METHOD: Cleistanthins A and B were isolated from the leaves of Cleistanthus collinus. Both the compounds were administered orally for 90 days at the concentration of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg, and the effects on blood pressure, biochemical parameters and histology were assessed. The dose for sub-chronic toxicology was determined by fixed dose method according to OECD guidelines.
RESULT: Sub-chronic toxicity study of cleistanthins A and B spanning over 90 days at the dose levels of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg (once daily, per oral) revealed a significant dose dependant toxic effect in lungs. The compounds did not have any effect on the growth of the rats. The food and water intake of the animals were also not affected by both cleistanthins A and B. Both the compounds did not have any significant effect on liver and renal markers. The histopathological analysis of both cleistanthins A and B showed dose dependent morphological changes in the brain, heart, lung, liver and kidney. When compared to cleistanthin A, cleistanthin B had more toxic effect in Wistar rats. Both the compounds have produced a dose dependent increase of corpora amylacea in brain and induced acute tubular necrosis in kidneys. In addition, cleistanthin B caused spotty necrosis of liver in higher doses.
CONCLUSION: The present study concludes that both cleistanthin A and cleistanthin B exert severe toxic effects on lungs, brain, liver, heart and kidneys. They do not cause any significant pathological change in the reproductive system; neither do they induce neurodegenerative changes in brain. When compared to cleistanthin A, cleistanthin B is more toxic in rats.