METHODS AND RESULTS: In view of the lack of study on their mitogenome, we sequenced (by next generation sequencing) and annotated the complete mitogenome of D. vijaysegarani from Malaysia to determine its features and phylogenetic relationship. The whole mitogenome of D. vijaysegarani has identical gene order with the published mitogenomes of the genus Dacus, with 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNAs, a non-coding A + T rich control region, and intergenic spacer and overlap sequences. Phylogenetic analysis based on 15 mitochondrial genes (13 PCGs and two rRNA genes), reveals Dacus, Zeugodacus and Bactrocera forming a distinct clade. The genus Dacus forms a monophyletic group in the subclade containing also the Zeugodacus group; this Dacus-Zeugodacus subclade is distinct from the Bactrocera subclade. D. (Mellesis) vijaysegarani forms a lineage with D. (Mellesis) trimacula in the subcluster containing also the lineage of D. (Mellesis) conopsoides and D. (Callantra) longicornis. D. (Dacus) bivittatus and D. (Didacus) ciliatus form a distinct subcluster. Based on cox1 sequences, the Malaysia and Vietnam taxa of D. vijaysegarani may not be conspecific.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the mitochondrial genome of D. vijaysegarani provided essential molecular data that could be useful for further studies for species diagnosis, evolution and phylogeny research of other tephritid fruit flies in the future.
Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from 21 fresh-frozen tumor tissues and blood samples of the same meningioma patients. The entire mtDNA D-loop region (positions 16024-576) was polymerase chain reaction amplified using designed primers, and then amplification products were purified before the direct DNA sequencing proceeds.
Results: Overall, 10 (47.6%) patients were detected to harbor a total of 27 somatic mtDNA D-loop mutations. Most of these mtDNA mutations were identified in the hypervariable segment II (40.7%), with 33.3% being located mainly in the conserved sequence block II of the D310 sequence. Furthermore, 58 different germline variations were observed at 21 nucleotide positions.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that mtDNA alterations in the D-loop region may be an important and early event in developing meningioma. Further studies are needed, including validation in a larger patient cohort, to verify the clinicopathological outcomes of mtDNA mutation biomarkers in meningiomas.