This study aims to examine whether mild dehydration affects the cognitive function, mood and subjective feelings among the male football players of Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI). Fourteen athletes with the mean age of 22±1 years, weight of 65.7 ±7.6 kg and height of 168±6 cm were randomly divided into dehydration and euhydration trials. The baseline data was collected a week before the main trials to record the time taken by the participants to lose 2% of the body weight. Fifteen minutes before conducting the trials, the weight, height, pulse rate and urine samples of the participants were collected and then a warm-up session was conducted for ten minutes. The participants were instructed to exercise until mild dehydration by conducting a slow running on a treadmill within forty-five minutes. The participants from the euhydration trial were given drinks every fifteen minutes throughout the experiment, while the dehydration trial were not provided with drinks. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) questionnaire was used to determine the subjective feelings of dizziness and thirst, while the cognitive performance was measured by using the Flanker Test. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionaire was utilized to measure the mood changes of the participants. Urine Specific Gravity of the urine samples was measured using Digital Refractometer to determine the hydration status of the participants. The data were analysed using the Paired t-test. There was a significant difference in post-exercise body weight loss for the dehydration trial compared to the euhydration trial. In terms of cognitive performance, there was a significant difference for the component of non-congruent reaction time between the dehydration and euhydration trials. Besides, the findings had shown that there were no significant differences for all six dimensions of mood between the trials and there was a significant different for dizziness level between the trials. In conclusion, this study found that mild dehydration has affected the subjective feeling of dizziness and non-congruent reaction time. Thus, the athletes need to be exposed to the fluid intake strategy and the awareness about hydration status in order to avoid dehydration to optimize physical, mental and sports performance.
Goal orientation is a part of the psychological factors that needed by athletes to achieve a better performance in a competition. The aim of this study is to investigate the difference of goal orientation between gender and type of sports among Karnival Sukan Mahasiswa UiTM (KARiSMA) Perak athletes. Task and ego sport questionnaire (TEOSQ) was used to examine the goal orientation among athletes. There were four hundred (n=400) participants for this study. The results show that there was no significant difference between task orientation and gender. However, there was a significant difference observed between genders of athletes in terms of ego orientation. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in goal orientation between types of sport. In conclusion, if the athletes were able to set the goals in task orientation, the athletes can achieve better in sport.
This study is fundamental in looking to validate the agreement of Self-Assesment Instrument of Outdoor Competency (OCL-oMR) among the Co-curriculum Center Coaches in Malaysia. The instrument are newly developed by the researcher . The Inventory Responses –oMR (IR-oMR) are purposely to evaluate and determine the goodness of self-assesement instrument of outdoor competency (OCL-oMR) among co-curriculum center coaches in Malaysia. By using the correlation & percentage, the analysis were used. N=10 of head coaches of co-curriculum Center were selected to be a sampels. These data is a secondary data that researcher used in the main research. But as a secondary data, its really important to researcher to identify and justify the newly instrument of self assesment of outdoor competency (OCL-oMR). Findings shown contents validity r=.82 were recorded and the language validity were shown r=.83. Meanwhile, anothers supporting data were used percentage of agreement of Inventory Responses –Omr (IR-oMR) toward the Self-Assesment Instrument of Outdoor Competency (OCL-oMR) among the Co-curriculum Center Coaches in Malaysia. Overall, from these findings, researcher found that’s the Inventory Responses – oMR (IR-oMR) shown that the Self-Assesment Instrument of Outdoor Competency (OCL-oMR) among the Co-curriculum Center Coaches in Malaysia are valid instrument to measure the competency level of outdoor education coaches in co-curriculum center in Malaysia and the Inventory Responses – oMR (IR-oMR) are significantly toward the outdoor competency (OCL-oMR).
This study was conducted to determine the effects of plyometric training on power, speed and agility on under 16 athletes. Thirty-two males from various background of sports were randomly selected as subjects. Subjects were divided into two groups which are intervention (N=16) and control (N=16). Subjects performed training for five weeks. Test batteries used includes 30-m sprint, 30 feet shuttle run and vertical jump to look at the effects of plyometric training given. Data that were obtained was analysed using T-test. Analysis showed that treatment group manage to improve performance in all the three tests while no significant differences between pre and post-test among control group for all the three tests. Based on the result, plyometric training that were given could improve power, speed and agility.
This research was undertaken to determine the physical characteristics among successful soldiers participating in the Basic Commando Course series 1/AK 2014 for 12 weeks, at Sungai Udang Camp, Malacca. A total of 37 male soldiers who had passed the commando practice test were selected to participate in this research, with special approval from the Malaysian Armed Forces Training Base. The anthropometric data of the body and fitness levels, were taken before, during and after the entire duration of the training. The successful commando candidates (commando trainees) aged 22.3±2.85 years, with a mean height of 1.71±0.03 m, mean weight of 60.76±5.18 kg, mean BMI of 22.02±1.38 kg/m2, and mean waist circumference of 68.92±2.48 cm. All physical fitness parameters showed a decrease in the level of physical fitness from the beginning to the end of the study period. In conclusion, the Malaysian commando selection training for twelve weeks produced a significant negative impact on the level of fitness of the military personnel involved. These study findings demonstrate the need for a specific recovery program after the commando’s training session, for the welfare of members and to ensure that the physical preparedness of the trainees has returned back to its pre-training maximum level.
Kajian ini adalah bertujuan untuk meneliti hubungan antara pengambilan kafein dan tahap keagresifan dalam kalangan atlet Kor SUKSIS. Kajian ini berbentuk kaedah tinjauan dengan menggunakan borang soal selidik berkaitan pengambilan kafein dan tahap keagresifan The Judgements About Moral Behavior in Youth Sport (JAMBYSQ). Peserta kajian terdiri daripada 80 orang atlet sukan berpasukan SUKSIS yang dipilih secara rawak. Data telah dianalisis menggunakan ujian statistik deskriptif, ujian t tidak bersandar dan korelasi Pearson. Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa terdapat perbezaan signifikan (p = 0.014) bagi tahap kekerapan pengambilan kafein antara atlet lelaki (2.00 ± 0.87) dan atlet perempuan (1.50 ± 0.76). Selain itu, bagi tahap keagresifan pula tidak terdapat perbezaan signifikan antara atlet lelaki (3.37 ± 0.60) dan atlet perempuan (3.23 ± 0.66) serta tidak terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara pengambilan kafein dengan tahap keagresifan semasa bersukan (r = 0.024, n = 80, p =0.831). Kesimpulannya, walaupun kekerapan pengambilan kafein berbeza mengikut jantina tetapi ia tidak mempengaruhi tahap keagresifan dalam kalangan atlet Kor SUKSIS. Oleh itu, terdapat keperluan untuk mengkaji dos kafein yang sesuai yang dapat mencetus tahap keagresifan dalam kalangan atlet
Physical Education is one of the compulsory subjects in primary and secondary schools in Malaysia. The primary goal of Physical Education is to develop students in the aspects of cognitive, psychomotor, and affective. Teaching and learning of Physical Education should provide more opportunities for students to improve the efficiency of motor skills, movement, and maintaining physical fitness. The teaching and learning process must focus on students' learning to generate understanding, learning, and ' satisfaction. The failure to attract students toward Physical Education may affect the goals of the subject. Enjoyment is a crucial factor underlying exercise motivation and positive participation in both physical activity and Physical Education. 'Students' attitudes toward Physical Education are likely to be linked with their enjoyment in classes. Therefore, to achieve the goals of the subject, it is imperative to create enjoyment in the teaching and learning process. Hence this study to determine the effectiveness of teaching games for understanding to promote enjoyment in teaching games of Physical Education lesson. Eighty students from form Vocational College in Setapak, Kuala Lumpur, and one Physical Education teacher agreed to participate in this study. They were divided into two groups in order to compare two instructional approaches. The experimental group (A), 42 students, experienced Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), while the control group (B), 38 students, and experienced a technical-traditional approach. The study design was a quasi-non-equivalent group pre-test and post-test design. A pre- and post-test were performed on each group to assess the influence of the methodology used on students' enjoyment in Physical Education. ANCOVA analysis was conducted to determine the effectiveness of teaching methods toward student enjoyment in Physical Education. Results revealed that group A showed greater enjoyment in the class than group B. Significant differences were found in enjoyment.
Motivation is an internal force or desire that drives an individual to meet personal and organizational goals. Motivation consists of two categories, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Generally, motivation is an important psychological factor that is often associated with athletes’ sports involvement. The purpose of this study was to identify the different types of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT) from a gender perspective. The study sample consisted of 63 Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) athletes (n = 63; male = 30, female = 33) who participated in the MASUM Sports Carnival. The instrument used to measure athlete’s motivation is the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS-28) questionnaire, which includes intrinsic motivation subscales (to know, to accomplish, to experience stimulation), extrinsic (external regulation, introjected regulation, identify regulation) and amotivation (demotivation). The results showed that UKM athletes were more intrinsically motivated (M = 4.43 ± 0.38) than extrinsically motivated (M = 4.19 ± 0.44). However, there were no significant differences in the dimensions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation between gender (p> .05). Overall, this study shows that intrinsic motivation is the key factor of UKM athletes sports involvement
Kajian kualitatif berbentuk etnografi ini bertujuan mengkaji tahap kompetensiguru sebagai jurulatih bola sepak dan kesannya terhadap prestasi pemain bola sepak Pusat Latihan Daerah (PLD) di Kuala Lumpur. Kajian ini dijalankan selama sembilan bulan bermula dari Julai 2018 hingga April 2019. Sebanyak 10 orang jurulatih PLD dari kalangan guru telah terlibat sebagai peserta kajian dan ditemu bual bagi mendapatkan data. Jumlah peserta kajian telah di tentukan oleh tahap “saturation of information” di mana peserta kajian yang di temu bual didapati sudah tidak dapat mengemukakan sesuatu data yang baru berbanding dengan peserta kajian sebelumnya. Data hasil dari temu bual, pemerhatian dan kajian lapangan serta dokumen yang berkaitan telah dianalisis menggunakan kaedah thematic analysis seperti yang telah dicadangkan oleh Patton (2002). Berdasarkan kajian yang dijalankan mendapati tahap kompetensi latihan, kompetensi perlawanan dan kompetensi pengurusan jurulatih dari kalangan guru dapat mempengaruhi prestasi pemain bola sepak PLD di Kuala Lumpur seterusnya dapat menyumbang kepada peningkatankualiti pemain bola sepak di Malaysia.
The purpose of the study is to compare the effects of dynamic stretching and combined static dynamic stretching on speed performance among male Sukan Malaysia (SUKMA) Sarawak 2016 sprinters. 10 male sprinters (age=16-19 years old) were tested under two different stretching protocols which were dynamic stretching alone and combined static dynamic stretching. All of the participants were sprinters that qualify for SUKMA Sarawak 2016. Participants underwent the dynamic stretching alone and combined static dynamic stretching in counterbalanced order with 1-week wash-out period between both stretching protocols. Participants were tested using the 20-meter sprint test after each intervention. The result showed a significant sprint time difference between both interventions (p
The aim of this study are to identify the movement patterns of top international male and female badminton players in term of their court coverage. Twenty games (n=20), ten each from the males and females single of the World Championships 2013, were chosen for this study. The subjects were all elite athletes from the various countries’ national squads. All games were analysed using Sports code Pro, which was recorded by Astro Beyond. Then, the researcher is required to identify the specific movement patterns especially on court. Finally, the movement patterns and direction movement of athletes on court were identified and analysed. From the results of this study, we can see that the opponents will try to send the shuttlecock to the sites far from the players to earn advantages. It is a need for the badminton players to have a proper physical conditioning training in order to increase their performance and at the same time reduce the risks of injury.
Music can give influence on a lot of thing. It was known as one of the sources for entertainment. It has been classified to regulate emotion, grab attention, for lift the spirit and increased work output. Nowadays, people love listening to music believed that it entertains them and thus helps to motivate the person to continue the activity. The aim of this study was to determine the differences music tempo towards emotion among gym users in UiTM Seremban 3. Sixty participants, which were gym users that attended to the gym in UiTM Seremban 3. Subjects were randomly assigned into three different groups (n=20 in each). Group 1 fast tempo (>120 bpm), group2 slow tempo (
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a two week reduction in training load on selected physiological and performance among junior cyclist. Twenty seven male junior cyclists (age= 16.6±0.7 years, height=165.6±6.1 cm, weight= 54.1±8.1 kg) were matched into either the control group (n=13) or the experimental group (n=14) using their initial VO2max values. Both groups followed a 12-week progressive endurance training program and subsequently, the experimental group (EXP) engaged in a two week tapering (recovery via a reduction in training loads) phase. The control group continued with their normal training routine. A simulated 20 km time trials performance and a graded exercise test on cycle ergometer were performed before and after endurance training and after the two week tapering protocol. Following the conclusion of the two week intervention or no intervention program both groups undertook a TT20km. Results showed no significant difference in the TT20km performance. Compared to the CON group, the EXP group showed significant changes in all the selected physiological variables tested, p
Maintaining proper hydration status is crucial for sports performance and general well- being. Available data show that despite good knowledge in hydration, some elite and collegiate athletes did not practice proper fluid intake to maintain hydration, thus they may have risk of dehydration. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between hydration status, knowledge and fluid habit among school athletes. This study utilized survey questionnaires to assess hydration knowledge and habit and laboratory equipment to measure hydration status. The findings in this study show that there was no significant correlation (P>0.05) observed among hydration status, hydration knowledge and fluid intake behaviour among the participants. Besides, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in terms of hydration status, knowledge and fluid intake behaviour between males and female participants. In conclusion, this study provides some new insight with respect to hydration status and knowledge among school athletes.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the ACE I/D gene polymorphism on athletic status and physical performance of well-trained Malaysian athletes. The distribution of ACE I/D gene polymorphism among 180 well trained athletes was compared with 180 sedentary controls. 20 meter Yo-Yo intermittent recovery and leg strength tests were used to measure maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and leg strength value of athletes with different ACE I/D genotype, respectively. Chi-Square and one way ANOVA tests were used for data analysis. The II and DD genotype were more prevalent among the endurance athletes and the strength/ power athletes compared to the other groups, respectively (p=0.00). The VO2max was not significantly associated with ACE genotype in athlete (p=0.828). However, athletes with the DD genotype had recorded a greater result for leg strength (113.8 ± 36.2) than those with the II (96.2 ± 28.0) and the ID (112.2 ± 33.5) genotype (p=0.047). This study supports the notion that ACE I/D gene polymorphism might be a genetic factor associated with athletic status and strength performance among the Malaysian population. Future studies with more representation of endurance athletes might able to detect the association between I allele and endurance performance.
Sports coaching and especially high performance coaching has long existed in some sort of duality. On one hand, sport coaching has been regarded by many as a prestigious and rewarding job, whereas on the other, sport coaching still lacks a reputation as a career opportunity mostly due to the fact that coaching is yet to receive its full professional recognition in the society. Given the vast variety of coaching qualifications, coaching roles and coaching occupations available within sport infrastructure in the society, the situation has got progressively complicated with the recognition of coaching qualifications. In addition, the growing popularity of high performance and participation sports in the society started drawing more attention from the public to the issues of coach education, competence and qualifications. Malaysian scenario on the issue is quite complicated as well, and growing demand to uplift the country’s performance in SEA, Asian, Commonwealth and Olympic Games requires interference from the higher education institutions and NGOs.
The relative age effect (RAE) is the effects of differences between athletes born in the early compared to the later months of the year. This study investigated the presence of RAE among 306 age-group swimmers competing in the 2014 Malaysian Schools Sports Competition (MSSM). Participants’ birthdates were grouped according to four birth quartiles (Q1- Jan to Mar; Q2- Apr to June; Q3 – July to September; Q4 – October to December). Data analyzed using chi-squared goodness-of-fit showed there was a significant difference among overall male but not for the female swimmers. There was a presence of RAE in the U-12 and U-15 but none in the U-18 boys’ category. Further analyses on the medal winners showed no RAEs on both gender. Physical attributes of the male swimmers, especially the early adolescents are suggested to influence the relative age effects in swimming.
Anthropometric measurements are widely used to determine body composition, size and weight, and proportions of the human body, especially in children. Our aim was to identify common physical characteristics of student athletes in selected Malaysia states sports schools. The ensuing analysis aimed to provide these states sports school athletes with a competitive advantage. Participants (n=317) were from student-athletes, aged between 13-14y and 15-16y staying in their school’s dormitory. These student-athletes comprise of 181 males (13-14y, n=138; 15-16y, n=43) and 136 females (13-14y, n=84; 15-16y, n=52). All subjects were measured on 26 anthropometric dimensions using measurements of four skin folds, six direct lengths, seven segment girths, six segment breadths, plus body mass, stretch stature and sitting height. The results showed significantly differences (p
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between supporting leg strength and supporting leg balance; and their correlation with kicking performance. Thirty four recreational male futsal players with a mean age 23.2±1.5 years old voluntarily participated in this study. Physical characteristics of participants (age, weight, height and body mass index) were recorded prior to test. Force platform was used to record kinetics variables during maximal instep kick (with and without target) and during the Balance Stork Test. Ball flight after impact with the kicking foot was recorded using high speed video camera set at 120 frame per second, with 500 hertz shutter speed. Ball velocity was then calculated using motion analysis software. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between variables. Results indicated no significant correlation between maximal vertical force (max-vGRF) with the ball velocity for both condition of kicks; between strength (max-vGRF) and balance (at 95% ellipse area) of supporting leg; between supporting leg balance and ball velocity; between supporting leg balance and ball accuracy. However, negative significant correlations exist between max-vGRF and ball accuracy. Max-vGRF and ball velocity for both kicking without target and kicking with target was found highly correlated. As a conclusion, kicking performance was not primarily influenced by either the supporting leg strength (MVF) or supporting leg balance (95% ellipse area).
peranan penting dalam setiap pergerakan utama manusia seperti berjalan, bernafas,
mengangkat barang dan sebagainya. Harris dan Watkins (1993) mentakrifkan kekuatan otot
sebagai keupayaan otot rangka untuk membangunkan daya untuk tujuan memberikan
kestabilan dan mobiliti di dalam sistem otot, fungsi pergerakan boleh berlaku. Kekuatan otot
berbeza mengikut umur dan jantina. Terdapat pelbagai kajian yang dilakukan untuk mengukur
kekuatan otot bagi golongan dewasa. Namun demikian, masih kurang penyelidikan telah
dijalankan ke atas kekuatan otot bagi kanak-kanak yang bersekolah di peringkat taska atau pra
sekolah. Kanak-kanak yang belajar di peringkat taska atau pra sekolah adalah kanak-kanak
yang berumur dari 4 hingga 6 tahun. Kajian ulasan ringkas ini mengupas beberapa faktor
yang mempengaruhi kekuatan otot dalam kalangan kanak-kanak pra sekolah. Kajian-kajian
yang dipilih telah menepati kriteria-kriteria yang telah di tetapkan iaitu: a) hasil dapatan
menunjukkan kaitan antara kekuatan otot dan pelajar pra sekolah dan b) faktor mempengaruhi
kekuatan otot di kalangan kanak-kanak.