MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 312 patients classified to PCOS (n = 164) and non PCOS (n = 148) cohorts were selected from the Laboratory Information System (LIS) based on serum total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) from the period of 1st April 2015 to 31st March 2016. PCOS was diagnosed based on Rotterdam criteria. Clinical hyperandrogenism and ultrasound polycystic ovarian morphology were obtained from the clinical records. The other relevant biochemical results such as serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and albumin were also obtained from LIS. Free androgen index (FAI), calculated free testosterone (cFT) and calculated bioavailable testosterone (cBT) were calculated for these patients. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed for serum TT, SHBG, FAI, cFT, cBT and LH: FSH ratio to determine the best marker to diagnose PCOS.
RESULTS: All the androgen parameters (except SHBG) were significantly higher in PCOS patients than in control (p<0.0001). The highest area under curve (AUC) curve was found for cBT followed by cFT and FAI. TT and LH: FSH ratio recorded a lower AUC and the lowest AUC was seen for SHBG. cBT at a cut off value of 0.86 nmol/L had the highest specificity, 83% and positive likelihood ratio (LR) at 3.79. This is followed by FAI at a cut off value of 7.1% with specificity at 82% and cFT at a cut off value of 0.8 pmol/L with specificity at 80%. All three calculated androgen indices (FAI, cFT and cBT) showed good correlation with each other. Furthermore, cFT, FAI and calculated BT were shown to be more specific with higher positive likelihood ratio than measured androgen markers.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on our study, the calculated testosterone indices such as FAI, cBT and cFT are useful markers to distinguish PCOS from non-PCOS. Owing to ease of calculation, FAI can be incorporated in LIS and can be reported with TT and SHBG. This will be helpful for clinician to diagnose hyperandrogenism in PCOS.
METHODS: Data were obtained from large samples of students enrolled at universities in Malaysia and the US, including self-reported information on handedness, sexual orientation, and five somatic markers of prenatal androgen exposure (2D:4D, height, strength, muscularity, and athletic ability). Factor analysis of these somatic markers yielded two factors: a muscular coordination and a bone growth factor.
RESULTS: In women, but not in men, ambidextrousness was more prevalent among those with homosexual tendencies. Modest and often complex associations were found between the androgen factors and handedness. Clear links between the androgen factors and sexual orientation were found, especially for muscular coordination. For males and females, intermediate sex-typical androgen exposure was associated with heterosexual preferences.
CONCLUSIONS: Ambidextrousness appears to be somewhat more common among females with homosexual tendencies, but left-handedness is nearly as strongly associated with heterosexual preferences, particularly in males, as is right-handedness. Factors indicative of prenatal androgen exposure are associated with sexual orientation in theoretically predictable ways, especially for muscular coordination, but associations between prenatal androgens and handedness are complex.