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  1. Yeoh SM, Kuo IC, Wang DY, Liam CK, Sam CK, De Bruyne JA, et al.
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol, 2003 Nov;132(3):215-20.
    PMID: 14646382 DOI: 10.1159/000074302
    BACKGROUND: The house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) and Blomia tropicalis (Blo t) are the most common house dust mite species in Southeast Asia. To date, there have only been a few studies on the sensitization profile of the general populations in Southeast Asia to house dust mites. The aim of this study was to determine the profiles of Der p and Blo t sensitization among Singaporean and Malaysian subjects.

    METHODS: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect specific IgE to Der p and Blo t mite crude extracts as well as purified Der p 1, Der p 2 and Blo t 5 allergens. Sera used were from 229 Singaporean subjects (124 with rhinitis, 105 without rhinitis) and 143 Malaysian subjects (94 adults and 49 children with asthma).

    RESULTS: The sensitization profile of rhinitis subjects to the dust mite allergens used in this study was as follows: Blo t extract positive: 91/124 (73%); Blo t 5 positive: 62/124 (50%); Der p extract positive: 61/124 (49%); Der p 1 positive: 53/124 (43%); Der p 2 positive: 45/124 (36%). The nonrhinitis subjects' sensitization profile was as follows: Blo t extract positive: 60/105 (57%); Blo t 5 positive: 24/105 (23%); Der p extract positive: 38/105 (36%); Der p 1 positive: 14/105 (13%); Der p 2 positive: 17/105 (16%). The study of Malaysian asthmatic adults showed that 39% of them were sensitized to Der p 1, 32% to Der p 2 and 37% to Blo t 5. Among the asthmatic children, sensitization to Blo t 5, Der p 1 and Der p 2 was 90, 57 and 39%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: This study clearly revealed that dual sensitization to B. tropicalis and D. pteronyssinus is common in the general populations of Singapore and Malaysia. Sensitization to Blo t 5 is more prevalent than to Der p 1 and Der p 2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antigens, Dermatophagoides/immunology*
  2. Reginald K, Chew FT
    Sci Rep, 2018 02 21;8(1):3391.
    PMID: 29467434 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-21792-1
    Epitope mapping of Der p 2, a clinically important dust-mite allergen is the first step in designing immunotherapy hypoallergen vaccine candidates. Twenty-one single alanine mutants of Der p 2 were generated and their secondary structure was analysed using circular dichroism spectra. Only one mutant, K96A resulted in a misfolded protein. All mutants were tested for serum IgE reactivity using serum from dust mite allergic individuals by immuno dot-blots. Mutations to five residues, N10, E25, K77, K96 and E102 consistently showed reduced IgE reactions compared to wild-type Der p 2, and therefore these residues constitute the major IgE epitopes of Der p 2. Two mutants with consistent low IgE binding, K96A and E102A, were subsequently evaluated as hypoallergen candidates. IgG antibodies raised in mice against both mutants could inhibit human IgE-binding to WT Der p 2. Both mutants had intact T-cell epitopes as they were able to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation similar to WT Der p 2. However, a switch in Th1:Th2 cytokine profile was not observed. In summary, we have identified the major conformational epitopes of Der p 2, and evaluated two Der p 2 hypoallergen vaccine candidates for immunotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antigens, Dermatophagoides/immunology*
  3. Kuo IC, Cheong N, Trakultivakorn M, Lee BW, Chua KY
    J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2003 Mar;111(3):603-9.
    PMID: 12642844
    BACKGROUND: Dual sensitization by Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus mites is common in tropical and subtropical countries. The human IgE cross-reactivity between clinical important group 5 allergens, Blo t 5 and Der p 5, remains controversial.

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to assess the levels of the IgE cross-reactivity between Blo t 5 and Der p 5 by using sera from a large cohort of asthmatic children in subtropical and tropical countries.

    METHODS: Purified recombinant Blo t 5 and Der p 5 were produced in Pichia pastoris and tested against sera from 195 asthmatic children. The IgE cross-reactivity was examined by direct, inhibitory and competitive human IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well as skin prick tests.

    RESULTS: The Blo t 5 IgE responses were 91.8% (134 of 146) and 73.5% (36 of 49) for Taiwanese and Malaysian sera, respectively. The Blo t 5 specific IgE titers were significantly higher than those of Der p 5 (P

    Matched MeSH terms: Antigens, Dermatophagoides/immunology*
  4. Chan WY, Selvarajah GT, Ajat M, Suzuki R, Tsukui T
    Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol., 2019 Jun;212:43-49.
    PMID: 31213251 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2019.05.002
    Canine atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory and pruritic allergic skin disease in dogs. House dust mites such as Dermatophagoides farinae are one of the known causative agents for the induction of canine AD worldwide. D. farinae protein Der f 2 is known as an important allergen involved in canine AD and recently, Zen-1 has also been identified as an allergenic protein. There is limited information on the prevalence and role of allergen sensitization to crude D. farinae extract (CDF), Der f 2 and Zen-1 among dogs diagnosed with AD in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of CDF-, Der f 2- and Zen-1-specific reactive sera among dogs diagnosed with AD in Malaysia using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum samples were collected from dogs diagnosed with AD from several veterinary clinics in Malaysia. The canine case records were retrieved and information on signalment, dermatological and non-dermatological histories, clinical presentation, food allergies, and exclusion of ectoparasitic, microbial and fungal skin infections were obtained through a survey form. All serum samples were evaluated to quantify the CDF-, Der f 2- and Zen-1-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. A total of 24.6%, 48.4% and 29.8% of dogs diagnosed with AD were positive for CDF-, Der f 2- and Zen-1-specific IgE, respectively. These results suggest that CDF-, Der f 2- and Zen-1 are important allergens that can contribute to AD in dogs in Malaysia, and serological testing can be performed to provide additional treatment options involving specific immunotherapies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antigens, Dermatophagoides/immunology*
  5. Reginald K, Pang SL, Chew FT
    Sci Rep, 2019 08 22;9(1):12239.
    PMID: 31439916 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-48688-y
    Blomia tropicalis has been recognized as a cause of allergic diseases in the tropical and subtropical regions. Here we report the immuno-characterization of its group 2 allergen, Blo t 2. Allergen Blo t 2 was amplified from the cDNA of B. tropicalis using degenerate primers, expressed in Escherichia coli as a recombinant protein and purified to homogeneity. The mature protein of Blo t 2 was 126 amino acids long with 52% sequence identity to Der p 2 and apparent molecular mass of 15 kDa. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that Blo t 2 is mainly a beta-sheeted protein. We confirmed the presence of three disulfide bonds in recombinant (r) Blo t 2 protein using electrospray mass spectrometry. Thirty-four percent of dust-mite allergic individuals from the Singapore showed specific IgE binding to rBlo t 2 as tested using immuno dot-blots. IgE-cross reactivity assays showed that Blo t 2 had between 20-50% of unique IgE-epitopes compared to Der p 2. IgE binding of native and recombinant forms of Blo t 2 were highly concordant (r2 = 0.77, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Antigens, Dermatophagoides/immunology*
  6. Lim FL, Hashim Z, Than LT, Md Said S, Hisham Hashim J, Norbäck D
    PLoS One, 2015;10(4):e0124905.
    PMID: 25923543 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124905
    A prevalence study was conducted among office workers in Malaysia (N= 695). The aim of this study was to examine associations between asthma, airway symptoms, rhinitis and house dust mites (HDM) and cat allergy and HDM levels in office dust. Medical data was collected by a questionnaire. Skin prick tests were performed for HDM allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae) and cat allergen Felis domesticus. Indoor temperature and relative air humidity (RH) were measured in the offices and vacuumed dust samples were analyzed for HDM allergens. The prevalence of D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and cat allergy were 50.3%, 49.0% and 25.5% respectively. Totally 9.6% had doctor-diagnosed asthma, 15.5% had current wheeze and 53.0% had current rhinitis. The Der p 1 (from D. pteronyssinus) and Der f 1 (from D. farinae) allergens levels in dust were 556 ng/g and 658 ng/g respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, current smoking, HDM or cat allergy, home dampness and recent indoor painting at home. Office workers with HDM allergy had more wheeze (p= 0.035), any airway symptoms (p= 0.032), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.005), current asthma (p= 0.007), current rhinitis (p= 0.021) and rhinoconjuctivitis (p< 0.001). Cat allergy was associated with wheeze (p= 0.021), wheeze when not having a cold (p= 0.033), any airway symptoms (p= 0.034), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.010), current asthma (p= 0.020) and nasal allergy medication (p= 0.042). Der f 1 level in dust was associated with daytime breathlessness (p= 0.033) especially among those with HDM allergy. Der f 1 levels were correlated with indoor temperature (p< 0.001) and inversely correlated with RH (p< 0.001). In conclusion, HDM and cat allergies were common and independently associated with asthma, airway symptoms and rhinitis. Der f 1 allergen can be a risk factor for daytime breathlessness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antigens, Dermatophagoides/immunology
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