Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by the pathogenic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that the B. pseudomallei genome includes 5855 coding DNA sequences (CDSs), of which ∼25% encode hypothetical proteins. A pathogen-associated hypothetical protein, BPSL1038, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using vapour-diffusion methods. A BPSL1038 protein crystal that grew using sodium formate as precipitant diffracted to 1.55 Å resolution. It belonged to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 85.36, b = 115.63, c = 46.73 Å. The calculated Matthews coefficient (VM) suggests that there are two molecules per asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 48.8%.
Keratinases are proteolytic enzymes predominantly active when keratin substrates are available that attack disulfide bridges in the keratin to convert them from complex to simplified forms. Keratinases are essential in preparation of animal nutrients, protein supplements, leather manufacture, textile processing, detergent formulation, feather meal processing for feed and fertilizer, the pharmaceutical and biomedical industries, and waste management. Accordingly, it is necessary to develop a method for continuous production of keratinase from reliable sources that can be easily managed. Microbial keratinase is less expensive than conventionally produced keratinase and can be obtained from fungi, bacteria, and actinomycetes. In this overview, the expansion of information about microbial keratinases and important considerations in keratinase production are discussed.
Genome mining revealed a 1011 nucleotide-long fragment encoding a type I L-asparaginase (J15 asparaginase) from the halo-tolerant Photobacterium sp. strain J15. The gene was overexpressed in pET-32b (+) vector in E. coli strain Rosetta-gami B (DE3) pLysS and purified using two-step chromatographic methods: Ni(2+)-Sepharose affinity chromatography and Q-Sepharose anion exchange chromatography. The final specific activity and yield of the enzyme achieved from these steps were 20 U/mg and 49.2%, respectively. The functional dimeric form of J15-asparaginase was characterised with a molecular weight of ~70 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH were 25°C and pH 7.0, respectively. This protein was stable in the presence of 1 mM Ni(2+) and Mg(2+), but it was inhibited by Mn(2+), Fe(3+) and Zn(2+) at the same concentration. J15 asparaginase actively hydrolysed its native substrate, l-asparagine, but had low activity towards l-glutamine. The melting temperature of J15 asparaginase was ~51°C, which was determined using denatured protein analysis of CD spectra. The Km, Kcat, Kcat/Km of J15 asparaginase were 0.76 mM, 3.2 s(-1), and 4.21 s(-1) mM(-1), respectively. Conformational changes of the J15 asparaginase 3D structure at different temperatures (25°C, 45°C, and 65°C) were analysed using Molecular Dynamic simulations. From the analysis, residues Tyr₂₄ , His₂₂, Gly₂₃, Val₂₅ and Pro₂₆ may be directly involved in the 'open' and 'closed' lid-loop conformation, facilitating the conversion of substrates during enzymatic reactions. The properties of J15 asparaginase, which can work at physiological pH and has low glutaminase activity, suggest that this could be a good candidate for reducing toxic effects during cancer treatment.
The crystallization of proteins makes it possible to determine their structure by X-ray crystallography, and is therefore important for the analysis of protein structure-function relationships. L2 lipase was crystallized by using the J-tube counter diffusion method. A crystallization consisting of 20% PEG 6000, 50 mM MES pH 6.5 and 50 mM NaCl was found to be the best condition to produce crystals with good shape and size (0.5 × 0.1 × 0.2 mm). The protein concentration used for the crystallization was 3 mg/mL. L2 lipase crystal has two crystal forms, Shape 1 and Shape 2. Shape 2 L2 lipase crystal was diffracted at 1.5 Å and the crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 72.0, b = 81.8, c = 83.4 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. There is one molecule per asymmetric unit and the solvent content of the crystals is 56.9%, with a Matthew's coefficient of 2.85 Å Da(-1). The 3D structure of L2 lipase revealed topological organization of α/β-hydrolase fold consisting of 11 β-strands and 13 α-helices. Ser-113, His-358 and Asp-317 were assigned as catalytic triad residues. One Ca(2+) and one Zn(2+) were found in the L2 lipase molecule.
An organic solvent-tolerant lipase from Bacillus sp. strain 42 was crystallized using the capillary-tube method. The purpose of studying this enzyme was in order to better understand its folding and to characterize its properties in organic solvents. By initially solving its structure in the native state, further studies on protein-solvent interactions could be performed. X-ray data were collected at 2.0 Å resolution using an in-house diffractometer. The estimated crystal dimensions were 0.09×0.19×0.08 mm. The crystal belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a=117.41, b=80.85, c=99.44 Å, β=96.40°.
Currently, there is no three-dimensional structure of D-specific dehalogenase (DehD) in the protein database. We modeled DehD using ab initio technique, performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and docking of D-2-chloropropionate (D-2CP), D-2-bromopropionate (D-2BP), monochloroacetate (MCA), monobromoacetate (MBA), 2,2-dichloropropionate (2,2-DCP), d,l-2,3-dichloropropionate (d,l-2,3-DCP), and 3-chloropropionate (3-CP) into the DehD active site. The sequences of DehD and D-2-haloacid dehalogenase (HadD) from Pseudomonas putida AJ1 have 15% sequence similarity. The model had 80% of the amino acid residues in the most favored region when compared to the crystal structure of DehI from Pseudomonas putida PP3. Docking analysis revealed that Arg107, Arg134 and Tyr135 interacted with D-2CP, and Glu20 activated the water molecule for hydrolytic dehalogenation. Single residue substitutions at 25-30 °C showed that polar residues of DehD were stable when substituted with nonpolar residues and showed a decrease in activity within the same temperature range. The molecular dynamics simulation of DehD and its variants showed that in R134A variant, Arg107 interacted with D-2CP, while in Y135A, Gln221 and Arg231 interacted with D-2CP. It is our emphatic belief that the new model will be useful for the rational design of DehDs with enhanced potentials.
The synthesis of 2,6-bis(hydroxy(phenyl)methyl)cyclohexanone 1 is described. The molecular structure of the title compound 1 was confirmed by NMR, FT-IR, MS, CHN microanalysis, and X-ray crystallography. The molecular structure was also investigated by a set of computational studies and found to be in good agreement with the experimental data obtained from the various spectrophotometric techniques. The antimicrobial activity and molecular docking of the synthesized compound was investigated.
Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to understand how protein structure, dynamics, and flexibility are affected by adaptation to high temperature for several years. We report here the results of the high temperature MD simulations of Bacillus stearothermophilus L1 (L1 lipase). We found that the N-terminal moiety of the enzyme showed a high flexibility and dynamics during high temperature simulations which preceded and followed by clear structural changes in two specific regions; the small domain and the main catalytic domain or core domain of the enzyme. These two domains interact with each other through a Zn(2+)-binding coordination with Asp-61 and Asp-238 from the core domain and His-81 and His-87 from the small domain. Interestingly, the His-81 and His-87 were among the highly fluctuated and mobile residues at high temperatures. The results appear to suggest that tight interactions of Zn(2+)-binding coordination with specified residues became weak at high temperature which suggests the contribution of this region to the thermostability of the enzyme.
Less sedimentation and convection in a microgravity environment has become a well-suited condition for growing high quality protein crystals. Thermostable T1 lipase derived from bacterium Geobacilluszalihae has been crystallized using the counter diffusion method under space and earth conditions. Preliminary study using YASARA molecular modeling structure program for both structures showed differences in number of hydrogen bond, ionic interaction, and conformation. The space-grown crystal structure contains more hydrogen bonds as compared with the earth-grown crystal structure. A molecular dynamics simulation study was used to provide insight on the fluctuations and conformational changes of both T1 lipase structures. The analysis of root mean square deviation (RMSD), radius of gyration, and root mean square fluctuation (RMSF) showed that space-grown structure is more stable than the earth-grown structure. Space-structure also showed more hydrogen bonds and ion interactions compared to the earth-grown structure. Further analysis also revealed that the space-grown structure has long-lived interactions, hence it is considered as the more stable structure. This study provides the conformational dynamics of T1 lipase crystal structure grown in space and earth condition.
α-Amylase from Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 (ASKA) is a thermostable enzyme that produces a high level of maltose from starches. A truncated ASKA (TASKA) variant with improved expression and purification efficiency was characterized in an earlier study. In this work, TASKA was purified and immobilized through covalent attachment on three epoxide (ReliZyme EP403/M, Immobead IB-150P, and Immobead IB-150A) and an amino-epoxide (ReliZyme HFA403/M) activated supports. Several parameters affecting immobilization were analyzed, including the pH, temperature, and quantity (mg) of enzyme added per gram of support. The influence of the carrier surface properties, pore sizes, and lengths of spacer arms (functional groups) on biocatalyst performances were studied. Free and immobilized TASKAs were stable at pH 6.0-9.0 and active at pH 8.0. The enzyme showed optimal activity and considerable stability at 60 °C. Immobilized TASKA retained 50% of its initial activity after 5-12 cycles of reuse. Upon degradation of starches and amylose, only immobilized TASKA on ReliZyme HFA403/M has comparable hydrolytic ability with the free enzyme. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an immobilization study of an α-amylase from Anoxybacillus spp. and the first report of α-amylase immobilization using ReliZyme and Immobeads as supports.
Lipase plays an important role in industrial and biotechnological applications. Lipases have been subject to modification at the N and C terminals, allowing better understanding of lipase stability and the discovery of novel properties. A thermotolerant lipase has been isolated from Antarctic Pseudomonas sp. The purified Antarctic AMS3 lipase (native) was found to be stable across a broad range of temperatures and pH levels. The lipase has a partial Glutathione-S-transferase type C (GST-C) domain at the N-terminal not found in other lipases. To understand the influence of N-terminal GST-C domain on the biochemical and structural features of the native lipase, the deletion of the GST-C domain was carried out. The truncated protein was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3). The molecular weight of truncated AMS3 lipase was approximately ~45 kDa. The number of truncated AMS3 lipase purification folds was higher than native lipase. Various mono and divalent metal ions increased the activity of the AMS3 lipase. The truncated AMS3 lipase demonstrated a similarly broad temperature range, with the pH profile exhibiting higher activity under alkaline conditions. The purified lipase showed a substrate preference for a long carbon chain substrate. In addition, the enzyme activity in organic solvents was enhanced, especially for toluene, Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), chloroform and xylene. Molecular simulation revealed that the truncated lipase had increased structural compactness and rigidity as compared to native lipase. Removal of the N terminal GST-C generally improved the lipase biochemical characteristics. This enzyme may be utilized for industrial purposes.
Isocitrate lyase (ICL) is the first enzyme involved in glyoxylate cycle. Many plants and microorganisms are relying on glyoxylate cycle enzymes to survive upon downregulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), especially Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). In fact, ICL is a potential drug target for MTB in dormancy. With the urge for new antitubercular drug to overcome tuberculosis treat such as multidrug resistant strain and HIV-coinfection, the pace of drug discovery has to be increased. There are many approaches to discovering potential inhibitor for MTB ICL and we hereby review the updated list of them. The potential inhibitors can be either a natural compound or synthetic compound. Moreover, these compounds are not necessary to be discovered only from MTB ICL, as it can also be discovered by a non-MTB ICL. Our review is categorized into four sections, namely, (a) MTB ICL with natural compounds; (b) MTB ICL with synthetic compounds; (c) non-MTB ICL with natural compounds; and (d) non-MTB ICL with synthetic compounds. Each of the approaches is capable of overcoming different challenges of inhibitor discovery. We hope that this paper will benefit the discovery of better inhibitor for ICL.
Microbial lipases are popular biocatalysts due to their ability to catalyse diverse reactions such as hydrolysis, esterification, and acidolysis. Lipases function efficiently on various substrates in aqueous and non-aqueous media. Lipases are chemo-, regio-, and enantio-specific, and are useful in various industries, including those manufacturing food, detergents, and pharmaceuticals. A large number of lipases from fungal and bacterial sources have been isolated and purified to homogeneity. This success is attributed to the development of both conventional and novel purification techniques. This review highlights the use of these techniques in lipase purification, including conventional techniques such as: (i) ammonium sulphate fractionation; (ii) ion-exchange; (iii) gel filtration and affinity chromatography; as well as novel techniques such as (iv) reverse micellar system; (v) membrane processes; (vi) immunopurification; (vi) aqueous two-phase system; and (vii) aqueous two-phase floatation. A summary of the purification schemes for various bacterial and fungal lipases are also provided.
The study aimed to evaluate the effects of Mn(2+) and Mg(2+) on lactic acid production using response surface methodology and to further study their effects on interactions between the enzymes and substrates along the hexose monophosphate pathway using a molecular modelling approach.
Similarities in the 3D patterns of amino acid side chains can provide insights into their function despite the absence of any detectable sequence or fold similarities. Search for protein sites (SPRITE) and amino acid pattern search for substructures and motifs (ASSAM) are graph theoretical programs that can search for 3D amino side chain matches in protein structures, by representing the amino acid side chains as pseudo-atoms. The geometric relationship of the pseudo-atoms to each other as a pattern can be represented as a labeled graph where the pseudo-atoms are the graph's nodes while the edges are the inter-pseudo-atomic distances. Both programs require the input file to be in the PDB format. The objective of using SPRITE is to identify matches of side chains in a query structure to patterns with characterized function. In contrast, a 3D pattern of interest can be searched for existing occurrences in available PDB structures using ASSAM. Both programs are freely accessible without any login requirement. SPRITE is available at http://mfrlab.org/grafss/sprite/ while ASSAM can be accessed at http://mfrlab.org/grafss/assam/.
Hell's Gate globin I (HGbI), a heme-containing protein structurally homologous to mammalian neuroglobins, has been identified from an acidophilic and thermophilic obligate methanotroph, Methylacidiphilum infernorum. HGbI has very high affinity for O(2) and shows barely detectable autoxidation in the pH range of 5.2-8.6 and temperature range of 25-50°C. Examination of the heme pocket by X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics showed that conformational movements of Tyr29(B10) and Gln50(E7), as well as structural flexibility of the GH loop and H-helix, may play a role in modulating its ligand binding behavior. Bacterial HGbI's unique resistance to the sort of extreme acidity that would extract heme from any other hemoglobin makes it an ideal candidate for comparative structure-function studies of the expanding globin superfamily.
A thermophilic lipolytic bacterium identified as Bacillus sp. L2 via 16S rDNA was previously isolated from a hot spring in Perak, Malaysia. Bacillus sp. L2 was confirmed to be in Group 5 of bacterial classification, a phylogenically and phenotypically coherent group of thermophilic bacilli displaying very high similarity among their 16S rRNA sequences (98.5-99.2%). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cloning of L2 lipase gene was conducted by using five different primers. Sequence analysis of the L2 lipase gene revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 1251 bp that codes for 417 amino acids. The signal peptides consist of 28 amino acids. The mature protein is made of 388 amino acid residues. Recombinant lipase was successfully overexpressed with a 178-fold increase in activity compared to crude native L2 lipase. The recombinant L2 lipase (43.2 kDa) was purified to homogeneity in a single chromatography step. The purified lipase was found to be reactive at a temperature range of 55-80 °C and at a pH of 6-10. The L2 lipase had a melting temperature (Tm) of 59.04 °C when analyzed by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy studies. The optimum activity was found to be at 70 °C and pH 9. Lipase L2 was strongly inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (100%), whereas phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), pepstatin-A, 2-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol (DTT) inhibited the enzyme by over 40%. The CD spectra of secondary structure analysis showed that the L2 lipase structure contained 38.6% α-helices, 2.2% ß-strands, 23.6% turns and 35.6% random conformations.
An organic solvent tolerant lipase gene from Staphylococcus epidermidis AT2 was successfully cloned and expressed with pTrcHis2 in E. coli TOP10. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,933 bp in length which coded for a polypeptide of 643 amino acid residues. The polypeptide comprised of a signal peptide (37 amino acids), pro-peptide and a mature protein of 390 amino acids. Expression of AT2 lipase resulted in an 18-fold increase in activity, upon the induction of 0.6 mM IPTG after a 10 h incubation period. Interestingly, this lipase was stable in various organic solvents (25% (v/v), mainly toluene, octanol, p-xylene and n-hexane). Literature shows that most of the organic solvent stable bacterial lipases were produced by Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp., but very few from Staphylococcus sp. This lipase demonstrates great potential to be employed in various industrial applications.
The stability of biocatalysts is an important criterion for a sustainable industrial operation economically. T1 lipase is a thermoalkalophilic enzyme derived from Geobacillus zalihae strain T1 (T1 lipase) that was isolated from palm oil mill effluent (POME) in Malaysia. We report here the results of high temperatures molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of T1 lipase in explicit solvent. We found that the N-terminal moiety of this enzyme was accompanied by a large flexibility and dynamics during temperature-induced unfolding simulations which preceded and followed by clear structural changes in two specific regions; the small domain (consisting of helices alpha3 and alpha5, strands beta1 and beta2, and connecting loops) and the main catalytic domain or core domain (consisting of helices alpha6- alpha9 and connecting loops which located above the active site) of the enzyme. The results suggest that the small domain of model enzyme is a critical region to the thermostability of this organism.