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  1. Kimura Y, Yoshiie T, Kit WK, Maeda M, Kimura M, Tan SH
    Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 2003 Oct;67(10):2232-9.
    PMID: 14586113
    The pollen of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a strong allergen and causes severe pollinosis in Malaysia and Singapore. In the previous study (Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 64, 820-827 (2002)), from the oil palm pollens, we purified an antigenic glycoprotein (Ela g Bd 31 K), which is recognized by IgE from palm pollinosis patients. In this report, we describe the structural analysis of sugar chains linked to palm pollen glycoproteins to confirm the ubiquitous occurrence of antigenic N-glycans in the allergenic pollen. N-Glycans liberated from the pollen glycoprotein mixture by hydrazinolysis were labeled with 2-aminopyridine followed by purification with a combination of size-fractionation HPLC and reversed-phase HPLC. The structures of the PA-sugar chains were analyzed by a combination of two-dimensional sugar chain mapping, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and tandem MS analysis, as well as exoglycosidase digestions. The antigenic N-glycan bearing alpha1-3 fucose and/or beta1-2 xylose residues accounts for 36.9% of total N-glycans: GlcNAc2Man3Xyl1Fuc1GlcNAc2 (24.6%), GlcNAc2Man3Xyl1GlcNAc2 (4.4%), Man3Xyl1Fuc1-GlcNAc2 (1.1%), GlcNAc1Man3Xyl1Fuc1GlcNAc2 (5.6%), and GlcNAc1Man3Xyl1GlcNAc2 (1.2%). The remaining 63.1% of the total N-glycans belong to the high-mannose type structure: Man9GlcNAc2 (5.8%), Man8GlcNAc2 (32.1%), Man7GlcNAc2 (19.9%), Man6GlcNAc2 (5.3%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/chemistry
  2. Rosmilah M, Shahnaz M, Masita A, Noormalin A, Jamaludin M
    Trop Biomed, 2005 Dec;22(2):171-7.
    PMID: 16883284 MyJurnal
    Fish has been recognized as a source of potent allergens both in food and occupational allergy. Lutjanus argentimaculatus (red snapper) and Lutjanus johnii (golden snapper) locally known as merah and jenahak, respectively, are among the most commonly consumed fish in Malaysia. The objective of this study is to identify the IgE-binding proteins and major allergens of these species of fishes. Extracts of both fish species were prepared and fractionated by sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). IgE binding patterns were then demonstrated by immunoblotting using sera from patients allergic to the fishes. The raw extracts of both fish produced 26 protein bands. Both species of fishes had similar protein profiles. In cooked extracts, several protein bands in the range of about 40 to 90 kD which were present in the uncooked extracts appeared to be denatured and formed high molecular weight complexes. The immunoblotting of golden snapper and red snapper revealed 16 and 15 various IgE-binding bands, in the range of 151 to 12-11 kD, respectively. A 51 kD protein was identified as a major allergen for both fishes. A 46 kD protein was also demonstrated as a major allergen in golden snapper and a 42 kD protein was also seen as a major allergen in red snapper. A heat-resistant protein of ~12 kD which is equivalent in size with fish parvalbumin was demonstrated only as minor allergen for both fishes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/chemistry*
  3. Kimura Y, Maeda M, Kimupa M, Lai OM, Tan SH, Hon SM, et al.
    Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 2002 Apr;66(4):820-7.
    PMID: 12036055
    A basic glycoprotein, which was recognized by IgE from oil palm pollinosis patients, has been purified from oil palm pollen (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), which is a strong allergen and causes severe pollinosis in Malaysia and Singapore. Soluble proteins were extracted from defatted palm pollen with both Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.8) and Na-acetate buffer (pH 4.0). The allergenic glycoprotein was purified from the total extract to homogeneity with 0.4% yield by a combination of DEAE- and CM-cellulose, SP-HPLC, and gel filtration. The purified oil palm pollen glycoprotein with molecular mass of 31 kDa was recognized by the beta1-2 xylose specific antibody, suggesting this basic glycoprotein bears plant complex type N-glycan(s). The palm pollen basic glycoprotein, designated Ela g Bd 31 K, was recognized by IgE of palm pollinosis patients, suggesting Ela g Bd 31 K should be one of the palm pollen allergens. The preliminary structural analysis of N-glycans linked to glycoproteins of palm pollens showed that the antigenic N-glycans having alpha1-3 fucose and alpha1-2 xylose residues (GlcNAc(2 to approximately 0)Man3Xyl1Fuc(1 to approximately 0)GlcNAc2) actually occur on the palm pollen glycoproteins, in addition to the high-mannose type structures (Man(9 to approximately 5)GlcNAc2).
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/chemistry*
  4. Yeang HY, Ward MA, Zamri AS, Dennis MS, Light DR
    Allergy, 1998 May;53(5):513-9.
    PMID: 9636811
    Separate studies have reported spina bifida patients to be especially allergic to proteins of 27 and 23 kDa found in the serum of centrifuged natural rubber latex. An insoluble latex protein located on the surface of small rubber particles, Hev b 3, has similarly been found to be allergenic to spina bifida patients. In this study, internal amino acid sequences of Hev b 3 showed similarity to the published sequences for the 27- and 23-kDa latex proteins. The latter allergens are hence identified as Hev b 3. Determination of the molecular weight of Hev b 3 revealed various species of 22-23 kDa. The consistent gaps of about 266 Da observed between various forms of the intact protein suggest that the protein undergoes post-translational modification. To determine whether Hev b 3 also occurs in a soluble form in the latex serum, its presence in molecular-filtered serum was checked by ELISA and Western blot. The results showed Hev b 3 to be largely absent in the C-serum from fresh latex. The protein is therefore insoluble in its native state. However, a small amount of the solubilized protein was detected in ammonia-stabilized latex (commonly used in the manufacture of latex products).
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/chemistry
  5. Reginald K, Tan CL, Chen S, Yuen L, Goh SY, Chew FT
    Sci Rep, 2018 08 06;8(1):11743.
    PMID: 30082894 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-30224-z
    We previously identified an expressed sequence tag clone, Der f 22, showing 41% amino acid identity to published Der f 2, and show that both genes are possible paralogues. The objective of this study was to characterize the genomic, proteomic and immunological functions Der f 22 and Der f 2. The full-length sequence of Der f 2 and Der f 22 coded for mature proteins of 129 and 135 amino acids respectively, both containing 6 cysteine residues. Phylogenetic analysis of known group 2 allergens and their homologues from our expressed sequence tag library showed that Der f 22 is a paralogue of Der f 2. Both Der f 2 and Der f 22 were single gene products with one intron. Both allergens showed specific IgE-binding to over 40% of the atopic patients, with limited of cross-reactivity. Both allergens were detected at the gut region of D. farinae by immunostaining. Der f 22 is an important allergen with significant IgE reactivity among the atopic population, and should be considered in the diagnostic panel and evaluated as future hypoallergen vaccine therapeutic target.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/chemistry
  6. Misnan R, Murad S, Yadzir ZH, Abdullah N
    Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol., 2012 Dec;30(4):285-93.
    PMID: 23393908
    Tropomyosin and arginine kinase have been identified as the major allergens in multiple species of crab. Charybdis feriatus is an important commercial crab in this country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/chemistry
  7. Chong KT, Wong SF, Mak JW, Loh LC, Ho TM
    Trop Biomed, 2015 Sep;32(3):524-39.
    PMID: 26695214 MyJurnal
    Allergens of Dermatophagoides and Blomia species are well-characterized but not for other species. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of allergic sensitization to house dust (HDM) and storage mites (SM). One hundred adult subjects (aged ≥ 18) were recruited. The mite specific IgE of all allergic subjects were higher compared with healthy subjetcs despite being not statistically significant except for D. farinae and G. malaysiensis. The mean serum IgE levels against HDM and SM for allergic subjects were significantly higher compared with those in healthy subjects. They were mainly sensitized to Dermatophagoides farinae (35%) and Glycycometus malaysiensis (37%). Immunoblots revealed not all allergic subjects showed positive immuno-reactivity against the mites tested. Single or multiple bands were observed for different species. The subjects were commonly sensitized to Group 2 (9-12 kDa), 10 (38 kDa) and 18 (40-48 kDa) allergens. Twenty-one out of 60 allergic subjects were sensitized to either one or more species. The majority of them (71%) were sensitized to single species. The allergic subjects were mainly sensitized to D. pteronyssinus, followed by Tyrophagus putrecentiae and Aleuroglyphus ovatus. Seven were solely sensitized to HDM while 10 were solely sensitized to SM. Four subjects were sensitized to both. Pre-adsorption study revealed no cross-reactivity. There was difference between the prevalence and reactivity to allergens of HDM and SM in these subjects. Both ELISA and immunoblot did not correlate well but can complement each other in improving the detection of mite allergens to the species level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/chemistry
  8. Yeang HY, Cheong KF, Sunderasan E, Hamzah S, Chew NP, Hamid S, et al.
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 1996 Sep;98(3):628-39.
    PMID: 8828541 DOI: 10.1016/s0091-6749(96)70097-0
    Two major water-insoluble proteins are located on the surface of rubber particles in Hevea brasiliensis latex. A 14.6 kd protein (Hev b 1), found mainly on large rubber particles (> 350 mm in diameter), and a 24 kd protein (Hev b 3), found mainly on small rubber particles (average diameter, 70 nm), are recognized by IgE from patients with spina bifida and latex allergy. Although Hev b 1 (also called the rubber elongation factor [REF]) has previously been reported as a major latex allergen, this conclusion has been disputed on the basis of results from other studies. The allergenicity of Hev b 1 is verified in this study by testing the recombinant protein generated from its gene. Because allergenicity is confined to patients with spina bifida and not observed in adults sensitive to latex, it is not a major latex allergen. The identification of Hev b 3 as another allergen originating from rubber particles is confirmed by immunogold labeling and electron microscopy. Observations with the monoclonal antibody USM/RC2 developed against Hev b 3 show that the protein has a tendency to fragment into several polypeptides of lower molecular weight (from 24 kd to about 5 kd) when stored at -20 degrees C. There is also indication of protein aggregation from the appearance of proteins with molecular weights greater than 24 kd. Fragmentation of Hev b 3 is induced immediately on he addition of latex B-serum, which is normally compartmentalized in the lutoids in fresh latex. In the preparation of ammoniated latex (used for the manufacture of latex products), the lutoids are ruptured, and the released B-serum reacts with Hev b 3 on the rubber particles to give rise to an array of low molecular weight polypeptides that are allergenic to patients with spina bifida.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/chemistry
  9. Hempolchom C, Sookrung N, Srisuka W, Reamtong O, Sakolvaree Y, Chaicumpa W, et al.
    Parasitol. Res., 2019 Aug;118(8):2353-2359.
    PMID: 31263951 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-019-06383-x
    Simulium dermatitis is an IgE-mediated skin reaction in animals and humans caused by the bites of black flies. Although Simulium nigrogilvum has been incriminated as the main human-biting black fly species in Thailand, information on its salivary allergens is lacking. Salivary gland extract of S. nigrogilvum females was subjected to sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the separated components were applied onto nitrocellulose membranes for immunoblotting, which was performed by probing the protein blots with sera from 17 individuals who were allergic to the bites of S. nigrogilvum. IgE-reactive protein bands were characterized further by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Nine protein bands (79, 42, 32, 25, 24, 22, 15, 13, and 11 kDa) were recognized in the serum of the subjects. Four of the nine protein bands (32, 24, 15, and 11 kDa) showed IgE reactivity in all (100%) of the tested sera, and they were identified as salivary secreted antigen 5-related protein, salivary serine protease, erythema protein, and hypothetical secreted protein, respectively. Three other proteins, salivary serine protease (25 kDa), salivary D7 secreted protein (22 kDa), and hypothetical protein (13 kDa), reacted with > 50% of the sera. The relevance of the identified protein bands as allergens needs to be confirmed by using pure recombinant proteins, either in the in vivo skin prick test or in vitro detection of the specific IgE in the serum samples of allergic subjects. This will be useful for the rational design of component-resolved diagnosis and allergen immunotherapy for the allergy mediated by the bites of black flies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/chemistry
  10. Zailatul HM, Rosmilah M, Faizal B, Noormalin A, Shahnaz M
    Trop Biomed, 2015 Jun;32(2):323-34.
    PMID: 26691261 MyJurnal
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different cooking methods on the allergenicity of cockle and to identify proteins most frequently bound by IgE antibodies using a proteomics approach. Raw, boiled, fried and roasted extracts of the cockle were prepared. The protein profiles of the extracts were obtained by separation using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). IgE-immunoblotting was then performed with the use of individual sera from patients with cockle allergy and the major IgE-binding proteins were analyzed by mass-spectrometry. SDS-PAGE of raw extract showed 13 protein bands. Smaller numbers of protein bands were detected in the boiled, fried and roasted extracts. The 2-DE gel profile of the raw extract further separated the protein bands to ~50 protein spots with molecular masses between 13 to 180 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) values ranging from 3 to 10. Immunoblotting of raw extract exhibited 11 IgE-binding proteins with two proteins of 36 and 40 kDa as the major IgE-binding proteins, while the boiled extract revealed 3 IgE-binding proteins. Fried and roasted extracts only showed a single IgE-binding protein at 36 kDa. 2-DE immunoblotting of raw extract demonstrated 5 to 20 IgE reactive spots. Mass spectrometry analysis led to identification of 2 important allergens, tropomyosin (36 kDa) and arginine kinase (40 kDa). Heated extracts showed a reduction in the number of IgE-reactive bands compared with raw extract, which suggest that thermal treatment can be used as a tool in attempting to reduce cockle allergenicity. The degree of allergenicity of cockle was demonstrated in the order raw > boiled > fried ≈ roasted. Two important allergens reacting with more than 50% of patients' sera identified using mass spectrometric approaches were tropomyosin and arginine kinase. Thus, allergens found in this study would help in component based diagnosis, management of cockle allergic patients and to the standardisation of allergenic test products as tools in molecular allergology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/chemistry
  11. Goh DL, Chua KY, Chew FT, Liang RC, Seow TK, Ou KL, et al.
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2001 Jun;107(6):1082-7.
    PMID: 11398089
    BACKGROUND: We have previously described anaphylaxis induced by edible bird's nest (BN) and demonstrated that this condition is IgE mediated.

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at describing the immunochemical properties of the BN allergens. Comparative studies between 3 commercially available sources (according to the country of origin) of BN were also made.

    METHODS: Crude extracts of commercially available processed BN from Sarawak (Malaysia), Thailand, and Indonesia and fresh unprocessed BN from the caves of Sarawak were obtained by means of aqueous extraction. Specific IgE toward these sources were determined by using fluorescence allergosorbent tests (FASTs). Cross-reactivity studies between the 3 sources of commercially available processed BN were carried out by means of FAST inhibition. Immunochemical characterization by means of IgE immunoblot, periodate treatment, and heat stability studies were carried out on fresh unprocessed BN from Sarawak.

    RESULTS: Serum from allergic patients showed differences in IgE binding to the 3 sources of commercially available BN, with the highest levels of specific IgE recorded with the Sarawak source (P

    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/chemistry*
  12. Chan SL, Ong TC, Gao YF, Tiong YS, Wang de Y, Chew FT, et al.
    J. Immunol., 2008 Aug 15;181(4):2586-96.
    PMID: 18684949
    A high incidence of sensitization to Blomia tropicalis, the predominant house dust mite species in tropical regions, is strongly associated with allergic diseases in Singapore, Malaysia, and Brazil. IgE binding to the group 5 allergen, Blo t 5, is found to be the most prevalent among all B. tropicalis allergens. The NMR structure of Blo t 5 determined represents a novel helical bundle structure consisting of three antiparallel alpha-helices. Based on the structure and sequence alignment with other known group 5 dust mite allergens, surface-exposed charged residues have been identified for site-directed mutagenesis and IgE binding assays. Four charged residues, Glu76, Asp81, Glu86, and Glu91 at around the turn region connecting helices alpha2 and alpha3 have been identified to be involved in the IgE binding. Using overlapping peptides, we have confirmed that these charged residues are located on a major putative linear IgE epitope of Blo t 5 from residues 76-91 comprising the sequence ELKRTDLNILERFNYE. Triple and quadruple mutants have been generated and found to exhibit significantly lower IgE binding and reduced responses in skin prick tests. The mutants induced similar PBMC proliferation as the wild-type protein but with reduced Th2:Th1 cytokines ratio. Mass screening on a quadruple mutant showed a 40% reduction in IgE binding in 35 of 42 sera of atopic individuals. Findings in this study further stressed the importance of surface-charged residues on IgE binding and have implications in the cross-reactivity and use of Blo t 5 mutants as a hypoallergen for immunotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/chemistry*
  13. Arif SA, Hamilton RG, Yusof F, Chew NP, Loke YH, Nimkar S, et al.
    J. Biol. Chem., 2004 Jun 4;279(23):23933-41.
    PMID: 15024009
    Recurring reports of a highly allergenic 42-46-kDa protein in Hevea brasiliensis latex appeared to have been resolved with the discovery of a 43-kDa allergenic latex protein that was a homologue to patatin. However, the low to moderate prevalence of sensitization to the protein, designated Hev b 7, among latex-allergic patients could not adequately explain the frequent observations of the 42-46-kDa allergen. This led to the hypothesis that another, more allergenic protein of a similar molecular mass existed in Hevea latex. We report the isolation and purification of a 42.98-kDa latex glycoprotein showing homology to the early nodule-specific protein (ENSP) of the legumes Medicago sativa, Medicago truncatula, and Glycine max. The protein is allergenic, being recognized by immunoglobulin E (IgE) in sera from latex-allergic patients. The IgE epitope resides on the carbohydrate moiety of the protein, and the presence of a similar carbohydrate component on potato tuber patatin enables the latter to inhibit IgE binding to the ENSP homologue. The cDNA encoding the ENSP homologue was isolated by reverse transcription-PCR and cloned. The protein predicted from the cDNA sequence has 391 amino acids, the first 26 of which constitute a putative signal peptide. The deduced molecular mass of the mature protein is 40.40 kDa, while its isoelectric point is estimated at 5.0. The discrepancy between the predicted and observed molecular mass might be due to glycosylation, for which three N-sites on the protein are predicted. The purified protein showed lipase and esterase activities and may be involved in plant defense.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allergens/chemistry*
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