Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 350 in total

  1. Norlen Mohamed, Noradrenalina Isah, Fadhli Yussof
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(1):48-54.
    Accepted 11 August 2011.
    Introduction Despite of its importance for preventing fatal and severe injuries in an event of a crash, limited studies were conducted to find out the status of seatbelt use among rear passengers in Malaysia. This study was conducted to the determine seatbelt use among rear passengers in Malaysia in conjunction with the introduction of the rear seatbelt law that took effect on 1st January 2009.
    Methods Two methods were used; the roadside observations and surveys. A total of 4180 rear passengers were observed during the road side observation and 793 rear passengers were interviewed in the survey.
    Results About 41.8 % (95 % CI: 38.3, 45.4) of rear passengers interviewed reported that they “Always/Often’ wore safety belts, while roadside observation recorded slightly lower rate (36.2 % [95 % CI: 34.8, 37.7]). Based on the roadside observation method, male rear passengers were more likely to use rear seatbelts as compared to female rear passengers (with Odd Ratio: 1.17 (95 % CI: 1.03, 1.33)). Both methods consistently reported that rear passengers of Multipurpose Vehicle (MPV)/Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) (survey method “always wear”: 39.3 %, Odd Ratio: 2.02 [95 % CI: 1.13, 3.61], roadside observation method: 51.9 %, Odd Ratio: 2.23 [95 % CI: 1.89, 2.62]) were two times more likely to wear seatbelts as compared to rear passengers of a car.
    Conclusions The two research methods indicate rear passengers in Malaysia were consistently having low seatbelt usage rate. As the rear seatbelt advocacy and enforcement programme are new in Malaysia, efforts to advocate rear seatbelt use should be strengthened. The changes in rear seatbelt usage rate need to be tracked regularly and as an alternative to roadside observation method, interview survey method could be used to measure the seatbelt usage rate and to identify the reason for not using safety belt among rear passengers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  2. Nowrin SA, Jaafar S, Ab Rahman N, Basri R, Alam MK, Shahid F
    Korean J Orthod, 2018 Nov;48(6):395-404.
    PMID: 30450332 DOI: 10.4041/kjod.2018.48.6.395
    Objective: To date, only a few studies have investigated the relationships between genetic polymorphisms and external apical root resorption (EARR). Hence, the aim of this systematic review was to explore the relationship between different gene polymorphisms and their association with EARR.

    Methods: A complete literature search was conducted by two independent reviewers. The PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus databases were searched. In addition, the bibliographies of all textbooks and relevant articles were searched manually. A meta-analysis was performed using data entered into the electronic databases until February 28, 2017.

    Results: On the basis of the search, we identified 17 and 7 publications for the systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. Odds ratio (OR) was used to evaluate the association of the interleukin 1B (+3954) polymorphism and the risk of EARR. The overall OR from the studies was used to estimate the risk of EARR. However, no association was found and no publication bias was apparent for the risk of EARR in patients receiving orthodontic treatment.

    Conclusions: More research on the relationship between gene polymorphism and EARR is necessary to determine better specificity of possible interactions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  3. Nagandla K, Gupta ED, Motilal T, Teng CL, Gangadaran S
    Natl Med J India, 2019 7 4;31(5):293-295.
    PMID: 31267998 DOI: 10.4103/0970-258X.261197
    Background.: Assessment drives students' learning. It measures the level of students' understanding. We aimed to determine whether performance in continuous assessment can predict failure in the final professional examination results.

    Methods.: We retrieved the in-course continuous assessment (ICA) and final professional examination results of 3 cohorts of medical students (n = 245) from the examination unit of the International Medical University, Seremban, Malaysia. The ICA was 3 sets of composite marks derived from course works, which includes summative theory paper with short answer questions and 1 of the best answers. The clinical examination includes end-of-posting practical examination. These examinations are conducted every 6 months in semesters 6, 7 and 8; they are graded as pass/fail for each student. The final professional examination including modified essay questions (MEQs), 1 8-question objective structured practical examination (OSPE) and a 16-station objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), were graded as pass/fail. Failure in the continuous assessment that can predict failure in each component of the final professional examination was tested using chi-square test and presented as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI).

    Results.: Failure in ICA in semesters 6-8 strongly predicts failure in MEQs, OSPE and OSCE of the final professional examination with OR of 3.8-14.3 (all analyses p< 0.001) and OR of 2.4-6.9 (p<0.05). However, the correlation was stronger with MEQs and OSPE compared to OSCE.

    Conclusion.: ICA with theory and clinical examination had a direct relationship with students' performance in the final examination and is a useful assessment tool.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  4. Lujan-Barroso L, Zhang W, Olson SH, Gao YT, Yu H, Baghurst PA, et al.
    Pancreas, 2016 11;45(10):1401-1410.
    PMID: 27088489
    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the relation between menstrual and reproductive factors, exogenous hormones, and risk of pancreatic cancer (PC).

    METHODS: Eleven case-control studies within the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-control Consortium took part in the present study, including in total 2838 case and 4748 control women. Pooled estimates of odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a 2-step logistic regression model and adjusting for relevant covariates.

    RESULTS: An inverse OR was observed in women who reported having had hysterectomy (ORyesvs.no, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-0.91), remaining significant in postmenopausal women and never-smoking women, adjusted for potential PC confounders. A mutually adjusted model with the joint effect for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and hysterectomy showed significant inverse associations with PC in women who reported having had hysterectomy with HRT use (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48-0.84).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our large pooled analysis suggests that women who have had a hysterectomy may have reduced risk of PC. However, we cannot rule out that the reduced risk could be due to factors or indications for having had a hysterectomy. Further investigation of risk according to HRT use and reason for hysterectomy may be necessary.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  5. Selvarajah, V.S., Samudram, S., Chua, L.T., Yuhana, D. Siti, Lim, B.K., S. Wan Yusuf, et al.
    To determine the degree of resolution in pleural effusions treated with anti-tuberculosis treatment alone without thoracentesis, 62 eligible adult cases [mean age (SD), 46 (17) yrs; 77% male] of tuberculosis pleural effusions treated in two urban-based university teaching hospitals were retrospectively reviewed for changes in effusion size at 2, 6 and 12 months after initiation of treatment. The proportions of patients in whom resolution were complete, partial and unchanged were 64.5%, 27.4% and 8.1%. Effusions with size smaller than three tenth of hemithorax were at three-fold increased likelihood of complete resolution, compared with those with larger effusions [Odds ratio (95% CI): 3.295 (1.033 to 10.514); p=0.04]. Consideration for thoracentesis is therefore still important in certain patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  6. Wan Mansor, W.H., Hamizah, M.S., Wan Sulaili, W.S., Jeriah, I., Che Nok @ Nawi, I., Noraini, I., et al.
    On March 17, 2003 the Kelantan Health Department was notihed about a possible typhoid outbreak following a wedding party. An investigation was carried out to identiy the source and recommend control measures. Active case detection, yield investigation and case»control study were conducted. Cases were symptomatic attendees with a stool or blood culture positive for Salmonella
    typhii. Each control had a negative culture and denied symptoms. Of the more than 1 OOO guests, 477 experienced fever; 152 met the case definition. The party hostess was found to be an Salmonelb typhii carrier. Syrup prepared with untreated well water was identified as the most likely source for this outbreak, with an odds ratio 14.0 (95% C1: 2.9, 104.1). This was a common source
    outbreak of typhoid. We recommend that all food handlers at large parties be screened for typhoid and other foodborne diseases and samples of higherisk foods should be kept for few days after each event in case they are needed for testing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  7. Fauziah, N., Quek, Kia Fatt, Agus Salim, M.B.
    Recent years have witnessed unprecedented changes in the design and demands of work, and the emergence of job stress as a major concern. The aim of the study was to determine the psychosocial problems in relation to nature of work among female nurses at Hospital Selayang. The study was a cross-sectional study and the study population comprised of female nurses who are currently working at Hospital Selayang. A total of 393 study subjects were randomly selected and each respondent has been given a set of complete validated self-administrated Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. The result showed that the prevalence of having psychosocial problems was 24.9%. It is show that married nurses with more than three children has 3.54 (95% CI: I .81-6.94) higher risks to have the problems compared to those with 3 or less children. Shiftwork nurses have 1.74 (95% C1:] .Ol-Z .99) more risk to have psychosocial problems compared to those who are not doing shiftwork. From the crude odds ratio, nurses who have served the service for more than seven years, there was 1.53 times more risk (95% CI :0.89-2.63) to have psychosocial
    (lr \ problems compared to those who only have service of seven years or less. From multivariate analysis, the risk of having psychosocial problems among nurses who are doing shiftwork found to be two times greater than those who are not doing shiftwork (OR=2. 15;l 95% C1:1 . 12 - 4. 1 1) . Psychosocial problems in relation to nature of work among nurses at Hospital Selayang are higher among nurses who are doing shdtwork. The hospital management needs to overcome the problems and organizing the mental health programs among workers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  8. Naing C, Aung K, Lai PK, Mak JW
    BMC Cancer, 2017 01 05;17(1):24.
    PMID: 28056862 DOI: 10.1186/s12885-016-2997-3
    BACKGROUND: Human chromosomes are capped and stabilized by telomeres. Telomere length regulates a 'cellular mitotic clock' that defines the number of cell divisions and hence, cellular life span. This study aimed to synthesize the evidence on the association between peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) telomere length and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC).

    METHODS: We searched relevant studies in electronic databases. When two or more observational studies reported the same outcome measures, we performed pooled analysis. All the analyses were performed on PBL using PCR. The odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the strength of association.

    RESULTS: Seven studies (with 8 datasets) were included in this meta-analysis; 3 prospective studies, 3 retrospective studies and 1 study with a separate prospective and retrospective designs. The pooled analysis of 4 prospective studies (summary OR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.77-1.34, I (2):30%) and 4 retrospective studies (summary OR 1.65, 95% CI: 0.96-2.83, I (2):96%) showed no relationship between PBL telomere length and the CRC risk. A subgroup analysis of 2 prospective studies exclusively on females also showed no association between PBL telomere length and the CRC risk (summary OR, 1.17, 95% CI:0.72-1.91, I (2):57%).

    CONCLUSION: The current analysis is insufficient to provide evidence on the relationship between PBL telomere length and the risk of CRC. Findings suggest that there may be a complex relationship between PBL telomere length and the CRC risk or discrepancy between genetics, age of patients and clinical studies. Future well powered, large prospective studies on the relationship between telomere length and the risk of CRC, and the investigations of the biologic mechanisms are recommended.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  9. Abdul Mutalip MH, Mahmud MAF, Lodz NA, Yoep N, Muhammad EN, Ahmad A, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2019 Jan 21;9(1):e023359.
    PMID: 30670512 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023359
    INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is the most common zoonotic disease that causes morbidity and mortality worldwide. The disease can cause sporadic epidemics and recent epidemics have become more apparent in urban localities. There is lack of documented evidence on the specific risk factors of leptospirosis infection among the urbanites, thereby impeding initiatives for prevention in urban settings. We aim to systematically search published articles and synthesise evidence on the risk factors associated with leptospirosis infection among the susceptible populations in urban localities, particularly to identify the risk factors of non-recreational leptospirosis infection.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a systematic review of observational studies that investigated environmental risk factors of leptospirosis in urban localities. The search will be performed for any eligible articles from selected electronic databases from 1970 until May 2018. The study will include any studies that investigated risk factors of confirmed leptospirosis cases who acquired the infection in urban locality, particularly exposures from the non-recreational and non-water-related activities. Study selection and reporting will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guideline. All data will be extracted using a standardised data extraction form and quality of the studies will be assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale guideline. Descriptive and meta-analysis will be performed by calculating the standardised median ORs and risk ratios for types of the non-recreational risk factors stratified by social, living conditions and environmental exposures, types of reservoirs and transmissions and types of activities and employments associated with leptospirosis infection in urban locality.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No primary data will be collected thus no formal ethical approval is required. The results will be disseminated though a peer-reviewed publication and conference presentation.


    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  10. Lall P, Saifi R, Baggio D, Schoenberger SF, Choo M, Gilbert L, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2019 Apr;31(3):227-237.
    PMID: 30983376 DOI: 10.1177/1010539519841294
    Malaysia currently has an estimated hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence of 1.3% with an infected population of 384,000. Fishermen in Malaysia are at risk of HCV infection due to injection drug use and disproportionately high rates of incarceration. This study used quantitative data from Project WAVES, a large-scale mixed methods project charting environmental drivers of risk-taking behaviors among a respondent-driven sample of 406 fishermen in Malaysia. Over a quarter of participants (27.9%) reported injecting drugs in the past month; 49.8% of the sample tested positive for HCV. Respondents who had previously been arrested displayed increased odds of being HCV-positive (adjusted odds ratio = 4.79, confidence Interval = 2.46-9.35). Participants who reported being in lock-up displayed close to 6-fold odds of being HCV-infected (adjusted odds ratio = 5.49, confidence interval = 2.77-10.90, P < .001). These findings underscore the need for policies and structural interventions targeting the negative effects of aggressive incarceration contributing to the burden of HCV among high-risk communities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  11. Chung QE, Abdulrahman SA, Khan MKJ, Sathik HBJ, Rashid A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Sep;25(5):88-102.
    PMID: 30914866 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.5.9
    Background: This study aimed to explore the prevalence of physical activity among medical and health sciences students at Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences (CUCMS) and to determine the relationship of their physical activity level with their academic achievement and self-determination level.

    Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 244 Medical and Health Sciences undergraduate students at CUCMS from January to April 2017 using self-administered short-form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF) and the third version of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-3). Multiple regression models were fitted using SPSS version 20 to examine the relationships between study variables.

    Results: Half of the male students (51.7%) were in the health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) group, as compared to only 24.7% of females. The odds of having a good grade point average was twice as high among HEPA active students (odds ratio [OR] = 1.89, 95% CI [1.09, 3.27], P = 0.023) than among non-HEPA active students. Further, the odds of being HEPA active was higher for males (OR = 3.16, 95% CI [1.61, 6.14], P < 0.01) than for females and higher for overweight students than for normal weight students (OR = 2.58, 95% CI [1.24, 5.57], P = 0.017). The odds of being HEPA active was 1.79 times higher for each unit increase in the integrated regulation score (OR = 1.79, 95% CI [1.14, 2.91], P = 0.020).

    Conclusion: The prevalence of physical inactivity was higher among females than males. This study also confirmed a significant association between physical activity level and academic achievement. HEPA active students performed better academically than those who were non-HEPA active.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  12. Eshkoor SA, Tengku Aizan Hamid, Chan YM
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1357-1361.
    The improvement of health care support has greatly extended the average life expectancy over the last 50 years, which
    has increased the rate of cognitive decline consequently. The avoidance of risk factors such as toxins, stress and somatic
    diseases can be protective against the reduction of cognitive function in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the
    effects of socio-demographic factors, constipation and renal failure on cognitive status among 2322 samples who were
    the non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of
    such factors on cognitive decline in subjects. Approximately, 77.54% of samples experienced cognitive impairment. The
    results showed that advanced age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.03), Malay ethnic (OR = 2.15), constipation (OR = 3.31) and renal
    failure (OR= 4.42), significantly increased the risk of cognitive impairment in subjects (p<0.05). In addition, education
    (OR = 0.38) significantly reduced the risk. However, we concluded that age, Malay ethnic, constipation and renal failure
    increased the risk of cognitive impairment in subjects but education reduced the risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  13. Nindrea RD, Aryandono T, Lazuardi L, Dwiprahasto I
    Iran. J. Public Health, 2019 Feb;48(2):198-205.
    PMID: 31205873
    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer type in women not only in world but also in Malays ethnicity between Malaysia and Indonesia. Breast cancer has varying incidence in every country, but genetic factor by family history influence the incidence of breast cancer. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine family history of breast cancer and breast cancer risk between Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia.

    Methods: This meta-analysis was conducted on published research articles on family history of breast cancer and breast cancer risk between Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia published between Jan 1999 and Jul 2018 in the online article databases of PubMed, ProQuest and EBSCO. Pooled odds ratios (OR) were calculated with fixed and random-effect models. Publication bias was visually evaluated by using funnel plots and statistically assessed through Egger's and Begg's tests. Data were processed using Review Manager 5.3 (RevMan 5.3) and Stata version 14.2 (Stata Corporation).

    Results: We reviewed 1123 articles. There are 10 studies with number of samples 4511 conducted a systematic review and continued with Meta-analysis of relevant data. The results showed significant association between family history of breast cancer with breast cancer risk in Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia (OR = 3.34 [95% CI 2.68-4.15, P<0.00001]). There was not significant publication bias for studies included in family history of breast cancer and breast cancer risk in Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia.

    Conclusion: This analysis confirmed the association of family history of breast cancer and breast cancer risk between Malays ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  14. Sreeramareddy CT, Majeed Kutty NA, Razzaq Jabbar MA, Boo NY
    Biosci Trends, 2012 Jun;6(3):103-9.
    PMID: 22890157 DOI: 10.5582/bst.2012.v6.3.103
    The burden of non-communicable diseases is increasing in Malaysia. Insufficient Physical Activity, which is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases, is less researched in Malaysia. We aimed to assess the level of physical activity and identify its correlates. An online survey was carried out during October, 2011 in the University Tunku Abdul Rahman by the opinion poll research committee. Young adults answered the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a questionnaire about factors according to a socio-ecological model which was adapted from published studies. Metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours and MET-minutes were calculated. Physical activity was classified as sufficient when MET-minutes were > 840. The mean age of the 474 participants was 22.4 years (S.D. = 4.7), and 253 (53.4%) were females. Their mean and median of MET-hours of PA done during the previous seven days were 31.36 (S.D., 52.19) and 14.7 (IQR, 5.77-32.07), respectively. Physical activity done was sufficient among 242 (51.1%) participants. Using univariate analysis, being male, good self-rated health, positive intention, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, social support, and availability of facilities were associated with sufficient physical activity. Using multivariate analysis sufficient physical activity was associated with participants' intention (OR 0.75, 95% CIs 0.64, 0.88), self-efficacy (OR 0.91, 95% CIs 0.85, 0.97) and facility availability (OR 0.81, 95% CIs 0.73, 0.91). The proportion of participants with sufficient physical activity was low. Positive intention and self-efficacy associated with sufficient physical activity should be supported by availability of facilities and a safely-built environment. A nationwide survey about physical and associated socialecological factors is needed to design rational health promotion strategies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  15. Rahman AA, Rahman RA, Ismail SB, Ibrahim MI, Ali SH, Salleh H, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):NP1549-56.
    PMID: 22751680 DOI: 10.1177/1010539512449856
    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the factors associated with the attitudes toward premarital sexual activities among school-going adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia. It was conducted among 1032 secondary school students using a self-administered validated questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the risk factors for having permissive attitudes toward practice of premarital sexual activities were male students (odds ratio [OR] = 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34-2.48), being less religious (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.49-2.73), and younger age group of students (13 to 14 years old; OR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.05-1.92). Having good knowledge on sexual and reproductive health was a protective factor against permissive sexual attitude (OR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.20-0.36). In conclusion, male and young adolescents were at risk of having permissive attitudes toward sexual behaviors, but good knowledge on sexual and reproductive health and being more religious may protect them from it.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  16. Lim KG
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Aug;69 Suppl A:23-32.
    PMID: 25417948 MyJurnal
    105 articles related to colorectal cancer(CRC) were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. 56 articles were selected and reviewed on the basis of clinical relevance and future research implications. Research into the genetic basis for colorectal cancer included studies in germline mutations of known syndromes as well as polymorphisms that conferred individuals a higher odds ratio for developing CRC. Several studies also documented the variety of somatic mutations seen in cases of sporadic CRC in Malaysia. Studies into the knowledge and attitudes of Malaysians regarding CRC revealed poor appreciation of the common symptoms, risk factors and available measures for its early detection. This may explain the observed facts that more Malaysians present with late stage CRC than seen in developed countries. The small amount of data recorded concerning the outcome of treatment also suggests overall survival of Malaysian CRC patients for comparable stage of CRC is lower than achieved in developed countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  17. Al Khalaf MS, Al Ehnidi FH, Al-Dorzi HM, Tamim HM, Abd-Aziz N, Tangiisuran B, et al.
    Ann Thorac Med, 2015 Apr-Jun;10(2):132-6.
    PMID: 25829965 DOI: 10.4103/1817-1737.150731
    RATIONALE: Sepsis is a leading cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions worldwide and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Limited data exist regarding the outcomes and functional status among survivors of severe sepsis and septic shock.
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the functional status among survivors of severe sepsis and septic shock a year after hospital discharge.
    METHODS: Adult patients admitted between April 2007 and March 2010 to the medical-surgical ICU of a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia, were included in this study. The ICU database was investigated for patients with a diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock. Survival status was determined based on hospital discharge. Patients who required re-admission, stayed in ICU for less than 24 hours, had incomplete data were all excluded. Survivors were interviewed through phone calls to determine their functional status one-year post-hospital discharge using Karnofsky performance status scale.
    RESULTS: A total of 209 patients met the eligibility criteria. We found that 38 (18.1%) patients had severe disability before admission, whereas 109 (52.2%) patients were with severe disability or died one-year post-hospital discharge. Only one-third of the survivors had good functional status one-year post-discharge (no/mild disability). After adjustment of baseline variables, age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.04] and pre-sepsis functional status of severe disability (aOR = 50.9, 95% CI = 6.82-379.3) were found to be independent predictors of functional status of severe disability one-year post-hospital discharge among survivors.
    CONCLUSIONS: We found that only one-third of the survivors of severe sepsis and septic shock had good functional status one-year post-discharge (no/mild disability). Age and pre-sepsis severe disability were the factors that highly predicted the level of functional status one-year post-hospital discharge.
    KEYWORDS: Disability; functional status; septic shock; severe sepsis
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  18. Tan NH, Yahya A, Adeeb N
    J Obstet Gynaecol (Tokyo 1995), 1995 Aug;21(4):313-8.
    PMID: 8775898
    To evaluate the risk factors of spontaneous abortion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  19. Fauziah Nordin, Lewis, SJ., O’Donnell, PNS., Crosbie, PAJ., Richard Booton, Agius, RM., et al.
    Manual work is associated with increased lung cancer risk possibly because of increased exposure to occupational and other carcinogens, reduced use of health care services and/or a less healthy lifestyle. The aim of this study was to examine whether the association between manual work and lung cancer risk has changed over time. Three separate retrospective studies were carried out over a 10-year period (1996-1997, 1998-2000 and 2003-2005) in patients attending a bronchoscopy clinic to investigate lung cancer risk in an area of Manchester characterised by high deprivation and unemployment. Cases (n=321) were patients newly diagnosed with a tumour of the lung, trachea or bronchus and controls (n=542) were patients free of tumours at the time of, and prior to, examination. Patients were interviewed using the same structured questionnaire for associations between risk factors and lung cancer examined. The study population in all three studies was similar with little difference in smoking history. In each study smoking was associated with lung cancer risk. Lung cancer risk was higher in manual workers (compared to managers and other professionals) in the first (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.20 – 5.05) and second study (OR 2.73, 95% CI 0.97 – 7.70) but not the third (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.58 – 1.61). However, the summary odds ratio (meta-OR) for lung cancer in manual worker was 1.81 (95% 1.75 – 1.87) after controlling for sex, age and smoking. This study suggested that even after taking into account known occupational and environmental causes of cancer, there was a residual cancer risk associated with manual work, high risk working populations of lung cancer. However this appears to have attenuated recently for as yet unknown reasons.
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
  20. Ibrahimzubil, A.R., Nor Hassim, I., Thaherah Nor
    Comparative cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hearing impairment among workers in one of the airport in Malaysia and the factors associated with it. A total of 248 subjects comprising 175 from the exposed group and the remaining control group were sampled. The main tools used in this study were validated questionnaire on hearing assessment and pure tone audiometric test. Response rate was 94%. Both area and personal exposure monitoring have exceeded action level for 8 Hrs TWA in the exposed group but within normal limit in the control group. The prevalence of hearing impairment was 88% among the noise exposed group and 11% in the control group with prevalence odds ratio (POR) 3.569 (95%CI 1.210-10.53, p
    Matched MeSH terms: Odds Ratio
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