with the use of CCBs in patients with COVID-19, but their potential protective effects in the East Asian patients merit further investigations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  3. Toh S, Yew DCM, Choong JJ, Chong TL, Harky A
    J Card Surg, 2020 Dec;35(12):3432-3439.
    PMID: 33001480 DOI: 10.1111/jocs.15070
    OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare clinical outcomes in patients with acute type A aortic dissection that undergone surgical repair during in-hours (IH) versus out-of-hours (OOH).

    METHODS: An electronic literature search was done till March 2020 to include studies with comparative cohorts of IH versus OOH. Primary outcomes were 30-day mortality, stroke, and reoperation for bleeding; secondary outcomes were acute kidney injury, total hospital stay, and intensive care unit stay.

    RESULTS: Six articles with a total of 3744 patients met the inclusion criteria. Mean age was similar, 60 ± 12 versus 60 ± 13 in IH versus OOH (p = .25). Aortic root and total arch replacement were similar in both cohorts, 22% in IH versus 25% in OOH (risk ratio [RR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI: 0.78, 1.55]; p = .58) and 29% in IH versus 32% in OOH (RR, 0.96; 95% CI [0.89, 1.04], p = .37) respectively. Reoperation for bleeding and stroke rate were similar, with 18% in IH versus 23% in OOH (RR, 0.89; 95% CI [0.73, 1.08]; p = .24), and 12% in IH versus 13% in OOH (RR, 0.83; 95% CI [0.66, 1.03]; p = .09) respectively. Thirty-day mortality was significantly lower in IH (RR, 0.81; 95% CI [0.72, 0.90]; p = .0001).

    CONCLUSION: There was higher 30-day mortality rate during OOH surgery, yet this difference diminished following sensitivity analysis. There were no significant differences in major postoperative outcomes. Therefore, operating on such cases should be decided on clinical priority without delay.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  4. Islahudin F, Lee FY, Tengku Abd Kadir TNI, Abdullah MZ, Makmor-Bakry M
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2021 10;17(10):1831-1840.
    PMID: 33589374 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2021.02.002
    BACKGROUND: An adherence model is required to optimise medication management among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, as current assessment methods overestimate the true adherence of CKD patients with complex regimens. An approach to assess adherence to individual medications is required to assist pharmacists in addressing non-adherence.

    OBJECTIVE: To develop an adherence prediction model for CKD patients.

    METHODS: This multi-centre, cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 tertiary hospitals in Malaysia using simple random sampling of CKD patients with ≥1 medication (sample size = 1012). A questionnaire-based collection of patient characteristics, adherence (defined as ≥80% consumption of each medication for the past one month), and knowledge of each medication (dose, frequency, indication, and administration) was performed. Continuous data were converted to categorical data, based on the median values, and then stratified and analysed. An adherence prediction model was developed through multiple logistic regression in the development group (n = 677) and validated on the remaining one-third of the sample (n = 335). Beta-coefficient values were then used to determine adherence scores (ranging from 0 to 7) based on the predictors identified, with lower scores indicating poorer medication adherence.

    RESULTS: Most of the 1012 patients had poor medication adherence (n = 715, 70.6%) and half had good medication knowledge (n = 506, 50%). Multiple logistic regression analysis determined 4 significant predictors of adherence: ≤7 medications (constructed score = 2, p ratio [OR]: 2.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.112-2.744; p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  5. Norlen Mohamed, Noradrenalina Isah, Fadhli Yussof
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(1):48-54.
    MyJurnal
    Accepted 11 August 2011.
    Introduction Despite of its importance for preventing fatal and severe injuries in an event of a crash, limited studies were conducted to find out the status of seatbelt use among rear passengers in Malaysia. This study was conducted to the determine seatbelt use among rear passengers in Malaysia in conjunction with the introduction of the rear seatbelt law that took effect on 1st January 2009.
    Methods Two methods were used; the roadside observations and surveys. A total of 4180 rear passengers were observed during the road side observation and 793 rear passengers were interviewed in the survey.
    Results About 41.8 % (95 % CI: 38.3, 45.4) of rear passengers interviewed reported that they “Always/Often’ wore safety belts, while roadside observation recorded slightly lower rate (36.2 % [95 % CI: 34.8, 37.7]). Based on the roadside observation method, male rear passengers were more likely to use rear seatbelts as compared to female rear passengers (with Odd Ratio: 1.17 (95 % CI: 1.03, 1.33)). Both methods consistently reported that rear passengers of Multipurpose Vehicle (MPV)/Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) (survey method “always wear”: 39.3 %, Odd Ratio: 2.02 [95 % CI: 1.13, 3.61], roadside observation method: 51.9 %, Odd Ratio: 2.23 [95 % CI: 1.89, 2.62]) were two times more likely to wear seatbelts as compared to rear passengers of a car.
    Conclusions The two research methods indicate rear passengers in Malaysia were consistently having low seatbelt usage rate. As the rear seatbelt advocacy and enforcement programme are new in Malaysia, efforts to advocate rear seatbelt use should be strengthened. The changes in rear seatbelt usage rate need to be tracked regularly and as an alternative to roadside observation method, interview survey method could be used to measure the seatbelt usage rate and to identify the reason for not using safety belt among rear passengers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  6. Nowrin SA, Jaafar S, Ab Rahman N, Basri R, Alam MK, Shahid F
    Korean J Orthod, 2018 Nov;48(6):395-404.
    PMID: 30450332 DOI: 10.4041/kjod.2018.48.6.395
    Objective: To date, only a few studies have investigated the relationships between genetic polymorphisms and external apical root resorption (EARR). Hence, the aim of this systematic review was to explore the relationship between different gene polymorphisms and their association with EARR.

    Methods: A complete literature search was conducted by two independent reviewers. The PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus databases were searched. In addition, the bibliographies of all textbooks and relevant articles were searched manually. A meta-analysis was performed using data entered into the electronic databases until February 28, 2017.

    Results: On the basis of the search, we identified 17 and 7 publications for the systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. Odds ratio (OR) was used to evaluate the association of the interleukin 1B (+3954) polymorphism and the risk of EARR. The overall OR from the studies was used to estimate the risk of EARR. However, no association was found and no publication bias was apparent for the risk of EARR in patients receiving orthodontic treatment.

    Conclusions: More research on the relationship between gene polymorphism and EARR is necessary to determine better specificity of possible interactions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  7. He L, Soh KL, Huang F, Khaza'ai H, Geok SK, Vorasiha P, et al.
    J Affect Disord, 2023 Jan 15;321:304-319.
    PMID: 36374719 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2022.10.026
    BACKGROUND: No meta-analysis has analyzed the effect of physical activity level, period of physical activity intervention, and duration of intervention, on perinatal depression. This study was to evaluate the impact of physical activity intensity, dose, period, and duration on perinatal depression.

    METHODS: The literature was searched via the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases. Weighted mean difference (WMD) or the risk ratio (RR) was used as the effect indicator, and the effect size was represented by the 95 % confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analysis based on the perinatal stage, physical activity intensity, physical activity equivalent, and intervention duration was performed.

    RESULTS: Totally, 35 studies including 5084 women were included. Physical activity could reduce the incidence and severity of depression in perinatal women. Among depressed women with prenatal depression, low-intensity physical activity, with metabolic equivalents (METs)-min/week being <450, was associated with lower levels of depression. In the general population, the risk of postpartum depression was lower in the physical activity group when the duration of intervention was ≥12 weeks, being II, III stage, and ≥450 METs-min/week. Both low and moderate-intensity physical activity were beneficial to an improved depression severity among depressed women with postpartum depression, and moderate exercise intervention could decrease the risk of postpartum depression in general pregnant women.

    LIMITATIONS: Different types of physical activities may affect the effectiveness of interventions.

    CONCLUSION: Our study indicated physical activity specifically targeted at pregnant women could reduce depression risk and severity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  8. Alcamo AM, Weiss SL, Fitzgerald JC, Kirschen MP, Loftis LL, Tang SF, et al.
    Pediatr Crit Care Med, 2022 Aug 01;23(8):593-605.
    PMID: 36165937 DOI: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002979
    OBJECTIVES: To compare outcomes associated with timing-early versus late-of any neurologic dysfunction during pediatric sepsis.

    DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional point prevalence study.

    SETTING: A total of 128 PICUs in 26 countries.

    PATIENTS: Less than 18 years with severe sepsis on 5 separate days (2013-2014).

    INTERVENTIONS: None.

    MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were categorized as having either no neurologic dysfunction or neurologic dysfunction (i.e., present at or after sepsis recognition), which was defined as Glasgow Coma Scale score less than 5 and/or fixed dilated pupils. Our primary outcome was death or new moderate disability (i.e., Pediatric Overall [or Cerebral] Performance Category score ≥3 and change ≥1 from baseline) at hospital discharge, and 87 of 567 severe sepsis patients (15%) had neurologic dysfunction within 7 days of sepsis recognition (61 at sepsis recognition and 26 after sepsis recognition). Primary site of infection varied based on presence of neurologic dysfunction. Death or new moderate disability occurred in 161 of 480 (34%) without neurologic dysfunction, 45 of 61 (74%) with neurologic dysfunction at sepsis recognition, and 21 of 26 (81%) with neurologic dysfunction after sepsis recognition (p < 0.001 across all groups). On multivariable analysis, in comparison with those without neurologic dysfunction, neurologic dysfunction whether at sepsis recognition or after was associated with increased odds of death or new moderate disability (adjusted odds ratio, 4.9 [95% CI, 2.3-10.1] and 10.7 [95% CI, 3.8-30.5], respectively). We failed to identify a difference between these adjusted odds ratios of death or new moderate disability that would indicate a differential risk of outcome based on timing of neurologic dysfunction (p = 0.20).

    CONCLUSIONS: In this severe sepsis international cohort, the presence of neurologic dysfunction during sepsis is associated with worse outcomes at hospital discharge. The impact of early versus late onset of neurologic dysfunction in sepsis on outcome remains unknown, and further work is needed to better understand timing of neurologic dysfunction onset in pediatric sepsis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  9. Lujan-Barroso L, Zhang W, Olson SH, Gao YT, Yu H, Baghurst PA, et al.
    Pancreas, 2016 11;45(10):1401-1410.
    PMID: 27088489
    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the relation between menstrual and reproductive factors, exogenous hormones, and risk of pancreatic cancer (PC).

    METHODS: Eleven case-control studies within the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-control Consortium took part in the present study, including in total 2838 case and 4748 control women. Pooled estimates of odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a 2-step logistic regression model and adjusting for relevant covariates.

    RESULTS: An inverse OR was observed in women who reported having had hysterectomy (ORyesvs.no, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-0.91), remaining significant in postmenopausal women and never-smoking women, adjusted for potential PC confounders. A mutually adjusted model with the joint effect for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and hysterectomy showed significant inverse associations with PC in women who reported having had hysterectomy with HRT use (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48-0.84).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our large pooled analysis suggests that women who have had a hysterectomy may have reduced risk of PC. However, we cannot rule out that the reduced risk could be due to factors or indications for having had a hysterectomy. Further investigation of risk according to HRT use and reason for hysterectomy may be necessary.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  10. Eshkoor SA, Tengku Aizan Hamid, Chan YM
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1357-1361.
    The improvement of health care support has greatly extended the average life expectancy over the last 50 years, which
    has increased the rate of cognitive decline consequently. The avoidance of risk factors such as toxins, stress and somatic
    diseases can be protective against the reduction of cognitive function in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the
    effects of socio-demographic factors, constipation and renal failure on cognitive status among 2322 samples who were
    the non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of
    such factors on cognitive decline in subjects. Approximately, 77.54% of samples experienced cognitive impairment. The
    results showed that advanced age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.03), Malay ethnic (OR = 2.15), constipation (OR = 3.31) and renal
    failure (OR= 4.42), significantly increased the risk of cognitive impairment in subjects (p<0.05). In addition, education
    (OR = 0.38) significantly reduced the risk. However, we concluded that age, Malay ethnic, constipation and renal failure
    increased the risk of cognitive impairment in subjects but education reduced the risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  11. Law ZK, England TJ, Mistri AK, Woodhouse LJ, Cala L, Dineen R, et al.
    Eur Stroke J, 2020 Jun;5(2):123-129.
    PMID: 32637645 DOI: 10.1177/2396987320901391
    Introduction: Seizures are common after intracerebral haemorrhage. Tranexamic acid increases the risk of seizures in non-intracerebral haemorrhage population but its effect on post-intracerebral haemorrhage seizures is unknown. We explored the risk factors and outcomes of seizures after intracerebral haemorrhage and if tranexamic acid increased the risk of seizures in the Tranexamic acid for IntraCerebral Haemorrhage-2 trial.

    Patients and methods: Seizures were reported prospectively up to day 90. Cox regression analyses were used to determine the predictors of seizures within 90 days and early seizures (≤7 days). We explored the effect of early seizures on day 90 outcomes.

    Results: Of 2325 patients recruited, 193 (8.3%) had seizures including 163 (84.5%) early seizures and 30 (15.5%) late seizures (>7 days). Younger age (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.98 per year increase, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-0.99; p = 0.008), lobar haematoma (aHR 5.84, 95%CI 3.58-9.52; p ratio (aOR) 1.79, 95%CI 1.12-2.86, p = 0.015) and increased risk of death (aOR 3.26, 95%CI 1.98-5.39; p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  12. Nindrea RD, Aryandono T, Lazuardi L, Dwiprahasto I
    Iran J Public Health, 2019 Feb;48(2):198-205.
    PMID: 31205873
    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer type in women not only in world but also in Malays ethnicity between Malaysia and Indonesia. Breast cancer has varying incidence in every country, but genetic factor by family history influence the incidence of breast cancer. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine family history of breast cancer and breast cancer risk between Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia.

    Methods: This meta-analysis was conducted on published research articles on family history of breast cancer and breast cancer risk between Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia published between Jan 1999 and Jul 2018 in the online article databases of PubMed, ProQuest and EBSCO. Pooled odds ratios (OR) were calculated with fixed and random-effect models. Publication bias was visually evaluated by using funnel plots and statistically assessed through Egger's and Begg's tests. Data were processed using Review Manager 5.3 (RevMan 5.3) and Stata version 14.2 (Stata Corporation).

    Results: We reviewed 1123 articles. There are 10 studies with number of samples 4511 conducted a systematic review and continued with Meta-analysis of relevant data. The results showed significant association between family history of breast cancer with breast cancer risk in Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia (OR = 3.34 [95% CI 2.68-4.15, P<0.00001]). There was not significant publication bias for studies included in family history of breast cancer and breast cancer risk in Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia.

    Conclusion: This analysis confirmed the association of family history of breast cancer and breast cancer risk between Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  13. Lim OW, Yong CC
    Malays J Med Sci, 2019 Sep;26(5):98-112.
    PMID: 31728122 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2019.26.5.9
    Background: The prevalence of known hypertension has resulted from the progression of undiagnosed hypertension. This study is targeted to examine and compare the risk factors based on the estimated odds ratios of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors on different outcome levels of hypertension.
    Methods: A nationwide representative secondary data from the Fourth National Health of Morbidity Survey (NHMS IV) which consists of 24,632 non-institutionalised Malaysian population conducted by the Ministry of Health in 2011 has been used. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval has been estimated using multinomial logistic regression.
    Results: Obese and overweight respondents exhibit increased likelihood of having undiagnosed and known hypertension. Physically inactive, ex-smokers and unclassified drinkers are found having higher likelihood to have known hypertension. However, current drinkers are found to have higher likelihood of having undiagnosed hypertension. Elderly, retirees, home makers and lower educated respondents are shown higher odds to have undiagnosed hypertension. Likewise, the likelihood of having known hypertension has been found to increase among the elderly and other Bumiputra.
    Conclusion: Through this research, significant predictors which consist of obese and overweight respondents, current drinkers, older respondents (above 65 years old) and primary educated respondents are having higher likelihood to have undiagnosed hypertension.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2011)
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  14. Chung QE, Abdulrahman SA, Khan MKJ, Sathik HBJ, Rashid A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Sep;25(5):88-102.
    PMID: 30914866 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.5.9
    Background: This study aimed to explore the prevalence of physical activity among medical and health sciences students at Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences (CUCMS) and to determine the relationship of their physical activity level with their academic achievement and self-determination level.

    Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 244 Medical and Health Sciences undergraduate students at CUCMS from January to April 2017 using self-administered short-form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF) and the third version of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-3). Multiple regression models were fitted using SPSS version 20 to examine the relationships between study variables.

    Results: Half of the male students (51.7%) were in the health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) group, as compared to only 24.7% of females. The odds of having a good grade point average was twice as high among HEPA active students (odds ratio [OR] = 1.89, 95% CI [1.09, 3.27], P = 0.023) than among non-HEPA active students. Further, the odds of being HEPA active was higher for males (OR = 3.16, 95% CI [1.61, 6.14], P < 0.01) than for females and higher for overweight students than for normal weight students (OR = 2.58, 95% CI [1.24, 5.57], P = 0.017). The odds of being HEPA active was 1.79 times higher for each unit increase in the integrated regulation score (OR = 1.79, 95% CI [1.14, 2.91], P = 0.020).

    Conclusion: The prevalence of physical inactivity was higher among females than males. This study also confirmed a significant association between physical activity level and academic achievement. HEPA active students performed better academically than those who were non-HEPA active.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  15. Kow CS, Hasan SS
    J Asthma, 2021 Feb 08.
    PMID: 33461348 DOI: 10.1080/02770903.2021.1878531
    Objective: With emerging of observational evidence, we aimed to perform a meta-analysis to summarize the overall effect of the chronic use of inhaled corticosteroids on the clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods:Systematic literature search in electronic databases was performed to identify observational studies that investigated the preadmission use of inhaled corticosteroids on the risk of a fatal or severe course of illness in patients with COVID-19 and reported adjusted measures of association. Adjusted odds ratios or relative risks and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals from each study were pooled to produce pooled odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Results: The meta-analysis revealed no significant difference in the risk for the development of a fatal course of COVID-19 with preadmission use of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with COVID-19 relative to non-use of inhaled corticosteroids (pooled odds ratio=1.28; 95% confidence interval 0.73-2.26). Similarly, the meta-analysis observed no significant difference in the risk for the development of a severe course of COVID-19 with preadmission use of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with COVID-19 relative to non-use of inhaled corticosteroids (pooled odds ratio=1.45; 95% confidence interval 0.96-2.20).Conclusions: Our findings assured the safety of continued use of inhaled corticosteroids during the COVID-19 pandemic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  16. Muhammad Nur Arsyad Azman, Ng, Choy Peng, Faridah Hanim Khairuddin, Neza Ismail, Wan Mohamed Syafuan Wan Sabri
    MyJurnal
    Road surface condition of a pavement is one of the most important features as it affect driving comfort and safety. A good road surface condition could reduce the risk of traffic accidents and injuries. Pavement Condition Index (PCI) is one of the important tools to measure the pavement performance. By conducting pavement evaluation, civil engineers could prioritize the maintenance and rehabilitation which usually incurred a huge cost. In University Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (UPNM), there was no proper maintenance and rehabilitation scheduled for the roads as no performance evaluation tool available to measure the pavement condition. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a Composite Pavement Performance Index (CPPI) to monitor the pavement condition and to rank the roads in UPNM. To develop the CPPI, road defects data were collected from 6 internal roads in UPNM. From the data collected, 4 major distresses were identified: longitudinal cracking, crocodile cracking, potholes and ravelling were found more likely to affect the pavement’s condition in UPNM. By measuring the growth of the distresses over a period of 6 months, modelling was conducted using simple linear regression. The growth of the distresses were compared, and odds ratios were computed to calculate the weightage of each distress for the determination of the CPPI value. The CPPI value developed could be used to rank the roads in UPNM. This study demonstrated that the road connecting to the library building in UPNM experienced the worst pavement deterioration with a PCI of 24 or a CPPI value of 1.1915. The level of severity was classified as “SERIOUS” in accordance to ASTM D6433. This road was recommended for reconstruction to increase the comfort and safety for road users
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  17. Selvarajah, V.S., Samudram, S., Chua, L.T., Yuhana, D. Siti, Lim, B.K., S. Wan Yusuf, et al.
    MyJurnal
    To determine the degree of resolution in pleural effusions treated with anti-tuberculosis treatment alone without thoracentesis, 62 eligible adult cases [mean age (SD), 46 (17) yrs; 77% male] of tuberculosis pleural effusions treated in two urban-based university teaching hospitals were retrospectively reviewed for changes in effusion size at 2, 6 and 12 months after initiation of treatment. The proportions of patients in whom resolution were complete, partial and unchanged were 64.5%, 27.4% and 8.1%. Effusions with size smaller than three tenth of hemithorax were at three-fold increased likelihood of complete resolution, compared with those with larger effusions [Odds ratio (95% CI): 3.295 (1.033 to 10.514); p=0.04]. Consideration for thoracentesis is therefore still important in certain patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  18. Wan Mansor, W.H., Hamizah, M.S., Wan Sulaili, W.S., Jeriah, I., Che Nok @ Nawi, I., Noraini, I., et al.
    MyJurnal
    On March 17, 2003 the Kelantan Health Department was notihed about a possible typhoid outbreak following a wedding party. An investigation was carried out to identiy the source and recommend control measures. Active case detection, yield investigation and case»control study were conducted. Cases were symptomatic attendees with a stool or blood culture positive for Salmonella
    typhii. Each control had a negative culture and denied symptoms. Of the more than 1 OOO guests, 477 experienced fever; 152 met the case definition. The party hostess was found to be an Salmonelb typhii carrier. Syrup prepared with untreated well water was identified as the most likely source for this outbreak, with an odds ratio 14.0 (95% C1: 2.9, 104.1). This was a common source
    outbreak of typhoid. We recommend that all food handlers at large parties be screened for typhoid and other foodborne diseases and samples of higherisk foods should be kept for few days after each event in case they are needed for testing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  19. Pulikkotil SJ, Nath S, Ramachandran V
    Community Dent Health, 2020 Feb 27;37(1):26-31.
    PMID: 32031346 DOI: 10.1922/CDH_4632Pulikkotil06
    OBJECTIVES: Identify the determinants of periodontitis in a rural Indian population aged 35-44 years.

    BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Case-control clinical and questionnaire study in a cluster sample of 50 villages.

    METHODS: A total of 3000 persons were screened for the presence of periodontitis using the CDC case definition in full mouth examination. Equal numbers of cases (604 persons with periodontitis) and controls (604 without periodontitis) were recruited and interviewed with a piloted questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analysis estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) respectively with 95% confidence limits.

    RESULTS: Six factors were determined by multivariate analysis to predict periodontitis: education less than or equal to twelve years of schooling (aOR=2.51, 95% CI=1.18-5.34), alcohol consumption (aOR= 1.7, 95% CI=1.16-2.49), consuming a non-vegetarian diet (aOR=1.38, 95% CI=1.08-1.76), not drinking milk (aOR=1.7, 95% CI= 1.29-2.24), not using a toothbrush for cleaning of teeth (aOR=2.98, 95% CI =1.71-5.21) and not cleaning teeth at least once a day (aOR=2.13, 95% CI=1.58-2.87).

    CONCLUSION: Risk factors for periodontitis in a rural Indian population were identified. Further studies should validate these findings and appropriate recommendations should be developed to decrease the prevalence and burden of periodontitis in this population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  20. Pulikkotil SJ, Nath S, Muthukumaraswamy, Dharamarajan L, Jing KT, Vaithilingam RD
    Community Dent Health, 2020 Feb 27;37(1):12-21.
    PMID: 32031339 DOI: 10.1922/CDH_4569Pulikkotil10
    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether alcohol consumption is associated with the risk of periodontitis.

    BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses guidelines.

    METHOD: PubMed and Scopus were searched for eligible articles published in English from inception till November 2018. The quality of studies was assessed by the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the risk of periodontitis associated with highest versus lowest/non-alcohol in a random effects meta-analysis model. Heterogeneity and sensitivity were investigated in meta regression analysis. A funnel plot was used to assess publication bias.

    RESULTS: Twenty-nine observational studies were included. One study with two separate datasets was considered as two separate studies for analysis. Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with the presence of periodontitis (OR = 1.26, 95% CI= 1.11-1.41). Significant heterogeneity (I2=71%) was present in the overall analysis, primarily attributable to sampling cross-sectional studies (I2=76.6%). A funnel plot and Egger tests (p=0.0001) suggested the presence of publication bias.

    CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption was associated with increased occurrence of periodontitis and should be considered as a parameter in periodontal risk assessment. Publication bias should be explored in future studies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
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