Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are globally important public health concerns. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infections in people living in endemic countries, and (ii) to assess the effect of co-infection on anemia.Studies were searched on electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Medline, Google Scholar, and African Journals Online. Observational studies, assessing the prevalence of co-infection and reporting its association with anemia, were included. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using a tool called the risk of bias assessment for non-randomized studies. Heterogeneity among studies was investigated with the I-square test. Pooled prevalence of the co-infection and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using the random-effect model, reflected on heterogeneity among studies. Summary odds ratio (OR), summary standardized mean difference (SMD), and their corresponding 95% CIs were estimated, as appropriate. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were performed for robustness of results. Publication bias was assessed by visualization of a funnel plot.Twenty-three studies were included in the present study. Overall, the pooled prevalence of co-infection was 19% (95% CI: 15-23%, I: 98.1%), showing 26% (95% CI: 20-32%, I: 98.7%) in adults, 12% (95% CI: 7-17%, I: 95.0) in pregnant women, and 9% (95% CI: 6-11%, I: 68.6%) in children. Anemia was comparable between the monoinfected and co-infected adults (summary OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 0.93-2.37) and increased by 49% in co-infected pregnant women (summary OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.14-1.94). The mean hemoglobin concentration was significantly lower in the co-infected group than the monoinfected group (summary SMD: -0.47, 95% CI: -0.61 to -0.33). The results of meta-regression on the prevalence of co-infection using the publication year and total population as covariates showed the I value remained high implying a de facto random distribution of heterogeneity. An asymmetrical funnel plot indicated the presence of publication bias. Due to heterogeneity of the studies in this review, the results have to be interpreted with caution.The findings of this study suggest that the prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infection, particularly in pregnant women, requires special attention from healthcare personnel. Better understanding of the co-infection is crucial for designing treatment strategies. Future well-powered, prospective designs assessing the interaction between malaria and HIV are recommended.
In a population sample of 385 children, 6 to 11 years old, venous blood parameters-hemoglobin (Hb), ferritin, red blood cell count (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), C-reactive protein (CRP), and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP)-were determined to get insight into the iron status. The prevalence of anemia was 11.4%; 5.6% had iron deficiency (ID), whereas 0.4% had ID anemia. Correction for inflammation based on CRP and AGP did not markedly change the overall prevalence of ID and ID anemia. Stunted children had lower Hb and ferritin values compared with nonstunted children, and thin children had lower values compared with normal-weight or overweight and obese children. Many nonanemic children had alert values for RBC, MCV, MCH, and MCHC. It is concluded that although the prevalence of anemia is of the magnitude of a mild public health problem, the iron status of many nonanemic children is borderline, as indicated by a high number of children with low values for red blood cytology.
Two patients aged twelve and ten years who fulfilled the criteria of severe aplastic anaemia as defined by the International Aplastic Anaemia Group' were treated with cyclosporin for six months. A normalisation of blood count and bone marrow was seen after six months of therapy in one patient. Serious side effects were seen in the other patient and cyclosporin had to be discontinued.