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  1. See KS, Bhatt A, Keng CL
    Rev. Biol. Trop., 2011 Jun;59(2):597-606.
    PMID: 21717852
    Melastoma malabathricum, belongs to the Melastomaceae family, is an important medicinal plant widely distributed from Madagascar to Australia, that is used in traditional remedies for the treatment of various ailments. Besides its medicinal properties, it has been identified as a potential source of anthocyanin production. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of sucrose and methyl jasmonate and feeding time on cell biomass yield and anthocyanin production in cell suspension culture of M. malabathricum. Addition of different concentrations of sucrose into the cell culture of M. malabathricum influenced cell biomass and pigment accumulation. The addition of methyl jasmonate was found to have no effect on cell biomass but the presence of higher amount (12.5-50 mg/L) had caused a reduction in anthocyanin production and accumulation. MS medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose and 3.5 mg/L of MeJA added on cero day and 3rd day produced high fresh cell mass at the end of nine days of culture but did not support the production of anthocyanins. However, cells cultured in the medium supplemented with 45 g/L sucrose without MeJA showed the highest pigment content (0.69 +/- 0.22 CV/g-FCM). The cells cultured in MS medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose with 3.5 mg/L MeJA added on the 3rd and 6th day of culture, showed the lowest pigment content (0.37-0.40 CV/g-FCM). This study indicated that MeJA was not necessary but sucrose was needed for the enhancement of cell growth and anthocyanin production in M. malabathricum cell cultures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetates/pharmacology*
  2. Saavedra GM, Figueroa NE, Poblete LA, Cherian S, Figueroa CR
    Food Chem, 2016 Jan 1;190:448-53.
    PMID: 26212995 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.05.107
    Fragaria chiloensis fruit has a short postharvest life mainly due to its rapid softening. In order to improve its postharvest life, preharvest applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and chitosan were evaluated during postharvest storage at room temperature. The quality and chemical parameters, and protection against decay were evaluated at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h of storage from fruits of two subsequent picks (termed as first harvest and second harvest). In general, fruits treated with MeJA and chitosan maintained higher levels of fruit firmness, anthocyanin, and showed significant delays in decay incidence compared to control fruit. MeJA-treated fruits exhibited a greater lignin content and SSC/TA ratio, and delayed decay incidences. Instead, chitosan-treated fruits presented higher antioxidant capacity and total phenol content. In short, both the elicitors were able to increase the shelf life of fruits as evidenced by the increased levels of lignin and anthocyanin, especially of the second harvest.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetates/pharmacology*
  3. Kirubakari B, Chen Y, Sasidharan S
    PMID: 31113347 DOI: 10.2174/1871523018666190522112902
    BACKGROUND: Polyalthia longifolia is a popular medicinal plant and has been widely used as a traditional remedy for centuries in curing of various ailments. The purpose of this study was conducted to determine the in situ antimicrobial synergistic effects between Polyalthia longifolia leaf ethyl acetate fraction (PLEAF) and ampicillin against MRSA local isolate by using modern microscopy technique.

    METHODS: Hence, the evaluation of the synergistic activity of PLEAF and ampicillin against MRSA local isolate was conducted with scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

    RESULTS: The combinational effect of PLEAF fraction and ampicillin exhibited significant antibacterial activity against MRSA. Bacterial cells observations showed invagination, impaired cell division, extensive wrinkles, cell shrinkage, the appearance of a rougher cell with fibrous matrix and clustered cells which confirmed the synergistic effect of PLEAF and ampicillin against MRSA local isolate by SEM.

    CONCLUSION: Conclusively, the in situ SEM observation proved the synergistic antimicrobial activity between PLEAF fraction and ampicillin to destroy the MRSA resistance bacteria which is an important aspect of PLEAF fraction to be used in the future combinational therapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Acetates/pharmacology
  4. Wong EYL, Loh GOK, Tan YTF, Peh KK
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 2021 Feb;47(2):197-206.
    PMID: 33300818 DOI: 10.1080/03639045.2020.1862177
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to develop a simple, highthroughput and sensitive LC-MS/MS method and apply to a bioequivalence study of montelukast, a light sensitive drug.

    METHOD: The effects of organic modifiers in mobile phase, protein precipitation agent to plasma sample ratio, and light on montelukast stability in unprocessed and processed human plasma, were evaluated. Validation was conducted in accordance with European Medicines Agency Guideline on bioanalytical method validation.

    RESULTS: No interference peak was observed when acetonitrile was used as an organic modifier. Acetonitrile to plasma ratio of 4:1 produced clean plasma sample. Approximately 3 % of cis isomer was detected in unprocessed plasma samples while 21 % of cis isomer was detected in processed plasma samples after exposing to fluorescent light for 24h. The standard calibration curve was linear over 3.00-1200.00 ng/mL. All method validation parameters were within the acceptance criteria.

    CONCLUSION: The validated method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of two montelukast formulations involving 24 healthy Malaysian volunteers. The light stability of a light sensitive drug in unprocessed and processed human plasma samples should be studied prior to pharmacokinetic/bioequivalence studies. Measures could then be taken to protect the analyte in human plasma from light degradation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Acetates/pharmacology*
  5. Mohammed Shafit H, Williams SK
    Poult Sci, 2010 Mar;89(3):594-602.
    PMID: 20181879 DOI: 10.3382/ps.2009-00412
    Research was conducted to manufacture and evaluate a restructured turkey breast product using the Fibrimex cold-set binding system, sodium diacetate (NaD), and sodium lactate (NaL) and to ascertain effects of the treatments on proximate composition, pH, psychrotrophic organisms, water activity, onset of rancidity (TBA), thaw loss, cooking yields, and objective color, and sensory characteristics. Whole turkey breasts were cut into 5-cm-thick strips; treated with either water only (control), 1.5% NaL, 2.0% NaL, 0.1% NaD, 1.5% NaL + 0.1% NaD, or 2.0% NaL + 0.1% NaD; blended with Fibrimex ingredients; stuffed into casings; and stored at -30 degrees C for 0, 1, 2, and 3 mo. After each storage period, frozen chubs were tempered at 4 degrees C, sliced into 1-cm-thick steaks, packaged in retail trays, stored at 0 degrees C to simulate retail storage, and analyzed after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 d. Sodium diacetate used alone or in combination with NaL reduced (P < 0.05) growth of psychrotrophic organisms and had no adverse effects on water activity, pH, cooking yield, fat, moisture, protein, objective color, onset of rancidity, and sensory characteristics (juiciness, turkey flavor intensity, and tenderness). Panelists reported slight off-flavor in all steaks treated with NaL. Treating steaks with NaL alone or in combination with NaD resulted in increased (P < 0.05) ash content. Sodium lactate also functioned to minimize thaw loss in the frozen restructured turkey product.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetates/pharmacology*
  6. Ee SF, Oh JM, Mohd Noor N, Kwon TR, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Ismail I, et al.
    Mol Biol Rep, 2013 Mar;40(3):2231-41.
    PMID: 23187733 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-012-2286-4
    The importance of plant secondary metabolites for both mankind and the plant itself has long been established. However, despite extensive research on plant secondary metabolites, plant secondary metabolism and its regulation still remained poorly characterized. In this present study, cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) transcript profiling was applied to generate the expression profiles of Polygonum minus in response to salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitations. This study reveals two different sets of genes induced by SA and MeJA, respectively where stress-related genes were proved to lead to the expression of genes involved in plant secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways. A total of 98 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were up-regulated, including 46 from SA-treated and 52 from MeJA-treated samples. The cDNA-AFLP transcripts generated using 64 different Mse1/Taq1 primer combinations showed that treatments with SA and MeJA induced genes mostly involved in scavenging reactive oxygen species, including zeaxanthin epoxidase, cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase 1 and peroxidase. Of these stress-related genes, 15 % of other annotated TDFs are involved mainly in secondary metabolic processes where among these, two genes encoding (+)-delta cadinene synthase and cinnamoyl-CoA reductase were highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetates/pharmacology*
  7. Rahnamaie-Tajadod R, Goh HH, Mohd Noor N
    J. Plant Physiol., 2019 Sep;240:152994.
    PMID: 31226543 DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2019.152994
    Polygonum minus Huds. is a medicinal aromatic plant rich in terpenes, aldehydes, and phenolic compounds. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a plant signaling molecule commonly applied to elicit stress responses to produce plant secondary metabolites. In this study, the effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in P. minus leaves were investigated by using a metabolomic approach. Time-course changes in the leaf composition of VOCs on days 1, 3, and 5 after MeJA treatment were analyzed through solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The VOCs found in MeJA-elicited leaves were similar to those found in mock-treated leaves but varied in quantity at different time points. We focused our analysis on the content and composition of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and green leaf volatiles (GLVs) within the leaf samples. Our results suggest that MeJA enhances the activity of biosynthetic pathways for aldehydes and terpenes in P. minus. Hence, the production of aromatic compounds in this medicinal herb can be increased by MeJA elicitation. Furthermore, the relationship between MeJA elicitation and terpene biosynthesis in P. minus was shown through SPME-GC-MS analysis of VOCs combined with transcriptomic analysis of MeJA-elicited P. minus leaves from our previous study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetates/pharmacology*
  8. Jayasingh Chellammal HS, Veerachamy A, Ramachandran D, Gummadi SB, Manan MM, Yellu NR
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2019 Jan;109:1454-1461.
    PMID: 30551397 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.10.189
    The progressive accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide is neurotoxic and leads to Alzheimer's type dementia. Accumulation of Aβ has been associated with dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we investigated the effect of 1`δ-1`-acetoxyeugenol acetate (DAEA), isolated from Alpinia galanga (L.), on Aβ(25-35) induced neurodegeneration in mice. Mice were treated with three different doses of DAEA (12.5 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) for 28 days. Aβ(25-35) was injected by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection on the 15th day of 28 days. Open field, water maze and step-down inhibitory tests were performed on the 27th day to determine the habituation memory, spatial learning, and short- and long-term memory, respectively. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Corticosterone, biogenic amines (serotonin and dopamine), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and antioxidant parameters such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and vitamin C were evaluated in brain homogenates after behavioural tests to ascertain the cognitive improvement through neuro-immune-endocrine modulation. The DAEA treatment with 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg resulted in significant (p < 0.001) improvement of habituation memory and step-down inhibitory avoidance task. In spatial learning, the cognitive improvement was significantly improved (p < 0.001) by reduction in escape latency. In the biochemical study, the significant (p < 0.001) reduction of AChE indicates the preeminent neuroprotection. Corticosterone and TNF-α were significantly (p < 0.01) reduced and biogenic amines were increased with antioxidant markers, which signify the potential influence of DAEA on neuroprotection. Our investigation revealed that the drug DAEA attenuates stress mediated through the HPA axis and regulates the neuroendocrine and neuroimmune function to improve the cognition. DAEA could be a potential lead candidate for the treatment of neurodegeneration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetates/pharmacology*
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