Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 564 in total

  1. Woon TH
    Family Practitioner, 1973;1(1):13-16.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression
  2. Abdollahi A, Abu Talib M, Motalebi SA
    Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci, 2015 Dec;9(4):e2268.
    PMID: 26834804 DOI: 10.17795/ijpbs-2268
    BACKGROUND: Given that happiness is an important construct to enable adolescents to cope better with difficulties and stress of life, it is necessary to advance our knowledge about the possible etiology of happiness in adolescents.
    OBJECTIVES:The present study sought to investigate the relationships of emotional intelligence, depressive symptoms, and happiness in a sample of male students in Tehran, Iran.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of high school students in Tehran in 2012. The participants comprised of 188 male students (aged 16 to 19 years old) selected by multi-stage cluster sampling method. For gathering the data, the students filled out assessing emotions scale, Beck depression inventory-II, and Oxford happiness inventory. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive and analytical statistics in statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software.
    RESULTS: The findings showed that a significant positive association existed between high ability of emotional intelligence and happiness (P < 0.01). Conversely, the low ability of emotional intelligence was associated with unhappiness (P < 0.01), there was a positive association between non-depression symptoms and happiness (P < 0.05), and severe depressive symptoms were positively associated with unhappiness (P < 0.01). High ability of emotional intelligence (P < 0.01) and non-depression symptoms (P < 0.05) were the strongest predictors of happiness.
    CONCLUSIONS: These findings reinforced the importance of emotional intelligence as a facilitating factor for happiness in adolescences. In addition, the findings suggested that depression symptoms may be harmful for happiness in adolescents.

    Depression; Emotional Intelligence; Iranian Students; Wellbeing
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression*
  3. Abdollahi F, Lye MS, Md Zain A, Shariff Ghazali S, Zarghami M
    PMID: 24644441
    OBJECTIVE: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common health problem which affects women in the postpartum period. This is a brief note on its associated factors in women from different cultures.
    METHODS: A literature review was performed in MEDLINE and Pubmed from 1991 to 2008 and Magiran from 1991 to 2009. Additional articles and book chapters were referenced from these sources.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of postpartum depression has been reported to be from 0.5% to 60% globally, and from 3.5% to 63.3% in Asian countries, in which Malaysia and Pakistan had respectively the lowest and highest rates. One of the factors contributing to PPD in Asian societies can be that women may not have the empowerment to reject traditional rituals that are imposed on them by their caregivers. Unsatisfactory pre-existing relationships between the mothers and their caregivers resulting in mothers experiencing difficulties during their confinement period may be another factor. Thirdly, some features of these traditional rituals may be the cause of tension, stress and emotional distress. Emotional conflicts caused by insistence on practice of traditional rituals during the postpartum period may lead to mental breakdown.
    CONCLUSION: Health care professionals should be aware that the phenomenon in Asian cultures is as prevalent as European cultures. Moreover, further research needs to be conducted on the global prevalence of the experiences of childbearing women with depressive symptoms.
    KEYWORDS: Cultures; Postpartum depression; Risk factors
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression, Postpartum*
  4. Halbreich U, Karkun S
    J Affect Disord, 2006 Apr;91(2-3):97-111.
    PMID: 16466664 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2005.12.051
    The prevalence of postpartum depression (PPD) is currently considered to be 10-15%. Most studies were performed with a brief unidimensional instruments (mostly the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-EPDS) with focus on depression and not on other symptoms and disorders. Most cited studies were conducted in Western economically developed countries.

    We reviewed the literature on prevalence of postpartum depression and depressive symptoms in a wide range of countries.

    143 studies were identified reporting prevalence in 40 countries. It is demonstrated that there is a wide range of reported prevalence of PPD ranging from almost 0% to almost 60%. In some countries like Singapore, Malta, Malaysia, Austria and Denmark there are very few reports of PPD or postpartum depressive symptoms, whereas in other countries (e.g. Brazil, Guyana, Costa Rica, Italy, Chile, South Africa, Taiwan and Korea) reported postpartum depressive symptoms are very prevalent.

    We believe that the widely cited mean prevalence of PPD-10-15% is not representative of the actual global prevalence and magnitude of the problem, due to the wide range of reports. The variability in reported PPD might be due to cross-cultural variables, reporting style, differences in perception of mental health and its stigma, differences in socio-economic environments (e.g. poverty, levels of social support or its perception, nutrition, stress), and biological vulnerability factors. The elucidation of the underlying processes of this variability as well as the diversity of postpartum normal versus abnormal expressions of symptoms may contribute to better understanding of the diversified ante, peri- and postpartum phenomena.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis; Depression/epidemiology*; Depression/psychology; Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis; Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology*; Depression, Postpartum/psychology
  5. Abdollahi F, Zarghami M, Sazlina SG, Zain AM, Mohammad AJ, Lye MS
    Arch Med Sci, 2016 Oct 1;12(5):1043-1051.
    PMID: 27695496
    INTRODUCTION: Post-partum depression (PPD) is the most prevalent mental problem associated with childbirth. The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of early PPD and possible relevant risk factors among women attending primary health centers in Mazandaran province, Iran for the first time.
    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among 2279 eligible women during weeks 32-42 of pregnancy to determine bio-psycho-socio-cultural risk factors of depression at 2 weeks post-partum using the Iranian version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Univariate and hierarchical multiple logistic regression models were used for data analysis.
    RESULTS: Among 1,739 mothers whose EPDS scores were ≤ 12 during weeks 32-42 of gestation and at the follow-up study, the cumulative incidence rate of depression was 6.9% (120/1,739) at 2 weeks post-partum. In the multivariate model the factor that predicted depression symptomatology at 2 weeks post-partum was having psychiatric distress in pregnancy based on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) (OR = 1.06, (95% CI: 1.04-1.09), p = 0.001). The risk of PPD also lower in those with sufficient parenting skills (OR = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.69-0.88), p = 0.001), increased marital satisfaction (OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.9-0.99), p = 0.03), increased frequency of practicing rituals (OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89-0.99), p = 0.004) and in those whose husbands had better education (OR = 0.03 (95% CI: 0.88-0.99), p = 0.04).
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that a combination of demographic, sociological, psychological and cultural risk factors can make mothers vulnerable to PPD.
    KEYWORDS: depression; incidence; post-partum
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression, Postpartum*
  6. Grace J, Lee KK, Ballard C, Herbert M
    Transcult Psychiatry, 2001;38:27-34.
    DOI: 10.1177/136346150103800103
    This study evaluated the rate of post-natal depression (PND) in a Malaysian population, investigated the relationship between belief systems and PND, and examined the relationship between PND and somatization. The sample included 154 consecutive attendees for a 6-week post-natal check at a general hospital well-baby clinic in Kuala Lumpur. Patients were assessed using the Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Score (EPNDS), the Bradford Somatisation Inventory (BSI), and a questionnaire to assess beliefs about pregnancy and childbirth. The rate of PND was 3.9%. EPNDS and BSI were moderately correlated. Women who practised specific post-natal practices had a higher EPNDS and BSI than those who did not. The rate of PND is lower than in Western studies but similar to that seen in other Asian countries. The correlation between BSI and EPNDS suggest that the BSI will not detect cases missed by the EPNDS. © 2001, Sage Publications. All rights reserved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression; Depression, Postpartum
  7. Beck CT
    MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs, 2008 Mar-Apr;33(2):121-6.
    PMID: 18327112 DOI: 10.1097/01.NMC.0000313421.97236.cf
    Postpartum depression has been described as a thief that steals motherhood. It can result in tragedy and sometimes in headline-gripping maternal suicide or infanticide. Because one of the highest priorities for nursing is to continually advance the knowledge that underlies nursing practice, it is essential that we understand what nurse researchers have done to advance the knowledge base of postpartum depression. This integrative review is a two-part series for MCN that summarizes 141 postpartum depression studies conducted by nurse researchers from around the globe, including United States, Australia, Canada, China (Hong Kong, Taiwan), Finland, Iceland, Sweden, Turkey, and Malaysia. Specific areas of postpartum depression to which nurse researchers have devoted their primary attention include epidemiology, risk factors, transcultural perspectives, instrument development, screening, interventions, and mother-infant interactions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression, Postpartum/ethnology; Depression, Postpartum/nursing; Depression, Postpartum/prevention & control*; Depression, Postpartum/psychology
  8. Ng CW, How CH, Ng YP
    Singapore Med J, 2017 08;58(8):459-466.
    PMID: 28848991 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2017080
    Major depression is common in the primary care setting. In the final article of this series, we illustrate the approach to the management of depression in primary care. Psychotherapy has been shown to be as effective as antidepressants for mild to moderate major depression. The common myth that antidepressants are addictive should be addressed. Antidepressants should be started at a subtherapeutic dose to assess tolerability, then gradually increased until a minimally effective dose is achieved. Apart from pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, management of depression should include managing stressors, engaging social and community support, dealing with stigma and discrimination, and managing concomitant comorbidities. A strong therapeutic relationship and empathic listening are important between the primary care physician and patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/drug therapy; Depression/therapy*
  9. Ho SC, Chong HY, Chaiyakunapruk N, Tangiisuran B, Jacob SA
    J Affect Disord, 2016 Mar 15;193:1-10.
    PMID: 26748881 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.12.029
    Medication non-adherence is one of the major challenges in treating patients with depression. This systematic review aims to determine the clinical and economic outcomes of non-adherence in depression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression
  10. Wong YC
    Family Practitioner, 1981;4<I> </I>:27-30.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression
  11. Wan Mahmud WM, Awang A, Herman I, Mohamed MN
    Malays J Med Sci, 2004 Jul;11(2):19-25.
    PMID: 22973123
    Increased international collaboration in clinical trials has created a need for cross culturally valid instruments to assess the quality of life and behavioural disorders. Cross cultural studies of depressive symptomatology, in particular, must be preceded by an exhaustive study of the psychometric properties of the instruments to ensure the validity of the comparison. In this article, we examined the validity, reliability and factor structure of the Malay version of the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) among Malay postpartum women attending selected health centres in Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia. Our findings indicated that the current version of the BDI-II is psychometrically strong and appropriate for use in assessing depressive symptomatology among this group of women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression*
  12. Abdollahi A, Abu Talib M
    Death Stud, 2015;39(10):579-83.
    PMID: 25924082 DOI: 10.1080/07481187.2015.1013163
    To examine the moderating role of spirituality between hopelessness, spirituality, and suicidal ideation, 202 Iranian depressed adolescent inpatients completed measures of patient health, suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and core spiritual experience. Structural equation modelling indicated that depressed inpatients high in hopelessness, but also high in spirituality, had less suicidal ideation than others. These findings reinforce the importance of spirituality as a protective factor against hopelessness and suicidal ideation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/epidemiology; Depression/psychology
  13. Lee PF, Kan DPX, Croarkin P, Phang CK, Doruk D
    J Clin Neurosci, 2018 Jan;47:315-322.
    PMID: 29066239 DOI: 10.1016/j.jocn.2017.09.030
    BACKGROUND: There is an unmet need for practical and reliable biomarkers for mood disorders in young adults. Identifying the brain activity associated with the early signs of depressive disorders could have important diagnostic and therapeutic implications. In this study we sought to investigate the EEG characteristics in young adults with newly identified depressive symptoms.

    METHODS: Based on the initial screening, a total of 100 participants (n = 50 euthymic, n = 50 depressive) underwent 32-channel EEG acquisition. Simple logistic regression and C-statistic were used to explore if EEG power could be used to discriminate between the groups. The strongest EEG predictors of mood using multivariate logistic regression models.

    RESULTS: Simple logistic regression analysis with subsequent C-statistics revealed that only high-alpha and beta power originating from the left central cortex (C3) have a reliable discriminative value (ROC curve >0.7 (70%)) for differentiating the depressive group from the euthymic group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the single most significant predictor of group (depressive vs. euthymic) is the high-alpha power over C3 (p = 0.03).

    CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest that EEG is a useful tool in the identification of neurophysiological correlates of depressive symptoms in young adults with no previous psychiatric history.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Our results could guide future studies investigating the early neurophysiological changes and surrogate outcomes in depression.

    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis*; Depression/physiopathology*
  14. Jayanath S, Lee WS, Chinna K, Boey CC
    Pediatr Int, 2014 Aug;56(4):583-7.
    PMID: 24617982 DOI: 10.1111/ped.12335
    BACKGROUND: Children with chronic illness may have depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among children attending a pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic in Malaysia, and whether it differed by age, gender and diagnosis.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, with data collected over a 16 month period (April 2010-July 2011). Patients aged 7-17 years on follow up at the pediatric gastroenterology clinic at University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, were recruited consecutively. They were classified into high, average and low scores based on responses to questions in the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI; high, T-score >55; average, T-score 45-55; low, T-score <45). Children with high scores were considered to have depressive symptoms.
    RESULTS: The response rate was 93%. One hundred children (44 boys; 56 girls) were studied. Major diagnoses were: functional abdominal pain (n = 22), inflammatory bowel disease (n = 26), biliary atresia (n = 17) and miscellaneous gastrointestinal conditions (n = 35). The overall prevalence of high CDI for depressive symptoms was 27.0%, while 43.0% and 30.0% had average and low scores, respectively. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of high scores among children with different diagnoses.
    CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms were common among children attending a pediatric gastroenterology clinic. It is important to recognize symptoms of depression in children with gastrointestinal disorders.
    KEYWORDS: Children's Depression Inventory; depression; gastrointestinal disorders; outpatient; pediatric

    Study site: Pediatric gastroenterology clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression*
  15. Abdollahi F, Etemadinezhad S, Lye MS
    Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol, 2016 Feb;55(1):76-80.
    PMID: 26927254 DOI: 10.1016/j.tjog.2015.12.008
    OBJECTIVES: Cultural practices have been found to positively impact the mothering experience. This study sought to identify the relationship between sociocultural practices and postpartum depression (PPD) in a cohort of Iranian women for the first time.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a longitudinal cohort design, 2279 pregnant women attending primary health centers of Mazandaran province in Iran were recruited using stratified random sampling method. Data were collected using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and researchers developed validated cultural practices questionnaire at 3 months after delivery. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of PPD was 19% among 1910 women who were followed postdelivery in this study. Cultural practices were not associated with lower odds of PPD in multiple logistic regression model after adjustment for all sociodemographic factors. The results of this study do not also provide any evidence to support that sex of baby is associated with the greater risk of PPD.
    CONCLUSIONS: Cultural practices could not be perceived as protective mechanisms that protect women from PPD in this traditional society. However, health professionals should be familiar with postpartum beliefs and practices that could support mothers in the postpartum period.
    KEYWORDS: culture; depression; postpartum; practices
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression, Postpartum*
  16. Kato TA, Hashimoto R, Hayakawa K, Kubo H, Watabe M, Teo AR, et al.
    Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 2016 Jan;70(1):7-23.
    PMID: 26350304 DOI: 10.1111/pcn.12360
    Japan's prototype of depression was traditionally a melancholic depression based on the premorbid personality known as shūchaku-kishitsu proposed by Mitsuzo Shimoda in the 1930s. However, since around 2000, a novel form of depression has emerged among Japanese youth. Called 'modern type depression (MTD)' by the mass media, the term has quickly gained popularity among the general public, though it has not been regarded as an official medical term. Likewise, lack of consensus guidelines for its diagnosis and treatment, and a dearth of scientific literature on MTD has led to confusion when dealing with it in clinical practice in Japan. In this review article, we summarize and discuss the present situation and issues regarding MTD by focusing on historical, diagnostic, psychosocial, and cultural perspectives. We also draw on international perspectives that begin to suggest that MTD is a phenomenon that may exist not only in Japan but also in many other countries with different sociocultural and historical backgrounds. It is therefore of interest to establish whether MTD is a culture-specific phenomenon in Japan or a syndrome that can be classified using international diagnostic criteria as contained in the ICD or the DSM. We propose a novel diagnostic approach for depression that addresses MTD in order to combat the current confusion about depression under the present diagnostic systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/diagnosis*
  17. Mohd Sidik S, Rozali A, Shiran MS, Sam AA
    Malays J Nutr, 2004 Sep;10(2):149-58.
    PMID: 22691736 MyJurnal
    Imbalances and deficiencies of nutrients are particularly prevalent among the elderly, resulting in increased risk of illness and impaired outcome, as well as reduced quality of life. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the nutritional risk and to determine its association with physical and mental health problems among the elderly in a semiurban community in the District of Hulu Langat, Selangor. Elderly people aged 60 years and above were included in the study, conducted from 11th March to 10th May 2004. Data were collected using a questionnaire-guided interview method. The Nutrition Screening Initiative Checklist (NSI-13) was used to assess the level (low, moderate, high) of nutritional risk of the subjects. The questionnaire also included the Barthel Index, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30) and Elderly Cognitive Assessment Questionnaire (ECAQ) to identify functional status, depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment respectively, among the respondents. Out of 316 elderly residents, 300 agreed to participate in the study (response rate 94.9%). Respondents aged from 60 to 93 years old and the mean age was 67.08±6.6. Prevalence of moderate and high nutritional risks were 25.3% and 36.3% respectively. Nutritional risks were found to be significantly associated with age (p=0.015), marital status (p=0.00), chronic illness (p=0.000), functional disability (p=0.000) and depressive symptoms (p=0.010). In conclusion, the health status of the elderly strongly depends on their nutritional risk. Age, marital status, chronic illness, functional disability and depressive symptoms are factors to be emphasised when assessing the nutritional risk of the elderly.
    Study site: Hulu Langat District, Selangor, Malaysia
    Device, Questionnaire & Scale: Nutrition Screening Initiative Checklist (NSI-13); Barthel Index; Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30); Elderly Cognitive Assessment Questionnaire (ECAQ)
    Prevalence data: Depression 6.3%, cognitive impairment 8.3%
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression*
  18. Mahmud WM, Awang A, Mohamed MN
    Malays J Med Sci, 2003 Jul;10(2):71-5.
    PMID: 23386800
    AIM: To reevaluate the psychometric characteristics of the Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale among a sample of postpartum Malay women attending the Bakar Bata Health Center in Alor Setar, Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: 64 women between 4 to 12 weeks postpartum were recruited for there validation study. They were given questionnaires on socio-demography, the 21-item Malay version of the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the 10-item Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). All the participants were later interviewed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). All diagnoses were made based on the Tenth Edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10)
    RESULTS: 9 women (14.1%) were diagnosed to have significant depression (7 mild depressive episodes and 2 moderate depressive episodes according to ICD-10). EPDS was found to have good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha =0.86) and split half reliability (Spearman split half coefficient = 0.83). The instrument also showed satisfactory discriminant and concurrent validity as evidenced by the statistically significant difference in EPDS scores between the depressed group and their non-depressed counterparts (Mann Whitney U test: 2 tailed p value < 0.01) and good correlations between the instrument and both the Malay version of BDI-II and the HRDS-17 (Spearman rank correlation coefficients of 0.78 and 0.88 respectively). At the 11/12 cut-off score the sensitivity of the EPDS is 100%, with a specificity of 98.18%, positive predictive value of 90%, negative predictive value of 100 % and misclassification rate of 1.56%.
    CONCLUSION: This study confirmed the reliability and validity of the Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in identifying postpartum depression among recently delivered Malay women attending the Bata Bata Health Center in Alor Setar, Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia.
    KEYWORDS: EPDS; postnatal depression; rating scale; validation
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan Bakar Bata, Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression, Postpartum*
  19. Ng CG, Mohamed S, Kaur K, Sulaiman AH, Zainal NZ, Taib NA, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(3):e0172975.
    PMID: 28296921 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172975
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer patients often experience a high level of distress. Psychological distress is a broad construct encompass both depression and anxiety. Previous studies in examining which of these psychological symptoms (either anxiety or depression) were more significantly associated with the distress level in breast cancer patients is lacking. This study aims to compare the level of depression and anxiety between patients with different level of distress. The correlation between the changes in distress level with depression or anxiety over 12 months was also examined.

    METHODS: This study is from the MyBCC cohort study. Two hundred and twenty one female breast cancer patients were included into the study. They were assessed at the time of diagnosis, 6 months and 12 month using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and distress thermometer. The information on age, ethnicity, treatment types and staging of cancer were collected.

    RESULTS: 50.2%, 51.6% and 40.3% of patients had perceived high level of distress at baseline, 6 months and 1 year after diagnosis. Those with high perceived level of distress had significant higher anxiety scores even after adjusted for the underlying depressive scores (Adjusted OR at baseline = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.13-1.44; adjusted OR at 6 months = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.11-1.45; adjusted OR at 12 months = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.29-1.76). There were no significant differences in the depressive scores between the subjects with either low or high distress level. There was reduction in perceived level of distress, anxiety and depression scores at 12 months after the diagnosis. The decrease of distress was positively correlated with the reduction of anxiety scores but not the changes of depressive scores (r' = 0.25).

    CONCLUSION: Anxiety is a more significant psychological state that contributed to the feeling of distress in breast cancer as compared with depression. Levels of anxiety at diagnosis in this study would justify screening for anxiety, early identification and therapy for maintaining the psychological well-being of breast cancer patients. Further studies will be needed to measure the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Depression/psychology*
  20. Razali R, Wahab S, Mohd Daud TI, Ariffin J, Abdul Aziz AF, Wan Puteh SE
    Neurology Asia, 2016;21(3):265-273.
    Sleep quality can vary in relation to one’s general well-being and in the elderly, it is often affected by the presence of medical or psychological conditions. This study aims to determine the frequency of different components of sleep quality in the elderly, and their relationships with psychosocial and medical attributes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 123 attendees aged 60 years and above at Pusat Perubatan Primer Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Sleep quality and psychological distress were assessed using the validated Malay versions of Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and Hamilton anxiety depression scale (HADS) respectively. Information on medical comorbidities and medications were obtained from the participants, their doctors and medical notes. Almost half of the patients experienced poor sleep quality (47.2%) which was significantly associated with older mean age (69.5 ±4.55). There was no statistical significance between sleep quality and other sociodemographic characteristics (gender, ethnicity and living arrangement). Most patients described their sleep quality as subjectively generally “fairly good” (69.1%) despite PSQI scores indicating poor sleep quality. A majority of the patients (59.3%) were on follow-up for 3 or more medical illnesses, with heart disease as the only medical comorbidity significantly associated with poor sleep quality. Most of them also complained of only “mild difficulty” with their sleep. Among the 7 sleep components of PSQI, “sleep disturbance” was the most frequent experience. Most experienced mild sleep disturbance (87.8%) and usage of hypnotic agents was low (6.5%). Only 23.6% of patients had significant psychological distress (HADS scores ≥ 8), with positive correlation with sleep quality.
    Study site: Pusat Perubatan Primer, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Depression*
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