KEY FINDINGS: T. corymbosa (Roxb. ex Wall.) parts are used as poultice, boiled juice, decoctions and infusions for treatment against ulceration, fracture, post-natal recovery, syphilis, fever, tumours and orchitis in Malaysia, China, Thailand and Bangladesh. Studies recorded alkaloids as the predominant phytochemicals in addition to phenols, saponins and sterols with vast bioactivities such as antimicrobial, analgesic, anthelmintic, vasorelaxation, antiviral and cytotoxicity.
SUMMARY: An evaluation of scientific data and traditional medicine revealed the medicinal uses of different parts of T. corymbosa (Roxb. ex Wall.) across Asia. Future studies exploring the structure-bioactivity relationship of alkaloids such as jerantinine and vincamajicine among others could potentially improve the future application towards reversing anticancer drug resistance.
METHODS: Chemotaxis was evaluated using a modified Boyden chamber and phagocytosis was determined by flowcytometer. Respiratory burst was investigated by luminol-based chemiluminescence assay while MPO activity was determined by colorimetric assay.
KEY FINDINGS: Artocarpanone and artocarpin strongly inhibited all steps of phagocytosis. Artocarpanone and artocarpin showed strong chemotactic activity with IC50 values of 6.96 and 6.10 μm, respectively, which were lower than that of ibuprofen (7.37 μm). Artocarpanone was the most potent compound in inhibiting ROS production of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and monocytes with IC50 values comparable to those of aspirin. Artocarpin at 100 μg/ml inhibited phagocytosis of opsonized bacteria (28.3%). It also strongly inhibited MPO release with an IC50 value (23.3 μm) lower than that of indomethacin (69 μm). Structure-activity analysis indicated that the number of hydroxyl group, the presence of prenyl group and variation of C-2 and C-3 bonds might contribute towards their phagocytosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Artocarpanone and artocarpin were able to suppress strongly the phagocytosis of human phagocytes at different steps and have potential to be developed into potent anti-inflammatory agents.
KEY FINDINGS: Majority of antimicrobials have been discovered from prokaryotes and those which are of eukaryotic origin are derived mainly from fungal and plant sources. With this in mind, it is important to note that pests, such as cockroaches come across pathogenic bacteria routinely, yet thrive in polluted environments. Other animals, such as snakes thrive from feeding on germ-infested rodents. Logically, such species must have developed an approach to protect themselves from these pathogens, yet they have largely been ignored as a potential source of antimicrobials despite their remarkable capability to fight disease-causing organisms.
SUMMARY: Animals living in polluted environments are an underutilized source for potential antimicrobials, hence it is believed that several novel bioactive molecule(s) will be identified from these sources to counter increasingly resistant bacterial infections. Further research will be necessary in the development of novel antimicrobial(s) from these unusual sources which will have huge clinical impact worldwide.