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  1. Ataollahi Oshkour A, Pramanik S, Shirazi SF, Mehrali M, Yau YH, Abu Osman NA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:616804.
    PMID: 25538954 DOI: 10.1155/2014/616804
    This study investigated the impact of calcium silicate (CS) content on composition, compressive mechanical properties, and hardness of CS cermets with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V alloys sintered at 1200°C. The powder metallurgy route was exploited to prepare the cermets. New phases of materials of Ni16Ti6Si7, CaTiO3, and Ni31Si12 appeared in cermet of Ti-55Ni with CS and in cermet of Ti-6Al-4V with CS, the new phases Ti5Si3, Ti2O, and CaTiO3, which were emerged during sintering at different CS content (wt%). The minimum shrinkage and density were observed in both groups of cermets for the 50 and 100 wt% CS content, respectively. The cermets with 40 wt% of CS had minimum compressive Young's modulus. The minimum of compressive strength and strain percentage at maximum load were revealed in cermets with 50 and 40 wt% of CS with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V cermets, respectively. The cermets with 80 and 90 wt% of CS showed more plasticity than the pure CS. It concluded that the composition and mechanical properties of sintered cermets of Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V with CS significantly depend on the CS content in raw cermet materials. Thus, the different mechanical properties of the cermets can be used as potential materials for different hard tissues replacements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Cements/chemistry*
  2. Oshkour AA, Talebi H, Shirazi SF, Bayat M, Yau YH, Tarlochan F, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:807621.
    PMID: 25302331 DOI: 10.1155/2014/807621
    This study is focused on finite element analysis of a model comprising femur into which a femoral component of a total hip replacement was implanted. The considered prosthesis is fabricated from a functionally graded material (FGM) comprising a layer of a titanium alloy bonded to a layer of hydroxyapatite. The elastic modulus of the FGM was adjusted in the radial, longitudinal, and longitudinal-radial directions by altering the volume fraction gradient exponent. Four cases were studied, involving two different methods of anchoring the prosthesis to the spongy bone and two cases of applied loading. The results revealed that the FG prostheses provoked more SED to the bone. The FG prostheses carried less stress, while more stress was induced to the bone and cement. Meanwhile, less shear interface stress was stimulated to the prosthesis-bone interface in the noncemented FG prostheses. The cement-bone interface carried more stress compared to the prosthesis-cement interface. Stair climbing induced more harmful effects to the implanted femur components compared to the normal walking by causing more stress. Therefore, stress shielding, developed stresses, and interface stresses in the THR components could be adjusted through the controlling stiffness of the FG prosthesis by managing volume fraction gradient exponent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Cements/chemistry*
  3. Abd Samad H, Jaafar M, Othman R, Kawashita M, Abdul Razak NH
    Biomed Mater Eng, 2011;21(4):247-58.
    PMID: 22182792 DOI: 10.3233/BME-2011-0673
    In present study, a new composition of glass-ceramic was synthesized based on the Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass system. Heat treatment of glass powder was carried out in 2 stages: 600 °C as the nucleation temperature and different temperature on crystallization at 850, 950 and 1000 °C. The glass-ceramic heat-treated at 950 °C was selected as bioactive filler in commercial PMMA bone cement; (PALACOS® LV) due to its ability to form 2 high crystallization phases in comparison with 850 and 1000 °C. The results of this newly glass-ceramic filled PMMA bone cement at 0-16 wt% of filler loading were compared with those of hydroxyapatite (HA). The effect of different filler loading on the setting properties was evaluated. The peak temperature during the polymerization of bone cement decreased when the liquid to powder (L/P) ratio was reduced. The setting time, however, did not show any trend when filler loading was increased. In contrast, dough time was observed to decrease with increased filler loading. Apatite morphology was observed on the surface of the glass-ceramic and selected cement after bioactivity test.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Cements/chemistry*
  4. Singh VA, Wei CC, Haseeb A, Shanmugam R, Ju CS
    J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong), 2019 2 26;27(1):2309499018822247.
    PMID: 30798727 DOI: 10.1177/2309499018822247
    PURPOSE: Bone cement is commonly used as a void filler for bone defects. Antibiotics can be added to bone cement to increase local drug delivery in eradicating infection. After antibiotic elution, nonbiodegradable material becomes an undesirable agent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of addition of vancomycin on the compressive strength of injectable synthetic bone substitute, JectOS®. JectOS, a partially biodegradable cement that over time dissolves and is replaced by bone, could be potentially used as a biodegradable antibiotic carrier.

    METHODS: Vancomycin at various concentrations was added to JectOS and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Then, the cement was molded into standardized dimensions for in vitro testing. Cylindrical vancomycin-JectOS samples were subjected to compressive strength. The results obtained were compared to PMMA-vancomycin compressive strength data attained from historical controls. The zone of inhibition was carried out using vancomycin-JectOS and vancomycin-PMMA disk on methicillin-resistant strain culture agar.

    RESULTS: With the addition of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% vancomycin, the average compressive strengths reduced to 8.01 ± 0.95 MPa (24.6%), 7.52 ± 0.71 MPa (29.2%), and 7.23 ± 1.34 MPa (31.9%). Addition of vancomycin significantly weakened biomechanical properties of JectOS, but there was no significant difference in the compressive strength at increasing concentrations. The average diameters of zone of inhibition for JectOS-vancomycin were 24.7 ± 1.44 (2.5%) mm, 25.9 ± 0.85 mm (5%), and 26.8 ± 1.81 mm (10%), which outperformed PMMA.

    CONCLUSION: JectOS has poor mechanical performance but superior elution property. JectOS-vancomycin cement is suitable as a void filler delivering high local concentration of vancomycin. We recommended using it for contained bone defects that do not require mechanical strength.

    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Cements/chemistry*
  5. Low KL, Tan SH, Zein SH, Roether JA, Mouriño V, Boccaccini AR
    J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater, 2010 Jul;94(1):273-86.
    PMID: 20336722 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.31619
    A major weakness of current orthopedic implant materials, for instance sintered hydroxyapatite (HA), is that they exist as a hardened form, requiring the surgeon to fit the surgical site around an implant to the desired shape. This can cause an increase in bone loss, trauma to the surrounding tissue, and longer surgical time. A convenient alternative to harden bone filling materials are injectable bone substitutes (IBS). In this article, recent progress in the development and application of calcium phosphate (CP)-based composites use as IBS is reviewed. CP materials have been used widely for bone replacement because of their similarity to the mineral component of bone. The main limitation of bulk CP materials is their brittle nature and poor mechanical properties. There is significant effort to reinforce or improve the mechanical properties and injectability of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and this review resumes different alternatives presented in this specialized literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Cements/chemistry
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