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  1. Candlish JK, Saha N, Mak JW
    Atherosclerosis, 1997 Feb 28;129(1):49-51.
    PMID: 9069516
    Plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and apolipoproteins Al (apo Al) and B (apo B) were measured in a sample of subjects from the Semai tribe of Orang Asli in peninsular Malaysia. They appeared to exhibit the lowest TC ever recorded (1.6 for males and 1.9 mmol/l for females) and relatively high TG (1.4 mmol/l for males and 1.5 mmol/l for females)(means for the whole sample). There was little apparent aging gradient in any of the plasma analytes. but the group of men aged 21-40 had lower HDLC than the corresponding female group. Both low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) (calculated) and HDLC as well as their corresponding apolipoproteins were correspondingly very low. There was a significant correlation between apo AI and HDLC in both sexes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Apolipoproteins/blood*
  2. Idris CA, Sundram K
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2002;11 Suppl 7:S408-15.
    PMID: 12492627
    Nine cynomolgus monkeys were rotated randomly through four dietary treatments with each treatment lasting 6 weeks. A wash-out period of 4 weeks was maintained between each dietary rotation. The animals were fed diets containing 32% energy fat derived from palm olein (POL), lauric-myristic-rich oil blend (LM), American Heart Association (AHA) rich oil blend and hydrogenated soybean oil blend (trans). Diets were fed with (phase 1) or without (phase 2) the addition of dietary cholesterol (0.1%). In phase 1, when animals were fed without dietary cholesterol, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was significantly raised and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly depressed by the trans diets relative to all other dietary treatments. The resulting LDL-C/HDL-C ratio was also significantly increased. The LM diet increased TC significantly relative to the AHA diet while LDL-C was significantly increased compared to both POL and AHA. Apolipoprotein (apo) B was not affected significantly by these dietary treatments. Apo A1 was significantly increased by POL relative to all other dietary treatments. The trans diet reduced apo A1 and the resulting apo B/A1 ratio was increased significantly by trans relative to all other dietary treatments. Addition of 0.1% dietary cholesterol to these diets almost doubled the plasma TC and LDL-C in all dietary treatments. However, HDL-C was only marginally higher with the addition of dietary cholesterol. The LM + C (cholesterol added) diet resulted in the highest TC and LDL-C that was significant compared to all other dietary treatments. Trans + C increased TC compared to POL + C and AHA + C diets while increases in the LDL-C did not attain significance. The addition of dietary cholesterol did not affect HDL-C between treatments whereas plasma triglycerides were significantly increased by the trans + C diet relative to all other treatments. Both the trans + C and LM + C diets increased apo B and decreased apo A1 relative to the POL + C and AHA + C diets. The resulting apo B/A1 ratio was similarly altered. These results affirm that the lauric + myristic acid combination, along with trans fatty acids, increased lipoprotein-associated coronary heart disease risk factors compared to either POL or AHA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Apolipoproteins/blood
  3. Low PS, Saha N, Tay JS, Hong S
    Acta Paediatr, 1996 Dec;85(12):1476-82.
    PMID: 9001661
    In multiracial Singapore, the prevalence of coronary artery disease is highest in ethnic Indian and lowest in ethnic Chinese populations. Since susceptibility to coronary artery disease is closely associated with plasma lipid traits, we studied the cord blood lipid and apolipoprotein profiles of the three ethnic groups in Singapore to determine if ethnic differences in lipid profile are present at birth. The high-risk lipid traits of high LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and apo B, low HDL-cholesterol and apo A-I were found to be highest in ethnic Indian and lowest in ethnic Chinese populations. This difference was concordant with the relative coronary mortality rates for their respective adult populations in Singapore.
    Matched MeSH terms: Apolipoproteins/blood*
  4. Sundram K, Ismail A, Hayes KC, Jeyamalar R, Pathmanathan R
    J Nutr, 1997 Mar;127(3):514S-520S.
    PMID: 9082038
    Although dietary trans fatty acids can affect plasma lipoproteins negatively in humans, no direct comparison with specific saturated fatty acids has been reported, even though trans fatty acids were designed to replace saturates in foods and food processing. In this study, dietary trans 18:1 [elaidic acid at 5.5% energy (en)] was specifically exchanged for cis 18:1, 16:0 or 12:0 + 14:0 in 27 male and female subjects consuming moderate fat (31% en), low cholesterol (<225 mg/d) whole food diets during 4-wk diet periods in a crossover design. The trans-rich fat significantly elevated total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol relative to the 16:0-rich and 18:1-rich fats and uniquely depressed HDL cholesterol relative to all of the fats tested. Trans fatty acids also elevated lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] values relative to all dietary treatments. Furthermore, identical effects on lipoproteins were elicited by 16:0 and cis 18:1 in these subjects. The current results suggest that elaidic acid, one of the principal trans isomers produced during industrial hydrogenation of edible oils, adversely affects plasma lipoproteins. Thus, the negative effect of elaidic acid on the lipoprotein profile of humans appears to be unmatched by any other natural fatty acid(s).
    Matched MeSH terms: Apolipoproteins/blood
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