Methods: A complete literature search was conducted by two independent reviewers. The PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus databases were searched. In addition, the bibliographies of all textbooks and relevant articles were searched manually. A meta-analysis was performed using data entered into the electronic databases until February 28, 2017.
Results: On the basis of the search, we identified 17 and 7 publications for the systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. Odds ratio (OR) was used to evaluate the association of the interleukin 1B (+3954) polymorphism and the risk of EARR. The overall OR from the studies was used to estimate the risk of EARR. However, no association was found and no publication bias was apparent for the risk of EARR in patients receiving orthodontic treatment.
Conclusions: More research on the relationship between gene polymorphism and EARR is necessary to determine better specificity of possible interactions.
Methods.: We retrieved the in-course continuous assessment (ICA) and final professional examination results of 3 cohorts of medical students (n = 245) from the examination unit of the International Medical University, Seremban, Malaysia. The ICA was 3 sets of composite marks derived from course works, which includes summative theory paper with short answer questions and 1 of the best answers. The clinical examination includes end-of-posting practical examination. These examinations are conducted every 6 months in semesters 6, 7 and 8; they are graded as pass/fail for each student. The final professional examination including modified essay questions (MEQs), 1 8-question objective structured practical examination (OSPE) and a 16-station objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), were graded as pass/fail. Failure in the continuous assessment that can predict failure in each component of the final professional examination was tested using chi-square test and presented as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI).
Results.: Failure in ICA in semesters 6-8 strongly predicts failure in MEQs, OSPE and OSCE of the final professional examination with OR of 3.8-14.3 (all analyses p< 0.001) and OR of 2.4-6.9 (p<0.05). However, the correlation was stronger with MEQs and OSPE compared to OSCE.
Conclusion.: ICA with theory and clinical examination had a direct relationship with students' performance in the final examination and is a useful assessment tool.
METHODS: Eleven case-control studies within the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-control Consortium took part in the present study, including in total 2838 case and 4748 control women. Pooled estimates of odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a 2-step logistic regression model and adjusting for relevant covariates.
RESULTS: An inverse OR was observed in women who reported having had hysterectomy (ORyesvs.no, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-0.91), remaining significant in postmenopausal women and never-smoking women, adjusted for potential PC confounders. A mutually adjusted model with the joint effect for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and hysterectomy showed significant inverse associations with PC in women who reported having had hysterectomy with HRT use (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48-0.84).
CONCLUSIONS: Our large pooled analysis suggests that women who have had a hysterectomy may have reduced risk of PC. However, we cannot rule out that the reduced risk could be due to factors or indications for having had a hysterectomy. Further investigation of risk according to HRT use and reason for hysterectomy may be necessary.
METHODS: We searched relevant studies in electronic databases. When two or more observational studies reported the same outcome measures, we performed pooled analysis. All the analyses were performed on PBL using PCR. The odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the strength of association.
RESULTS: Seven studies (with 8 datasets) were included in this meta-analysis; 3 prospective studies, 3 retrospective studies and 1 study with a separate prospective and retrospective designs. The pooled analysis of 4 prospective studies (summary OR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.77-1.34, I (2):30%) and 4 retrospective studies (summary OR 1.65, 95% CI: 0.96-2.83, I (2):96%) showed no relationship between PBL telomere length and the CRC risk. A subgroup analysis of 2 prospective studies exclusively on females also showed no association between PBL telomere length and the CRC risk (summary OR, 1.17, 95% CI:0.72-1.91, I (2):57%).
CONCLUSION: The current analysis is insufficient to provide evidence on the relationship between PBL telomere length and the risk of CRC. Findings suggest that there may be a complex relationship between PBL telomere length and the CRC risk or discrepancy between genetics, age of patients and clinical studies. Future well powered, large prospective studies on the relationship between telomere length and the risk of CRC, and the investigations of the biologic mechanisms are recommended.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a systematic review of observational studies that investigated environmental risk factors of leptospirosis in urban localities. The search will be performed for any eligible articles from selected electronic databases from 1970 until May 2018. The study will include any studies that investigated risk factors of confirmed leptospirosis cases who acquired the infection in urban locality, particularly exposures from the non-recreational and non-water-related activities. Study selection and reporting will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guideline. All data will be extracted using a standardised data extraction form and quality of the studies will be assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale guideline. Descriptive and meta-analysis will be performed by calculating the standardised median ORs and risk ratios for types of the non-recreational risk factors stratified by social, living conditions and environmental exposures, types of reservoirs and transmissions and types of activities and employments associated with leptospirosis infection in urban locality.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No primary data will be collected thus no formal ethical approval is required. The results will be disseminated though a peer-reviewed publication and conference presentation.
PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018090820.
Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 244 Medical and Health Sciences undergraduate students at CUCMS from January to April 2017 using self-administered short-form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF) and the third version of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-3). Multiple regression models were fitted using SPSS version 20 to examine the relationships between study variables.
Results: Half of the male students (51.7%) were in the health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) group, as compared to only 24.7% of females. The odds of having a good grade point average was twice as high among HEPA active students (odds ratio [OR] = 1.89, 95% CI [1.09, 3.27], P = 0.023) than among non-HEPA active students. Further, the odds of being HEPA active was higher for males (OR = 3.16, 95% CI [1.61, 6.14], P < 0.01) than for females and higher for overweight students than for normal weight students (OR = 2.58, 95% CI [1.24, 5.57], P = 0.017). The odds of being HEPA active was 1.79 times higher for each unit increase in the integrated regulation score (OR = 1.79, 95% CI [1.14, 2.91], P = 0.020).
Conclusion: The prevalence of physical inactivity was higher among females than males. This study also confirmed a significant association between physical activity level and academic achievement. HEPA active students performed better academically than those who were non-HEPA active.
Methods: This meta-analysis was conducted on published research articles on family history of breast cancer and breast cancer risk between Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia published between Jan 1999 and Jul 2018 in the online article databases of PubMed, ProQuest and EBSCO. Pooled odds ratios (OR) were calculated with fixed and random-effect models. Publication bias was visually evaluated by using funnel plots and statistically assessed through Egger's and Begg's tests. Data were processed using Review Manager 5.3 (RevMan 5.3) and Stata version 14.2 (Stata Corporation).
Results: We reviewed 1123 articles. There are 10 studies with number of samples 4511 conducted a systematic review and continued with Meta-analysis of relevant data. The results showed significant association between family history of breast cancer with breast cancer risk in Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia (OR = 3.34 [95% CI 2.68-4.15, P<0.00001]). There was not significant publication bias for studies included in family history of breast cancer and breast cancer risk in Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia.
Conclusion: This analysis confirmed the association of family history of breast cancer and breast cancer risk between Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia.