Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 27 in total

  1. Ellis L, Hoskin A, Hartley R, Walsh A, Widmayer A, Ratnasingam M
    Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol, 2015 Dec;59(13):1429-58.
    PMID: 25063685 DOI: 10.1177/0306624X14543263
    General theory attributes criminal behavior primarily to low self-control, whereas evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory envisions criminality as being a crude form of status-striving promoted by high brain exposure to androgens. General theory predicts that self-control will be negatively correlated with risk-taking, while ENA theory implies that these two variables should actually be positively correlated. According to ENA theory, traits such as pain tolerance and muscularity will be positively associated with risk-taking and criminality while general theory makes no predictions concerning these relationships. Data from Malaysia and the United States are used to test 10 hypotheses derived from one or both of these theories. As predicted by both theories, risk-taking was positively correlated with criminality in both countries. However, contrary to general theory and consistent with ENA theory, the correlation between self-control and risk-taking was positive in both countries. General theory's prediction of an inverse correlation between low self-control and criminality was largely supported by the U.S. data but only weakly supported by the Malaysian data. ENA theory's predictions of positive correlations between pain tolerance, muscularity, and offending were largely confirmed. For the 10 hypotheses tested, ENA theory surpassed general theory in predictive scope and accuracy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Androgens/physiology*
  2. Nadaraja RND, Sthaneshwar P, Razali N
    Malays J Pathol, 2018 Apr;40(1):33-39.
    PMID: 29704382 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Hyperandrogenism remains as one of the key features in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and can be assessed clinically or determined by biochemical assays. Hirsutism is the most common clinical manifestation of hyperandrogenism. The clinical assessment is subjected to wide variability due to poor interobserver agreement and multiple population factors such as ethnic variation, cosmetic procedures and genetic trait. The difficulty in resolving the androgen excess biochemically is due to a lack of consensus as to which serum androgen should be measured for the diagnosis of PCOS. The aim of the study was to compare and establish the diagnostic cut off value for different androgen biomarker for the diagnosis of PCOS.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 312 patients classified to PCOS (n = 164) and non PCOS (n = 148) cohorts were selected from the Laboratory Information System (LIS) based on serum total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) from the period of 1st April 2015 to 31st March 2016. PCOS was diagnosed based on Rotterdam criteria. Clinical hyperandrogenism and ultrasound polycystic ovarian morphology were obtained from the clinical records. The other relevant biochemical results such as serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and albumin were also obtained from LIS. Free androgen index (FAI), calculated free testosterone (cFT) and calculated bioavailable testosterone (cBT) were calculated for these patients. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed for serum TT, SHBG, FAI, cFT, cBT and LH: FSH ratio to determine the best marker to diagnose PCOS.

    RESULTS: All the androgen parameters (except SHBG) were significantly higher in PCOS patients than in control (p<0.0001). The highest area under curve (AUC) curve was found for cBT followed by cFT and FAI. TT and LH: FSH ratio recorded a lower AUC and the lowest AUC was seen for SHBG. cBT at a cut off value of 0.86 nmol/L had the highest specificity, 83% and positive likelihood ratio (LR) at 3.79. This is followed by FAI at a cut off value of 7.1% with specificity at 82% and cFT at a cut off value of 0.8 pmol/L with specificity at 80%. All three calculated androgen indices (FAI, cFT and cBT) showed good correlation with each other. Furthermore, cFT, FAI and calculated BT were shown to be more specific with higher positive likelihood ratio than measured androgen markers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Based on our study, the calculated testosterone indices such as FAI, cBT and cFT are useful markers to distinguish PCOS from non-PCOS. Owing to ease of calculation, FAI can be incorporated in LIS and can be reported with TT and SHBG. This will be helpful for clinician to diagnose hyperandrogenism in PCOS.

    Matched MeSH terms: Androgens/blood*
  3. Chik Z, Johnston A, Tucker AT, Kirby K, Alam CA
    Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2009 Apr;47(4):262-8.
    PMID: 19356392
    Circulating concentrations of endogenous compounds such as testosterone, complicate the analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters when these compounds are administered exogenously. This study examines the influence of three correction methods of accounting for endogenous concentrations on the determination of bioequivalence between two testosterone formulations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Androgens/administration & dosage; Androgens/pharmacokinetics*
  4. Prall SP, Ambu L, Nathan S, Alsisto S, Ramirez D, Muehlenbein MP
    Am. J. Primatol., 2015 Jun;77(6):642-50.
    PMID: 25728599 DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22387
    Despite the implications for the development of life-history traits, endocrine-immune trade-offs in apes are not well studied. This is due, in part, to difficulty in sampling wild primates, and lack of methods available for immune measures using samples collected noninvasively. Evidence for androgen-mediated immune trade-offs in orangutans is virtually absent, and very little is known regarding their pattern of adrenal development and production of adrenal androgens. To remedy both of these deficiencies, sera were collected from orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) (N = 38) at the Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre, Sabah, Malaysia, during routine health screenings. Testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) were assayed, along with two measures of functional innate immunity. DHEA-S concentrations, but not DHEA, increased with age in this sample of 1-18 year old animals. DHEA concentrations were higher in animals with higher levels of serum bacteria killing ability, while DHEA-S and testosterone concentrations were higher in animals with reduced complement protein activity. Patterns of DHEA-S concentration in this sample are consistent with patterns of adrenarche observed in other apes. Results from this study suggest that in addition to testosterone, DHEA and DHEA-S may have potent effects on immunological activity in this species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Androgens/blood*; Androgens/immunology
  5. Jayusman PA, Mohamed IN, Alias E, Mohamed N, Shuid AN
    Nutrients, 2018 Jun 21;10(7).
    PMID: 29933617 DOI: 10.3390/nu10070799
    Male osteoporosis is associated with higher rates of disability and mortality. Hence the search for suitable intervention and treatment to prevent the degeneration of skeletal health in men is necessary. Eurycoma longifolia (EL), a traditional plant with aphrodisiac potential may be used to treat and prevent male osteoporosis. The skeletal protective effect of quassinoid-rich EL extract, which has a high content of eurycomanone, has not been studied. This study aimed to determine whether EL could prevent skeletal deteriorations in gonadal hormone-deficient male rats. Ninety-six male Sprague⁻Dawley rats were randomly assigned to baseline, sham-operated (Sham), orchidectomised or chemically castrated groups. Chemical castration was achieved via subcutaneous injection of degarelix at 2 mg/kg. The orchidectomised and degarelix-castrated rats were then divided into negative control groups (ORX, DGX), testosterone-treated groups (intramuscular injection at 7 mg/kg weekly) (ORX + TES, DGX + TES), and EL-supplemented groups receiving daily oral gavages at doses of 25 mg/kg (ORX + EL25, DGX + EL25), 50 mg/kg (ORX + EL50, DGX + EL50), and 100 mg/kg (ORX + EL100, DGX + EL100). Following 10 weeks of treatment, the rats were euthanized and their blood and femora were collected. Bone biochemical markers, serum testosterone, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa β-ligand (RANKL) levels and histomorphometric indices were evaluated. Quassinoid-rich EL supplementation was found to reduce degenerative changes of trabecular structure by improving bone volume, trabecular number, and separation. A reduction in the percentage of osteoclast and increase in percentage of osteoblast on bone surface were also seen with EL supplementation. Dynamic histomorphometric analysis showed that the single-labeled surface was significantly decreased while the double-labeled surface was significantly increased with EL supplementations. There was a marginal but significant increase in serum testosterone levels in the ORX + EL25, DGX + EL50, and DGX + EL100 groups compared to their negative control groups. Quassinoid-rich EL extract was effective in reducing skeletal deteriorations in the androgen-deficient osteoporosis rat model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Androgens/blood; Androgens/deficiency
  6. Tajul Ariff AS, Soelaiman IN, Pramanik J, Shuid AN
    PMID: 22966245 DOI: 10.1155/2012/818072
    Testosterone replacement is the choice of treatment in androgen-deficient osteoporosis. However, long-term use of testosterone is potentially carcinogenic. Eurycoma longifolia (EL) has been reported to enhance testosterone level and prevent bone calcium loss but there is a paucity of research regarding its effect on the bone structural parameters. This study was conducted to explore the bone structural changes following EL treatment in normal and androgen-deficient osteoporosis rat model. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 12 months were divided into normal control, normal rat supplemented with EL, sham-operated, orchidectomised-control, orchidectomised with testosterone replacement, and orchidectomised with EL supplementation groups. Testosterone serum was measured both before and after the completion of the treatment. After 6 weeks of the treatment, the femora were processed for bone histomorphometry. Testosterone replacement was able to raise the testosterone level and restore the bone volume of orchidectomised rats. EL supplementation failed to emulate both these testosterone actions. The inability of EL to do so may be related to the absence of testes in the androgen deficient osteoporosis model for EL to stimulate testosterone production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Androgens
  7. Tong SF, Ng CJ, Lee BC, Lee VK, Khoo EM, Lee EG, et al.
    Asian J. Androl., 2012 Jul;14(4):604-11.
    PMID: 22635164 DOI: 10.1038/aja.2011.178
    This study aimed to investigate the effect of intramuscular injection of testosterone undecanoate on overall quality of life (QoL) in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS). A randomized controlled trial over a 12-month period was carried out in 2009. One hundred and twenty men aged 40 years and above with a diagnosis of TDS (serum total testosterone <12 nmol l(-1) and total Aging Male Symptom (AMS) scores ≥27) were invited to participate. Interventions comprised intramuscular injection of either placebo or 1000 mg testosterone undecanoate, given at weeks 0, 6, 18, 30 and 42. This paper presents the secondary analysis of QoL changes measured in the scores of Short-Form-12 (SF-12) scale at baseline, weeks 30 and 48 after the first injection. A total of 56/60 and 58/60 men from the active treatment and placebo group, respectively, completed the study. At week 48, before adjusting for baseline differences, the QoL of men in the treatment group improved significantly in five out of the eight domains on SF-12. The physical health composite scores improved 4.0 points from a baseline of 41.9±7.0 in the treatment group compared to 0.8 point from a baseline of 43.7±7.1 in the placebo group (F=3.652, P=0.027). The mental health composite scores improved 4.4 points from a baseline of 37.1±9.0 in the treatment group compared to 1.0 points from a baseline of 37.6±7.9 in the placebo group (F=4.514, P=0.018). After adjusting for baseline differences, significant improvement was observed in mental health composite scores, but not in physical health composite scores. Long-acting testosterone undecanoate significantly improved the mental health component of QoL in men with TDS.
    Study: Subang Jaya Aging Men's Health Study
    Funding: Bayer Schering Pharma
    Matched MeSH terms: Androgens/therapeutic use*
  8. Ho CC, Tong SF, Low WY, Ng CJ, Khoo EM, Lee VK, et al.
    BJU Int., 2012 Jul;110(2):260-5.
    PMID: 22093057 DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10755.x
    Study Type - Therapy (RCT). Level of Evidence 1b. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Testosterone deficiency syndrome can be treated with testosterone replacement in the form of injectable, transdermal, buccal and oral preparations. Long-acting i.m. testosterone undecanoate 1000 mg, which is given at 10-14 week intervals, has been shown to be adequate for sustaining normal testosterone levels in hypogonadal men. This study confirms that long-acting i.m. testosterone undecanoate is effective in improving the health-related quality of life in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome as assessed by the improvement in the Aging Male Symptoms scale. Testosterone treatment can be indicated in men who have poor health-related quality of life resulting from testosterone deficiency syndrome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Androgens/administration & dosage*
  9. Mohamad NV, Soelaiman IN, Chin KY
    Clin Interv Aging, 2016;11:1317-1324.
    PMID: 27703340
    Osteoporosis is a condition causing significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population worldwide. Age-related testosterone deficiency is the most important factor of bone loss in elderly men. Androgen can influence bone health by binding to androgen receptors directly or to estrogen receptors (ERs) indirectly via aromatization to estrogen. This review summarized the direct and indirect effects of androgens on bone derived from in vitro, in vivo, and human studies. Cellular studies showed that androgen stimulated the proliferation of preosteoblasts and differentiation of osteoblasts. The converted estrogen suppressed osteoclast formation and resorption activity by blocking the receptor activator of nuclear factor k-B ligand pathway. In animal studies, activation of androgen and ERα, but not ERβ, was shown to be important in acquisition and maintenance of bone mass. Human epidemiological studies demonstrated a significant relationship between estrogen and testosterone in bone mineral density and fracture risk, but the relative significance between the two remained debatable. Human experimental studies showed that estrogen was needed in suppressing bone resorption, but both androgen and estrogen were indispensable for bone formation. As a conclusion, maintaining optimal level of androgen is essential in preventing osteoporosis and its complications in elderly men.
    Matched MeSH terms: Androgens/physiology*
  10. Alhomaidah D, McGowan R, Ahmed SF
    Clin. Genet., 2017 02;91(2):157-162.
    PMID: 28127758 DOI: 10.1111/cge.12912
    Disorders of sex development (DSD), are a group of rare congenital conditions. Unlike 46, XX DSD where the cause is usually clear, identification of a cause of XY DSD is often unclear and may be attributed to a disorder of gonadal development, androgen synthesis or androgen action. Reaching a firm diagnosis is challenging and requires expertise within a framework that abides by the highest standards of clinical care. Whilst conditions associated with altered sex development have improved our fundamental understanding of sex and gonadal development, it is debatable whether this improvement in our understanding has improved the lives of people with DSD. Thus, there is a need for more emphasis on showing that a firm diagnosis for conditions associated with DSD is associated with a change in clinical practice that benefits the patient. With the rapid advances in diagnostic technology, there is also a need for clearer guidance on the relative merits of biochemical vs genetic evaluation. The standardization and harmonization of complex genetic and biochemical analyses for rare conditions are issues that require further guidance and it is probably that international networks and registries for rare conditions will facilitate the development of this framework.
    Matched MeSH terms: Androgens/genetics
  11. Leinmüller R, Lunenfeld B
    Asian J. Androl., 2001 Jun;3(2):151-4.
    PMID: 11488424
    Matched MeSH terms: Androgens/deficiency
  12. Shuid AN, Abu Bakar MF, Abdul Shukor TA, Muhammad N, Mohamed N, Soelaiman IN
    Aging Male, 2011 Sep;14(3):150-4.
    PMID: 20874437 DOI: 10.3109/13685538.2010.511327
    Osteoporosis in elderly men is becoming an important health issue with the aging society. Elderly men with androgen deficiency are exposed to osteoporosis and can be treated with testosterone replacement. In this study, Eurycoma longifolia (EL), a plant with androgenic effects, was supplemented to an androgen-deficient osteoporotic aged rat as alternative to testosterone. Aged 12 months old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups of normal control (NC), sham-operated (SO), orchidectomised-control (OrxC), orchidectomised and supplemented with EL (Orx + El) and orchidectomised and given testosterone (Orx + T). After 6 weeks of treatment, serum osteocalcin, serum terminal C-telopeptide Type 1 collagen (CTX) and the fourth lumbar bone calcium were measured. There were no significant differences in the osteocalcin levels before and after treatment in all the groups. The CTX levels were also similar for all the groups before treatment. However, after treatment, orchidectomy had caused significant elevation of CTX compared to normal control rats. Testosterone replacements in orchidectomised rats were able to prevent the rise of CTX. Orchidectomy had also reduced the bone calcium level compared to normal control rats. Both testosterone replacement and EL supplementation to orchidectomised rats were able to maintain the bone calcium level, with the former showing better effects. As a conclusion, EL prevented bone calcium loss in orchidectomised rats and therefore has the potential to be used as an alternative treatment for androgen deficient osteoporosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Androgens/deficiency; Androgens/therapeutic use
  13. Tan WS, Low WY, Ng CJ, Tan WK, Tong SF, Ho C, et al.
    BJU Int., 2013 Jun;111(7):1130-40.
    PMID: 23651425 DOI: 10.1111/bju.12037
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-acting i.m. testosterone undecanoate (TU) in Malaysian men with testosterone deficiency (TD).
    PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 120 men, aged 40-70 years, with TD (serum total testosterone [TT] ≤ 12 nmol/L) were randomised to receive either i.m. TU (1000 mg) or placebo. In all, 58 and 56 men in the placebo and treatment arm, respectively, completed the study. Participants were seen six times in the 48-week period and the following data were collected: physical examination results, haemoglobin, haematocrit, TT, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, sex hormone-binding globulin, liver function test, prostate- specific antigen (PSA) and adverse events.
    RESULTS: The mean (sd) age of the participants was 53.4 (7.6) years. A significant increase in serum TT (P < 0.001), PSA (P = 0.010), haematocrit (P < 0.001), haemoglobin (P < 0.001) and total bilirubin (P = 0.001) were seen in the treatment arm over the 48-week period. Two men in the placebo arm and one man in the treatment arm developed myocardial infarction. Common adverse events observed in the treatment arm included itching/swelling/pain at the site of injection, flushing and acne. Overall, TU injections were well tolerated.
    CONCLUSIONS: TU significantly increases serum testosterone in men with TD. PSA, haemoglobin and haematocrit were significantly elevated but were within clinically safe limits. There was no significant adverse reaction that led to the cessation of treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Androgens/adverse effects; Androgens/pharmacology; Androgens/therapeutic use*
  14. Bennett NC, Rajandram R, Ng KL, Gobe GC
    J Kidney Cancer VHL, 2014;1(2):17-25.
    PMID: 28326246 DOI: 10.15586/jkcvhl.2014.9
    Steroid hormones and their receptors have important roles in normal kidney biology, and alterations in their expression and function help explain the differences in development of kidney diseases, such as nephrotic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. The distinct gender difference in incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), with males having almost twice the incidence as females globally, also suggests a role for sex hormones or their receptors in RCC development and progression. There was a peak in interest in evaluating the roles of androgen and estrogen receptors in RCC pathogenesis in the late 20th century, with some positive outcomes for RCC therapy that targeted estrogen receptors, especially for metastatic disease. Since that time, however, there have been few studies that look at use of steroid hormone modulators for RCC, especially in the light of new therapies such as the tyrosine kinase inhibitors and new immune therapies, which are having some success for treatment of metastatic RCC. This review summarises past and current literature and attempts to stimulate renewed interest in research into the steroid hormones and their receptors, which might be used to effect, for example, in combination with the other newer targeted therapies for RCC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Androgens
  15. Ellis L, Lykins A, Hoskin A, Ratnasingam M
    J Sex Med, 2015 Dec;12(12):2364-77.
    PMID: 26663858 DOI: 10.1111/jsm.13070
    According to neurohormonal theory, prenatal androgens are key determinants of sexual orientation. As a reputed marker for prenatal androgens, the 2D:4D finger length ratio has been used in more than a dozen studies to test the hypothesis that prenatal androgens influence sexual orientation. Findings have been very inconsistent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Androgens/physiology*
  16. Ellis L, Das S
    Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol, 2013 Aug;57(8):966-84.
    PMID: 22514238 DOI: 10.1177/0306624X12440564
    There is little doubt that family factors can influence involvement in delinquency, although the full nature and extent of their influences remain unclear. In recent decades, testosterone has been increasingly implicated as a contributor to adolescent offending. The present study sought to determine whether two important types of familial factors--parental socioeconomic status and amicable parent-child relationships--are interacting with testosterone (and possibly other androgens) to affect delinquency. A large sample of North American college students self-reported their involvement in eight categories of delinquency along with self-ratings of various androgen-promoted traits (e.g., muscularity and low-deep voice), parental social status, and the quality of the relationships they had with parents. In both sexes, parent-child relationships and androgens were significantly associated with delinquency but parental social status was not. Factor analysis revealed that the authors' measures of all four categories of variables exhibited strong loadings onto their respective factors. Androgens and amicable parent-child relationships were associated with delinquency but parental social status was not. About one third of the influence of parent-child relationships on delinquency appeared to be attributable to androgens. Findings are discussed from the perspective of the evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory of delinquent and criminal behavior.
    Matched MeSH terms: Androgens/blood*
  17. Dehghan F, Muniandy S, Yusof A, Salleh N
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(3):4619-34.
    PMID: 24642882 DOI: 10.3390/ijms15034619
    Ovarian steroids such as estrogen and progesterone have been reported to influence knee laxity. The effect of testosterone, however, remains unknown. This study investigated the effect of testosterone on the knee range of motion (ROM) and the molecular mechanisms that might involve changes in the expression of relaxin receptor isoforms, Rxfp1 and Rxfp2 in the patella tendon and lateral collateral ligament of the female rat knee. Ovariectomized adult female Wistar rats received three days treatment with peanut oil (control), testosterone (125 and 250 μg/kg) and testosterone (125 and 250 μg/kg) plus flutamide, an androgen receptor blocker or finasteride, a 5α-reductase inhibitor. Duplicate groups received similar treatment however in the presence of relaxin (25 ng/kg). A day after the last drug injection, knee passive ROM was measured by using a digital miniature goniometer. Both tendon and ligament were harvested and then analysed for protein and mRNA expression for Rxfp1 and Rxfp2 respectively. Knee passive ROM, Rxfp1 and Rxfp2 expression were significantly reduced following treatment with testosterone. Flutamide or finasteride administration antagonized the testosterone effect. Concomitant administration of testosterone and relaxin did not result in a significant change in knee ROM as compared to testosterone only treatment; however this was significantly increased following flutamide or finasteride addition. Testosterone effect on knee passive ROM is likely mediated via dihydro-testosterone (DHT), and involves downregulation of Rxfp1 and Rxfp2 expression, which may provide the mechanism underlying testosterone-induced decrease in female knee laxity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Androgens/metabolism; Androgens/pharmacology
  18. Ellis L, Skorska MN, Bogaert AF
    Laterality, 2017 Mar;22(2):157-180.
    PMID: 26932806 DOI: 10.1080/1357650X.2016.1151024
    BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests that prenatal androgens influence both handedness and sexual orientation. This study sought to clarify how androgens, handedness, and sexual orientation are interrelated.

    METHODS: Data were obtained from large samples of students enrolled at universities in Malaysia and the US, including self-reported information on handedness, sexual orientation, and five somatic markers of prenatal androgen exposure (2D:4D, height, strength, muscularity, and athletic ability). Factor analysis of these somatic markers yielded two factors: a muscular coordination and a bone growth factor.

    RESULTS: In women, but not in men, ambidextrousness was more prevalent among those with homosexual tendencies. Modest and often complex associations were found between the androgen factors and handedness. Clear links between the androgen factors and sexual orientation were found, especially for muscular coordination. For males and females, intermediate sex-typical androgen exposure was associated with heterosexual preferences.

    CONCLUSIONS: Ambidextrousness appears to be somewhat more common among females with homosexual tendencies, but left-handedness is nearly as strongly associated with heterosexual preferences, particularly in males, as is right-handedness. Factors indicative of prenatal androgen exposure are associated with sexual orientation in theoretically predictable ways, especially for muscular coordination, but associations between prenatal androgens and handedness are complex.

    Matched MeSH terms: Androgens/metabolism*
  19. Shuid AN, El-arabi E, Effendy NM, Razak HS, Muhammad N, Mohamed N, et al.
    PMID: 22967165 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-152
    Eurycoma longifolia (EL) has been shown recently to protect against bone calcium loss in orchidectomised rats, the model for androgen-deficient osteoporosis. The mechanism behind this is unclear but it may be related to its ability to elevate testosterone levels or it may directly affect bone remodeling. The aim of this study is to determine the mechanism involved by investigating the effects of EL extract on serum testosterone levels, bone biomarkers, biomechanical strength and gene expression of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (MCSF) in orchidectomised rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Androgens/deficiency*
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