Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 406 in total

  1. Norlen Mohamed, Noradrenalina Isah, Fadhli Yussof
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(1):48-54.
    Accepted 11 August 2011.
    Introduction Despite of its importance for preventing fatal and severe injuries in an event of a crash, limited studies were conducted to find out the status of seatbelt use among rear passengers in Malaysia. This study was conducted to the determine seatbelt use among rear passengers in Malaysia in conjunction with the introduction of the rear seatbelt law that took effect on 1st January 2009.
    Methods Two methods were used; the roadside observations and surveys. A total of 4180 rear passengers were observed during the road side observation and 793 rear passengers were interviewed in the survey.
    Results About 41.8 % (95 % CI: 38.3, 45.4) of rear passengers interviewed reported that they “Always/Often’ wore safety belts, while roadside observation recorded slightly lower rate (36.2 % [95 % CI: 34.8, 37.7]). Based on the roadside observation method, male rear passengers were more likely to use rear seatbelts as compared to female rear passengers (with Odd Ratio: 1.17 (95 % CI: 1.03, 1.33)). Both methods consistently reported that rear passengers of Multipurpose Vehicle (MPV)/Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) (survey method “always wear”: 39.3 %, Odd Ratio: 2.02 [95 % CI: 1.13, 3.61], roadside observation method: 51.9 %, Odd Ratio: 2.23 [95 % CI: 1.89, 2.62]) were two times more likely to wear seatbelts as compared to rear passengers of a car.
    Conclusions The two research methods indicate rear passengers in Malaysia were consistently having low seatbelt usage rate. As the rear seatbelt advocacy and enforcement programme are new in Malaysia, efforts to advocate rear seatbelt use should be strengthened. The changes in rear seatbelt usage rate need to be tracked regularly and as an alternative to roadside observation method, interview survey method could be used to measure the seatbelt usage rate and to identify the reason for not using safety belt among rear passengers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  2. Nowrin SA, Jaafar S, Ab Rahman N, Basri R, Alam MK, Shahid F
    Korean J Orthod, 2018 Nov;48(6):395-404.
    PMID: 30450332 DOI: 10.4041/kjod.2018.48.6.395
    Objective: To date, only a few studies have investigated the relationships between genetic polymorphisms and external apical root resorption (EARR). Hence, the aim of this systematic review was to explore the relationship between different gene polymorphisms and their association with EARR.

    Methods: A complete literature search was conducted by two independent reviewers. The PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus databases were searched. In addition, the bibliographies of all textbooks and relevant articles were searched manually. A meta-analysis was performed using data entered into the electronic databases until February 28, 2017.

    Results: On the basis of the search, we identified 17 and 7 publications for the systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. Odds ratio (OR) was used to evaluate the association of the interleukin 1B (+3954) polymorphism and the risk of EARR. The overall OR from the studies was used to estimate the risk of EARR. However, no association was found and no publication bias was apparent for the risk of EARR in patients receiving orthodontic treatment.

    Conclusions: More research on the relationship between gene polymorphism and EARR is necessary to determine better specificity of possible interactions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  3. Lujan-Barroso L, Zhang W, Olson SH, Gao YT, Yu H, Baghurst PA, et al.
    Pancreas, 2016 11;45(10):1401-1410.
    PMID: 27088489
    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the relation between menstrual and reproductive factors, exogenous hormones, and risk of pancreatic cancer (PC).

    METHODS: Eleven case-control studies within the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-control Consortium took part in the present study, including in total 2838 case and 4748 control women. Pooled estimates of odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a 2-step logistic regression model and adjusting for relevant covariates.

    RESULTS: An inverse OR was observed in women who reported having had hysterectomy (ORyesvs.no, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-0.91), remaining significant in postmenopausal women and never-smoking women, adjusted for potential PC confounders. A mutually adjusted model with the joint effect for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and hysterectomy showed significant inverse associations with PC in women who reported having had hysterectomy with HRT use (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48-0.84).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our large pooled analysis suggests that women who have had a hysterectomy may have reduced risk of PC. However, we cannot rule out that the reduced risk could be due to factors or indications for having had a hysterectomy. Further investigation of risk according to HRT use and reason for hysterectomy may be necessary.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  4. Wan Mansor, W.H., Hamizah, M.S., Wan Sulaili, W.S., Jeriah, I., Che Nok @ Nawi, I., Noraini, I., et al.
    On March 17, 2003 the Kelantan Health Department was notihed about a possible typhoid outbreak following a wedding party. An investigation was carried out to identiy the source and recommend control measures. Active case detection, yield investigation and case»control study were conducted. Cases were symptomatic attendees with a stool or blood culture positive for Salmonella
    typhii. Each control had a negative culture and denied symptoms. Of the more than 1 OOO guests, 477 experienced fever; 152 met the case definition. The party hostess was found to be an Salmonelb typhii carrier. Syrup prepared with untreated well water was identified as the most likely source for this outbreak, with an odds ratio 14.0 (95% C1: 2.9, 104.1). This was a common source
    outbreak of typhoid. We recommend that all food handlers at large parties be screened for typhoid and other foodborne diseases and samples of higherisk foods should be kept for few days after each event in case they are needed for testing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  5. Fauziah, N., Quek, Kia Fatt, Agus Salim, M.B.
    Recent years have witnessed unprecedented changes in the design and demands of work, and the emergence of job stress as a major concern. The aim of the study was to determine the psychosocial problems in relation to nature of work among female nurses at Hospital Selayang. The study was a cross-sectional study and the study population comprised of female nurses who are currently working at Hospital Selayang. A total of 393 study subjects were randomly selected and each respondent has been given a set of complete validated self-administrated Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. The result showed that the prevalence of having psychosocial problems was 24.9%. It is show that married nurses with more than three children has 3.54 (95% CI: I .81-6.94) higher risks to have the problems compared to those with 3 or less children. Shiftwork nurses have 1.74 (95% C1:] .Ol-Z .99) more risk to have psychosocial problems compared to those who are not doing shiftwork. From the crude odds ratio, nurses who have served the service for more than seven years, there was 1.53 times more risk (95% CI :0.89-2.63) to have psychosocial
    (lr \ problems compared to those who only have service of seven years or less. From multivariate analysis, the risk of having psychosocial problems among nurses who are doing shiftwork found to be two times greater than those who are not doing shiftwork (OR=2. 15;l 95% C1:1 . 12 - 4. 1 1) . Psychosocial problems in relation to nature of work among nurses at Hospital Selayang are higher among nurses who are doing shdtwork. The hospital management needs to overcome the problems and organizing the mental health programs among workers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  6. Selvarajah, V.S., Samudram, S., Chua, L.T., Yuhana, D. Siti, Lim, B.K., S. Wan Yusuf, et al.
    To determine the degree of resolution in pleural effusions treated with anti-tuberculosis treatment alone without thoracentesis, 62 eligible adult cases [mean age (SD), 46 (17) yrs; 77% male] of tuberculosis pleural effusions treated in two urban-based university teaching hospitals were retrospectively reviewed for changes in effusion size at 2, 6 and 12 months after initiation of treatment. The proportions of patients in whom resolution were complete, partial and unchanged were 64.5%, 27.4% and 8.1%. Effusions with size smaller than three tenth of hemithorax were at three-fold increased likelihood of complete resolution, compared with those with larger effusions [Odds ratio (95% CI): 3.295 (1.033 to 10.514); p=0.04]. Consideration for thoracentesis is therefore still important in certain patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  7. Springer SA, Di Paola A, Barbour R, Azar MM, Altice FL
    J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2018 09 01;79(1):92-100.
    PMID: 29781884 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001759
    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) would improve or maintain viral suppression (VS) among incarcerated individuals with HIV and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) transitioning to the community.

    DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among incarcerated individuals with HIV and AUDs transitioning to the community from 2010 through 2016.

    METHODS: Eligible participants (N = 100) were randomized 2:1 to receive 6 monthly injections of XR-NTX (n = 67) or placebo (n = 33) starting at release and continued for 6 months. The primary and secondary outcomes were the proportion that maintained or improved VS at <200 and <50 copies per milliliter from baseline to 6 months, respectively, using an intention-to-treat analysis.

    RESULTS: Participants allocated to XR-NTX improved VS from baseline to 6 months for <200 copies per milliliter (48.0%-64.2%, P = 0.024) and for <50 copies per milliliter (31.0%-56.7%, P = 0.001), whereas the placebo group did not (<200 copies/mL: 64%-42.4%, P = 0.070; <50 copies/mL: 42.0%-30.3%, P = 0.292). XR-NTX participants were more likely to achieve VS than the placebo group at 6 months (<200 copies/mL: 64.2% vs. 42.4%; P = 0.041; <50 copies/mL: 56.7% vs. 30.3%; P = 0.015). XR-NTX independently predicted VS [<200 copies/mL: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01 to 7.09, P = 0.047; <50 copies/mL: aOR = 4.54; 95% CI = 1.43 to 14.43, P = 0.009] as did receipt of ≥3 injections (<200 copies/mL: aOR = 3.26; 95% CI = 1.26 to 8.47, P = 0.010; <50 copies/mL: aOR = 6.34; 95% CI = 2.08 to 19.29, P = 0.001). Reductions in alcohol consumption (aOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.98, P = 0.033) and white race (aOR = 5.37, 95% CI = 1.08 to 27.72, P = 0.040) also predicted VS at <50 copies per milliliter.

    CONCLUSIONS: XR-NTX improves or maintains VS after release to the community for incarcerated people living with HIV and AUDs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  8. Naing C, Aung K, Lai PK, Mak JW
    BMC Cancer, 2017 01 05;17(1):24.
    PMID: 28056862 DOI: 10.1186/s12885-016-2997-3
    BACKGROUND: Human chromosomes are capped and stabilized by telomeres. Telomere length regulates a 'cellular mitotic clock' that defines the number of cell divisions and hence, cellular life span. This study aimed to synthesize the evidence on the association between peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) telomere length and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC).

    METHODS: We searched relevant studies in electronic databases. When two or more observational studies reported the same outcome measures, we performed pooled analysis. All the analyses were performed on PBL using PCR. The odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the strength of association.

    RESULTS: Seven studies (with 8 datasets) were included in this meta-analysis; 3 prospective studies, 3 retrospective studies and 1 study with a separate prospective and retrospective designs. The pooled analysis of 4 prospective studies (summary OR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.77-1.34, I (2):30%) and 4 retrospective studies (summary OR 1.65, 95% CI: 0.96-2.83, I (2):96%) showed no relationship between PBL telomere length and the CRC risk. A subgroup analysis of 2 prospective studies exclusively on females also showed no association between PBL telomere length and the CRC risk (summary OR, 1.17, 95% CI:0.72-1.91, I (2):57%).

    CONCLUSION: The current analysis is insufficient to provide evidence on the relationship between PBL telomere length and the risk of CRC. Findings suggest that there may be a complex relationship between PBL telomere length and the CRC risk or discrepancy between genetics, age of patients and clinical studies. Future well powered, large prospective studies on the relationship between telomere length and the risk of CRC, and the investigations of the biologic mechanisms are recommended.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  9. Tangamornsuksan W, Lohitnavy O, Sruamsiri R, Chaiyakunapruk N, Norman Scholfield C, Reisfeld B, et al.
    Arch Environ Occup Health, 2019;74(5):225-238.
    PMID: 30474499 DOI: 10.1080/19338244.2018.1492894
    To reconcile and unify available results regarding paraquat exposure and Parkinson's disease (PD), we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a quantitative estimate of the risk of PD associated with paraquat exposure. Six scientific databases including PubMed, Cochrane libraries, EMBASE, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, and TOXLINE were systematically searched. The overall odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% CIs were calculated using a random-effects model. Of 7,309 articles identified, 13 case control studies with 3,231 patients and 4,901 controls were included into our analysis. Whereas, one prospective cohort studies was included into our systematic review. A subsequent meta-analysis showed an association between PD and paraquat exposure (odds ratio = 1.64 (95% CI: 1.27-2.13; I2 = 24.8%). There is a statistically significant association between paraquat exposure and PD. Thus, future studies regarding paraquat and Parkinson's disease are warranted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  10. Abdul Mutalip MH, Mahmud MAF, Lodz NA, Yoep N, Muhammad EN, Ahmad A, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2019 01 21;9(1):e023359.
    PMID: 30670512 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023359
    INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is the most common zoonotic disease that causes morbidity and mortality worldwide. The disease can cause sporadic epidemics and recent epidemics have become more apparent in urban localities. There is lack of documented evidence on the specific risk factors of leptospirosis infection among the urbanites, thereby impeding initiatives for prevention in urban settings. We aim to systematically search published articles and synthesise evidence on the risk factors associated with leptospirosis infection among the susceptible populations in urban localities, particularly to identify the risk factors of non-recreational leptospirosis infection.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a systematic review of observational studies that investigated environmental risk factors of leptospirosis in urban localities. The search will be performed for any eligible articles from selected electronic databases from 1970 until May 2018. The study will include any studies that investigated risk factors of confirmed leptospirosis cases who acquired the infection in urban locality, particularly exposures from the non-recreational and non-water-related activities. Study selection and reporting will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guideline. All data will be extracted using a standardised data extraction form and quality of the studies will be assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale guideline. Descriptive and meta-analysis will be performed by calculating the standardised median ORs and risk ratios for types of the non-recreational risk factors stratified by social, living conditions and environmental exposures, types of reservoirs and transmissions and types of activities and employments associated with leptospirosis infection in urban locality.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No primary data will be collected thus no formal ethical approval is required. The results will be disseminated though a peer-reviewed publication and conference presentation.


    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  11. Chung QE, Abdulrahman SA, Khan MKJ, Sathik HBJ, Rashid A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Sep;25(5):88-102.
    PMID: 30914866 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.5.9
    Background: This study aimed to explore the prevalence of physical activity among medical and health sciences students at Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences (CUCMS) and to determine the relationship of their physical activity level with their academic achievement and self-determination level.

    Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 244 Medical and Health Sciences undergraduate students at CUCMS from January to April 2017 using self-administered short-form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF) and the third version of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-3). Multiple regression models were fitted using SPSS version 20 to examine the relationships between study variables.

    Results: Half of the male students (51.7%) were in the health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) group, as compared to only 24.7% of females. The odds of having a good grade point average was twice as high among HEPA active students (odds ratio [OR] = 1.89, 95% CI [1.09, 3.27], P = 0.023) than among non-HEPA active students. Further, the odds of being HEPA active was higher for males (OR = 3.16, 95% CI [1.61, 6.14], P < 0.01) than for females and higher for overweight students than for normal weight students (OR = 2.58, 95% CI [1.24, 5.57], P = 0.017). The odds of being HEPA active was 1.79 times higher for each unit increase in the integrated regulation score (OR = 1.79, 95% CI [1.14, 2.91], P = 0.020).

    Conclusion: The prevalence of physical inactivity was higher among females than males. This study also confirmed a significant association between physical activity level and academic achievement. HEPA active students performed better academically than those who were non-HEPA active.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  12. Lall P, Saifi R, Baggio D, Schoenberger SF, Choo M, Gilbert L, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2019 Apr;31(3):227-237.
    PMID: 30983376 DOI: 10.1177/1010539519841294
    Malaysia currently has an estimated hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence of 1.3% with an infected population of 384,000. Fishermen in Malaysia are at risk of HCV infection due to injection drug use and disproportionately high rates of incarceration. This study used quantitative data from Project WAVES, a large-scale mixed methods project charting environmental drivers of risk-taking behaviors among a respondent-driven sample of 406 fishermen in Malaysia. Over a quarter of participants (27.9%) reported injecting drugs in the past month; 49.8% of the sample tested positive for HCV. Respondents who had previously been arrested displayed increased odds of being HCV-positive (adjusted odds ratio = 4.79, confidence Interval = 2.46-9.35). Participants who reported being in lock-up displayed close to 6-fold odds of being HCV-infected (adjusted odds ratio = 5.49, confidence interval = 2.77-10.90, P < .001). These findings underscore the need for policies and structural interventions targeting the negative effects of aggressive incarceration contributing to the burden of HCV among high-risk communities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  13. Eshkoor SA, Tengku Aizan Hamid, Chan YM
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1357-1361.
    The improvement of health care support has greatly extended the average life expectancy over the last 50 years, which
    has increased the rate of cognitive decline consequently. The avoidance of risk factors such as toxins, stress and somatic
    diseases can be protective against the reduction of cognitive function in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the
    effects of socio-demographic factors, constipation and renal failure on cognitive status among 2322 samples who were
    the non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of
    such factors on cognitive decline in subjects. Approximately, 77.54% of samples experienced cognitive impairment. The
    results showed that advanced age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.03), Malay ethnic (OR = 2.15), constipation (OR = 3.31) and renal
    failure (OR= 4.42), significantly increased the risk of cognitive impairment in subjects (p<0.05). In addition, education
    (OR = 0.38) significantly reduced the risk. However, we concluded that age, Malay ethnic, constipation and renal failure
    increased the risk of cognitive impairment in subjects but education reduced the risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  14. Dörk T, Peterlongo P, Mannermaa A, Bolla MK, Wang Q, Dennis J, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 Aug 29;9(1):12524.
    PMID: 31467304 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-48804-y
    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with 22 disease-causing genes reported to date. In some FA genes, monoallelic mutations have been found to be associated with breast cancer risk, while the risk associations of others remain unknown. The gene for FA type C, FANCC, has been proposed as a breast cancer susceptibility gene based on epidemiological and sequencing studies. We used the Oncoarray project to genotype two truncating FANCC variants (p.R185X and p.R548X) in 64,760 breast cancer cases and 49,793 controls of European descent. FANCC mutations were observed in 25 cases (14 with p.R185X, 11 with p.R548X) and 26 controls (18 with p.R185X, 8 with p.R548X). There was no evidence of an association with the risk of breast cancer, neither overall (odds ratio 0.77, 95%CI 0.44-1.33, p = 0.4) nor by histology, hormone receptor status, age or family history. We conclude that the breast cancer risk association of these two FANCC variants, if any, is much smaller than for BRCA1, BRCA2 or PALB2 mutations. If this applies to all truncating variants in FANCC it would suggest there are differences between FA genes in their roles on breast cancer risk and demonstrates the merit of large consortia for clarifying risk associations of rare variants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  15. Ng KT, Teoh WY
    Prehosp Disaster Med, 2019 Oct;34(5):532-539.
    PMID: 31455452 DOI: 10.1017/S1049023X19004758
    INTRODUCTION: Epinephrine has been recommended for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) resuscitation for nearly one century, but its efficacy and safety remain unclear in the literature. The primary aim of this review was to determine whether epinephrine increases the return of spontaneous circulation in OHCA patients.

    METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted using the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL, from their inception until October 2018. All the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Observational studies, case reports, case series, and non-systematic reviews were excluded.

    RESULTS: Two trials including 8,548 patients were eligible for inclusion in the data synthesis. In patients who received epinephrine during OHCA, the incidence of return of spontaneous circulation was increased, with an odds ratio (95%CI) of 4.25 (3.79-4.75), P ratio (95%CI) of 2.31 (2.11-2.53), P ratio (95%CI) being 1.43 (1.10-1.87), P = .008, moderate-quality of evidence. No significant effect was noted on the favorable neurologic state of patient at hospital discharge, with an odds ratio (95%CI) of 1.21 (0.90-1.64), P = .21, moderate-quality of evidence.

    CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that the prehospital use of epinephrine increases return of spontaneous circulation, transport of patients to hospital, and survival to hospital discharge for OHCA. However, no significant effects on favorable neurologic function at hospital discharge were demonstrated. The general quality of evidence ranged from moderate to high.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  16. Lim OW, Yong CC
    Malays J Med Sci, 2019 Sep;26(5):98-112.
    PMID: 31728122 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2019.26.5.9
    Background: The prevalence of known hypertension has resulted from the progression of undiagnosed hypertension. This study is targeted to examine and compare the risk factors based on the estimated odds ratios of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors on different outcome levels of hypertension.

    Methods: A nationwide representative secondary data from the Fourth National Health of Morbidity Survey (NHMS IV) which consists of 24,632 non-institutionalised Malaysian population conducted by the Ministry of Health in 2011 has been used. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval has been estimated using multinomial logistic regression.

    Results: Obese and overweight respondents exhibit increased likelihood of having undiagnosed and known hypertension. Physically inactive, ex-smokers and unclassified drinkers are found having higher likelihood to have known hypertension. However, current drinkers are found to have higher likelihood of having undiagnosed hypertension. Elderly, retirees, home makers and lower educated respondents are shown higher odds to have undiagnosed hypertension. Likewise, the likelihood of having known hypertension has been found to increase among the elderly and other Bumiputra.

    Conclusion: Through this research, significant predictors which consist of obese and overweight respondents, current drinkers, older respondents (above 65 years old) and primary educated respondents are having higher likelihood to have undiagnosed hypertension.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  17. Nindrea RD, Aryandono T, Lazuardi L, Dwiprahasto I
    Iran. J. Public Health, 2019 Feb;48(2):198-205.
    PMID: 31205873
    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer type in women not only in world but also in Malays ethnicity between Malaysia and Indonesia. Breast cancer has varying incidence in every country, but genetic factor by family history influence the incidence of breast cancer. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine family history of breast cancer and breast cancer risk between Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia.

    Methods: This meta-analysis was conducted on published research articles on family history of breast cancer and breast cancer risk between Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia published between Jan 1999 and Jul 2018 in the online article databases of PubMed, ProQuest and EBSCO. Pooled odds ratios (OR) were calculated with fixed and random-effect models. Publication bias was visually evaluated by using funnel plots and statistically assessed through Egger's and Begg's tests. Data were processed using Review Manager 5.3 (RevMan 5.3) and Stata version 14.2 (Stata Corporation).

    Results: We reviewed 1123 articles. There are 10 studies with number of samples 4511 conducted a systematic review and continued with Meta-analysis of relevant data. The results showed significant association between family history of breast cancer with breast cancer risk in Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia (OR = 3.34 [95% CI 2.68-4.15, P<0.00001]). There was not significant publication bias for studies included in family history of breast cancer and breast cancer risk in Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia.

    Conclusion: This analysis confirmed the association of family history of breast cancer and breast cancer risk between Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  18. Sreeramareddy CT, Majeed Kutty NA, Razzaq Jabbar MA, Boo NY
    Biosci Trends, 2012 Jun;6(3):103-9.
    PMID: 22890157 DOI: 10.5582/bst.2012.v6.3.103
    The burden of non-communicable diseases is increasing in Malaysia. Insufficient Physical Activity, which is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases, is less researched in Malaysia. We aimed to assess the level of physical activity and identify its correlates. An online survey was carried out during October, 2011 in the University Tunku Abdul Rahman by the opinion poll research committee. Young adults answered the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a questionnaire about factors according to a socio-ecological model which was adapted from published studies. Metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours and MET-minutes were calculated. Physical activity was classified as sufficient when MET-minutes were > 840. The mean age of the 474 participants was 22.4 years (S.D. = 4.7), and 253 (53.4%) were females. Their mean and median of MET-hours of PA done during the previous seven days were 31.36 (S.D., 52.19) and 14.7 (IQR, 5.77-32.07), respectively. Physical activity done was sufficient among 242 (51.1%) participants. Using univariate analysis, being male, good self-rated health, positive intention, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, social support, and availability of facilities were associated with sufficient physical activity. Using multivariate analysis sufficient physical activity was associated with participants' intention (OR 0.75, 95% CIs 0.64, 0.88), self-efficacy (OR 0.91, 95% CIs 0.85, 0.97) and facility availability (OR 0.81, 95% CIs 0.73, 0.91). The proportion of participants with sufficient physical activity was low. Positive intention and self-efficacy associated with sufficient physical activity should be supported by availability of facilities and a safely-built environment. A nationwide survey about physical and associated socialecological factors is needed to design rational health promotion strategies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  19. Rahman AA, Rahman RA, Ismail SB, Ibrahim MI, Ali SH, Salleh H, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):NP1549-56.
    PMID: 22751680 DOI: 10.1177/1010539512449856
    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the factors associated with the attitudes toward premarital sexual activities among school-going adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia. It was conducted among 1032 secondary school students using a self-administered validated questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the risk factors for having permissive attitudes toward practice of premarital sexual activities were male students (odds ratio [OR] = 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34-2.48), being less religious (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.49-2.73), and younger age group of students (13 to 14 years old; OR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.05-1.92). Having good knowledge on sexual and reproductive health was a protective factor against permissive sexual attitude (OR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.20-0.36). In conclusion, male and young adolescents were at risk of having permissive attitudes toward sexual behaviors, but good knowledge on sexual and reproductive health and being more religious may protect them from it.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  20. Kwan Z, Lai YN, Ch'ng CC, Tan AH, Tan LL, Robinson S, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2015 Apr;70(2):81-5.
    PMID: 26162382 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: An association of bullous pemphigoid with neurological disorders has been reported. The objectives of this study were to review the clinical characteristics of patients with bullous pemphigoid and compare the association between bullous pemphigoid and various neurological disorders and comorbidities.

    METHODS: This was a retrospective case-control study involving 43 patients with bullous pemphigoid and 43 age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched controls.

    RESULTS: There was a statistically significant association between bullous pemphigoid and neurological disorders [Odds Ratio (OR) = 3.5, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.3 to 9.2, p=0.011 and adjusted OR=3.5, 95% CI 1.2-10.3, p=0.026], in particular for dementia (p=0.002). Although stroke was more common among patients with bullous pemphigoid, this association was not statistically significant with OR of 1.9 (95% CI 0.7 to 5.2) and adjusted OR of 2.1 (95% CI 0.6 to 7.2). Similarly both ischaemic stroke (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.5 to 4.2) and haemorrhagic stroke (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.2 to 9.7) were more common. Other neurological disorders more common among patients with bullous pemphigoid were Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. Dyslipidaemia was significantly less common among patients with bullous pemphigoid (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.9, p=0.033).

    CONCLUSION: A combination of an inflammatory process, prothrombotic state and endothelial activation leads to an increased frequency of neurological disorders among patients with bullous pemphigoid. Thus, a holistic approach to patient care, including screening for dementia and control of comorbidities, should be practised as bullous pemphigoid affects more than just the skin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
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