Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

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  1. Yap SP, Yuen KH, Lim AB
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2003 Jan;55(1):53-8.
    PMID: 12625867
    A study was conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienols administered via oral, intravenous, intramuscular and intraperitoneal routes in rats. Three separate experiments, each conducted according to a two-way crossover design, were carried out to compare intravenous and oral, intramuscular and oral, and intraperitoneal and oral administration. Oral absorption of all three tocotrienols was found to be incomplete. Of the three tocotrienols, alpha-tocotrienol had the highest oral bioavailability, at about 27.7+/-9.2%, compared with gamma- and delta-tocotrienols, which had values of 9.1+/-2.4% and 8.5+/-3.5%, respectively. Such biodiscrimination was also observed in their total clearance rates (estimated from the intravenous data). alpha-Tocotrienol showed the lowest clearance rate at about 0.16 L kg(-1) h(-1), whereas that of delta- and gamma-tocotrienols was quite similar, with values of 0.24 and 0.23 L kg(-1) h(-1), respectively. Interestingly, all three tocotrienols were found to be negligibly absorbed when administered intraperitoneally and intramuscularly. Thus, these two routes of administration should be avoided when evaluating the biological activities of the tocotrienols in whole animal experiments.
  2. Yap SP, Yuen KH, Wong JW
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2001 Jan;53(1):67-71.
    PMID: 11206194
    We have investigated the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienols under fed and fasted conditions in eight healthy volunteers. The volunteers were administered a single oral dose of mixed tocotrienols (300 mg) under fed or fasted conditions. The bioavailability of tocotrienols under the two conditions was compared using the parameters peak plasma concentration (Cmax), time to reach peak plasma concentration (Tmax) and total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(o-infinity)). A statistically significant difference was observed between the fed and fasted logarithmic transformed values of Cmax (P < 0.01) and AUC(0-infinity) (P < 0.01) for all three tocotrienols. In addition, the 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of the logarithmic transformed AUC(0-infinity) values of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienols under the fed state over those of the fasted state were found to lie between 2.24-3.40, 2.05-4.09 and 1.59-3.81, respectively, while those of the Cmax were between 2.28-4.39, 2.31-5.87 and 1.52-4.05, respectively. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between the fed and fasted Tmax values of the three homologues. The mean apparent elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienols was estimated to be 4.4, 4.3 and 2.3 h, respectively, being between 4.5- to 8.7-fold shorter than that reported for alpha-tocopherol. No statistically significant difference was observed between the fed and fasted t(1/2) values. The mean apparent volume of distribution (Vd/f) values under the fed state were significantly smaller than those of the fasted state, which could be attributed to increased absorption of the tocotrienols in the fed state.
  3. KIANG AK, DOUGLAS B, MORSINGH F
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 1961 Feb;13:98-104.
    PMID: 13755798
  4. Tan SF, Kirby BP, Stanslas J, Basri HB
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2017 Nov;69(11):1447-1457.
    PMID: 28809443 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.12800
    OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to investigate the potential of formulated valproic acid-encapsulated nanoemulsion (VANE) to improve the brain bioavailability of valproic acid (VPA).

    METHODS: Valproic acid-encapsulated nanoemulsions were formulated and physically characterised (osmolarity, viscosity, drug content, drug encapsulation efficiency). Further investigations were also conducted to estimate the drug release, cytotoxic profile, in-vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, pharmacokinetic parameter and the concentration of VPA and VANE in blood and brain.

    KEY FINDINGS: Physical characterisation confirmed that VANE was suitable for parenteral administration. Formulating VPA into nanoemulsion significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of VPA. In-vitro drug permeation suggested that VANEs crossed the BBB as freely as VPA. Pharmacokinetic parameters of VANE-treated rats in plasma and brain showed F3 VANE had a remarkable improvement in AUC, prolongation of half-life and reduction in clearance compared to VPA. Given the same extent of in-vitro BBB permeation of VPA and VANE, the higher bioavailability of VANE in brain was believed to have due to higher concentration of VANE in blood. The brain bioavailability of VPA was improved by prolonging the half-life of VPA by encapsulating it within the nanoemulsion-T80.

    CONCLUSIONS: Nanoemulsion containing VPA has alleviated the cytotoxic effect of VPA and improved the plasma and brain bioavailability for parenteral delivery of VPA.

  5. Septama AW, Jantan I, Panichayupakaranant P
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2018 Sep;70(9):1242-1252.
    PMID: 29943393 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.12952
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of flavonoids isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus. heartwood on chemotaxis, phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity of human phagocytes.

    METHODS: Chemotaxis was evaluated using a modified Boyden chamber and phagocytosis was determined by flowcytometer. Respiratory burst was investigated by luminol-based chemiluminescence assay while MPO activity was determined by colorimetric assay.

    KEY FINDINGS: Artocarpanone and artocarpin strongly inhibited all steps of phagocytosis. Artocarpanone and artocarpin showed strong chemotactic activity with IC50 values of 6.96 and 6.10 μm, respectively, which were lower than that of ibuprofen (7.37 μm). Artocarpanone was the most potent compound in inhibiting ROS production of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and monocytes with IC50 values comparable to those of aspirin. Artocarpin at 100 μg/ml inhibited phagocytosis of opsonized bacteria (28.3%). It also strongly inhibited MPO release with an IC50 value (23.3 μm) lower than that of indomethacin (69 μm). Structure-activity analysis indicated that the number of hydroxyl group, the presence of prenyl group and variation of C-2 and C-3 bonds might contribute towards their phagocytosis.

    CONCLUSIONS: Artocarpanone and artocarpin were able to suppress strongly the phagocytosis of human phagocytes at different steps and have potential to be developed into potent anti-inflammatory agents.

  6. Ali SM, Siddiqui R, Khan NA
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2018 Oct;70(10):1287-1300.
    PMID: 30003546 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.12976
    OBJECTIVES: Whether vertebrates/invertebrates living in polluted environments are an additional source of antimicrobials.

    KEY FINDINGS: Majority of antimicrobials have been discovered from prokaryotes and those which are of eukaryotic origin are derived mainly from fungal and plant sources. With this in mind, it is important to note that pests, such as cockroaches come across pathogenic bacteria routinely, yet thrive in polluted environments. Other animals, such as snakes thrive from feeding on germ-infested rodents. Logically, such species must have developed an approach to protect themselves from these pathogens, yet they have largely been ignored as a potential source of antimicrobials despite their remarkable capability to fight disease-causing organisms.

    SUMMARY: Animals living in polluted environments are an underutilized source for potential antimicrobials, hence it is believed that several novel bioactive molecule(s) will be identified from these sources to counter increasingly resistant bacterial infections. Further research will be necessary in the development of novel antimicrobial(s) from these unusual sources which will have huge clinical impact worldwide.

  7. Lee EH, Lim SS, Yuen KH, Lee CY
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2019 May;71(5):860-868.
    PMID: 30515807 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.13052
    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of curcumin analogues with shortened linkers and their ability to protect against amyloid-beta toxicity in a whole organism model.

    METHOD: Four curcumin analogues were synthesized. These analogues and curcumin were evaluated for their BBB permeability in the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay. The transgenic Caenorhabditis elegansGMC101 that expresses human Aβ1-42 was treated with the compounds to evaluate their ability to delay Aβ-induced paralysis. Expression of skn-1mRNA was examined on nematodes treated with selected efficacious compounds. In vitro Aβ aggregation in the presence of the compounds was performed.

    KEY FINDINGS: The four analogues showed improved BBB permeability vs curcumin in the PAMPA with the hemi-analogue C4 having the highest permeability coefficient. At 100 μm, analogues C1 and C4 as well as curcumin significantly prolonged the survival of the nematodes protecting against Aβ toxicity. However, only curcumin and C4 showed protection at lower concentrations. skn-1mRNA was significantly elevated in nematodes treated with curcumin and C4 indicating SKN-1/Nrf activation as a possible mode of action.

    CONCLUSIONS: Analogue C4 provides a new lead for the development of a curcumin-based compound for protection against Aβ toxicity with an improved BBB permeability.

  8. Yap PK, Loo Xin GL, Tan YY, Chellian J, Gupta G, Liew YK, et al.
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2019 Sep;71(9):1339-1352.
    PMID: 31144296 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.13107
    OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral agents (ARVs) have been the most promising line of therapy in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. Some of these ARVs are used in the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to suppress the transmission of HIV. Prophylaxis is primarily used in uninfected people, before exposure, to effectively prevent HIV infection. Several studies have shown that ART PrEP prevents HIV acquisition from sexual, blood and mother-to-child transmissions. However, there are also several challenges and limitations to PrEP. This review focuses on the current antiretroviral therapies used in PrEP.

    KEY FINDINGS: Among ARVs, the most common drugs employed from the class of entry inhibitors are maraviroc (MVC), which is a CCR5 receptor antagonist. Other entry inhibitors like emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TFV) are also used. Rilpivirine (RPV) and dapivirine (DPV) are the most common drugs employed from the Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTIs) class, whereas, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is primarily used in the Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTIs) class. Cabotegravir (CAB) is an analog of dolutegravir, and it is an integrase inhibitor. Some of these drugs are also used in combination with other drugs from the same class.

    SUMMARY: Some of the most common pre-exposure prophylactic strategies employed currently are the use of inhibitors, namely entry inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, integrase and protease inhibitors. In addition, we have also discussed on the adverse effects caused by ART in PrEP, pharmacoeconomics factors and the use of antiretroviral prophylaxis in serodiscordant couples.

  9. Tiang N, Ahad MA, Murugaiyah V, Hassan Z
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2020 Nov;72(11):1629-1644.
    PMID: 32743849 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.13345
    OBJECTIVES: Xanthones isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana has been reported to exhibit neuroprotective effect.

    METHODS: In this study, the effect of xanthone-enriched fraction of Garcinia mangostana (XEFGM) and α-mangostin (α-MG) were investigated on cognitive functions of the chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) rats.

    KEY FINDINGS: HPLC analysis revealed that XEFGM contained 55.84% of α-MG. Acute oral administration of XEFGM (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) and α-MG (25 and 50 mg/kg) before locomotor activity and Morris water maze (MWM) tests showed no significant difference between the groups for locomotor activity.

    CONCLUSIONS: However, α-MG (50 mg/kg) and XEFGM (100 mg/kg) reversed the cognitive impairment induced by CCH in MWM test. α-MG (50 mg/kg) was further tested upon sub-acute 14-day treatment in CCH rats. Cognitive improvement was shown in MWM test but not in long-term potentiation (LTP). BDNF but not CaMKII was found to be down-regulated in CCH rats; however, both parameters were not affected by α-MG. In conclusion, α-MG ameliorated learning and memory deficits in both acute and sub-acute treatments in CCH rats by improving the spatial learning but not hippocampal LTP. Hence, α-MG may be a promising lead compound for CCH-associated neurodegenerative diseases, including vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Muthiah YD, Ong CE, Sulaiman SA, Tan SC, Ismail R
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2012 Dec;64(12):1761-9.
    PMID: 23146039 DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2012.01551.x
    To investigate the effect of Tualang honey on cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8) activity in vitro using an amodiaquine N-desethylase assay.
  11. Jantan I, Bukhari SN, Lajis NH, Abas F, Wai LK, Jasamai M
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2012 Mar;64(3):404-12.
    PMID: 22309272 DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2011.01423.x
    A series of 43 curcumin diarylpentanoid analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro.
  12. Wong TW
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2011 Dec;63(12):1497-512.
    PMID: 22060280 DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2011.01347.x
    Use of alginate graft copolymers in oral drug delivery reduces dosage form manufacture complexity with reference to mixing or coating processes. It is deemed to give constant or approximately steady weight ratio of alginate to covalently attached co-excipient in copolymers, thereby leading to controllable matrix processing and drug release. This review describes various grafting approaches and their outcome on oral drug release behaviour of alginate graft copolymeric matrices. It examines drug release modulation mechanism of alginate graft copolymers against that of co-excipients in non-grafted formulations.
  13. Tan SY, Kan E, Lim WY, Chay G, Law JH, Soo GW, et al.
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2011 Jul;63(7):918-25.
    PMID: 21635257 DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2011.01296.x
    The pharmacokinetic interaction between metronidazole, an antibiotic-antiparasitic drug used to treat anaerobic bacterial and protozoal infections, and imatinib, a CYP3A4, P-glycoprotein substrate kinase inhibitor anticancer drug, was evaluated.
  14. Ling SS, Yuen KH, Magosso E, Barker SA
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2009 Apr;61(4):445-9.
    PMID: 19298690 DOI: 10.1211/jpp/61.04.0005
    A liposome preparation that is amenable to receptor-mediated endocytosis has been developed to enhance the oral bioavailability of poorly absorbable peptidomimetic drugs by use of folic acid as the mediator of liposomal uptake.
  15. Manikam SD, Manikam ST, Stanslas J
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2009 Jan;61(1):69-78.
    PMID: 19126299 DOI: 10.1211/jpp/61.01.0010
    The growth inhibiting potential of andrographolide was evaluated in three acute promyelocytic leukaemia cell line models (HL-60, NB4 and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-resistant NB4-R2).
  16. Bagalkotkar G, Sagineedu SR, Saad MS, Stanslas J
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2006 Dec;58(12):1559-70.
    PMID: 17331318
    This review discusses the medicinal plant Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), its wide variety of phytochemicals and their pharmacological properties. The active phytochemicals, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, lignans, polyphenols, tannins, coumarins and saponins, have been identified from various parts of P. niruri. Extracts of this herb have been proven to have therapeutic effects in many clinical studies. Some of the most intriguing therapeutic properties include anti-hepatotoxic, anti-lithic, anti-hypertensive, anti-HIV and anti-hepatitis B. Therefore, studies relating to chemical characteristics and structural properties of the bioactive phytochemicals found in P. niruri are very useful for further research on this plant as many of the phytochemicals have shown preclinical therapeutic efficacies for a wide range of human diseases, including HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B.
  17. Wong JW, Yuen KH, Nagappan S, Shahul WS, Ho SS, Gan EK, et al.
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2003 Feb;55(2):193-8.
    PMID: 12631411
    We have evaluated the therapeutic equivalence of a beta-cyclodextrin-artemisinin complex at an artemisinin dose of 150 mg, with a commercial reference preparation, Artemisinin 250 at a recommended dose of 250 mg. One hundred uncomplicated falciparum malarial patients were randomly assigned to orally receive either beta-cyclodextrin-artemisinin complex (containing 150 mg artemisinin) twice daily for five days or the active comparator (containing 250 mg artemisinin) twice daily for five days. The patients were hospitalized for seven days and were required to attend follow up assessments on days 14, 21, 28 and 35. All patients in both treatment groups were cured of the infection and achieved therapeutic success. At day seven of treatment, all patient blood was clear of the parasites and the sublingual temperature of all patients was less than 37.5 degrees C. Moreover, the parasite clearance time in both treatment groups was similar, being approximately three days after initiation of treatment. Comparable plasma artemisinin concentrations were observed between patients in both treatment groups at 1.5 and 3.0 h, although slightly higher levels were obtained with patients in the beta-cyclodextrin-artemisinin complex-treated group. The beta-cyclodextrin-artemisinin complex at a dose of 150 mg artemisinin was therapeutically equivalent to 250 mg Artemisinin 250. Additionally, patients receiving beta-cyclodextrin-artemisinin complex showed less variability in their plasma artemisinin concentrations at 1.5 h post-dosing, which suggested a more consistent rate of drug absorption.
  18. Lee NY, Khoo WK, Adnan MA, Mahalingam TP, Fernandez AR, Jeevaratnam K
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2016 Jun 10.
    PMID: 27283048 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.12565
    Phyllanthus niruri is a traditional shrub of the genus Phyllanthaceae with long-standing Ayurvedic, Chinese and Malay ethnomedical records. Preliminary studies from cell and animal model have provided valuable scientific evidence for its use.
  19. Abubakar IB, Loh HS
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2016 Apr;68(4):423-32.
    PMID: 26887962 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.12523
    OBJECTIVES: Tabernaemontana is a genus from the plant family, Apocynaceae with vast medicinal application and widespread distribution in the tropics and subtropics of Africa, Americas and Asia. The objective of this study is to critically evaluate the ethnobotany, medicinal uses, pharmacology and phytochemistry of the species, Tabernaemontana corymbosa (Roxb. ex Wall.) and provide information on the potential future application of alkaloids isolated from different parts of the plant.

    KEY FINDINGS: T. corymbosa (Roxb. ex Wall.) parts are used as poultice, boiled juice, decoctions and infusions for treatment against ulceration, fracture, post-natal recovery, syphilis, fever, tumours and orchitis in Malaysia, China, Thailand and Bangladesh. Studies recorded alkaloids as the predominant phytochemicals in addition to phenols, saponins and sterols with vast bioactivities such as antimicrobial, analgesic, anthelmintic, vasorelaxation, antiviral and cytotoxicity.

    SUMMARY: An evaluation of scientific data and traditional medicine revealed the medicinal uses of different parts of T. corymbosa (Roxb. ex Wall.) across Asia. Future studies exploring the structure-bioactivity relationship of alkaloids such as jerantinine and vincamajicine among others could potentially improve the future application towards reversing anticancer drug resistance.

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